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PROCEEDINGS 



OF 



The Academy of Natural Sciences 



OF 



PHILADELPHIA 

(Founded 1812) 



VOLUME LXXXIX 

1937 



THE ACADEMY OF NATURAL SCIENCES 

OF 

PHILADELPHIA 

1938 



SEPARATES OF THE CONTRIBUTIONS PRESENTED IN THIS VOLUME OF 
THE PROCEEDINGS MAY BE PURCHASED AT THE FOLLOW- 
ING FIGURES, WHICH INCLUDES POSTAGE: 

Allen, Glover M. Second Preliminary Report on the Results of the Second Dolan 

Expedition to West China and Tibet: A New Race of Ochotona. 2 pp. . . .$ 25 

Cadbury. John W., 3rd. Lepidoptera collected in Northern British Columbia by 

Miss Josephine de N. Henry. Part I— Rhopalocera. 27 pp., 2 plates, 1 map .65 

Cotter, John Lambert. The Occurrence of Flints and Extinct Animals in Pluvial 
Deposits near Clovis, New Mexico. Part IV,— Report on Excavation at 
the Gravel Pit, 1936. 16 pp., 7 plates 65 

Cresson, Ezra T.. Jr. Zoological Results of the George Vanderbilt African Ex- 
pedition of 1934. Part VIII.— Lepidoptera: Rhopalocera. 15 pp 30 

De Schauensee, Rodolphi; Meyer. On a New Species of Drongo from Siam. 2 pp. 25 

. First Preliminary Report on the Results of the Second Dolan Ex- 
pedition to West China and Tibet: Two New Birds from Tibet. 2 pp. . . .25 

Dunn, Emmett Reid. The Snake Genus Euulius Cope. 4 pp 25 

Fowler, Henry W. Zoological Results of the Third De Schauensee Siamese Ex- 
pedition. Part VIII,— Fishes obtained in 1936. 140 pp., 300 text-figures 2.S0 

. Notes on Fishes from the Gulf Stream and the New Jersey Coast. 

12 pp., 7 text-figures 25 

. A Collection of Haytian Fishes obtained by Mr. Stanley Woodward. 

7 pp., 1 text-figure 25 

Loveridge. Arthur. Zoological Results of the George Vanderbilt African Ex- 
pedition of 1934. Part VII,— Reptiles and Amphibians. 32 pp 65 

Pennell, Francis W. Castillcja in the Charleston Mountains, Nevada. 6 pp. ... 25 

. Taxonomy and Distribution of Aragoa, and its Bearing on the Geo- 
logical History of the Northern Andes. 8 pp., 1 text-figure, 1 map 25 

Rehn, James A. G. African and Malagasy Blattidae (Orthoptera),— Part III. 

107 pp., 4 plates 2.35 

. A Second Study of New and Little-known Madagascar Grouse- 
locusts (Orthoptera, Acrididae, Acrydiinae), with a Key to the Species 
of Thymochares. 13 pp., 1 plate .30 

Rehn, James A. G. and John W. H. Rehn. Further Notes on the Genus Hemi- 

merus (Dermaptera, Hemimerina, Hemimeridae). 5 pp., 4 text-figures ... .25 
Rehn, John W. H. See Rehn and Rehn. 

Roberts, H. Radclyffe. Studies on the Family Acrididae (Orthoptera) of Venezuela. 

26 pp.. 2 plates, 13 text-figures GO 

Schafer. Ernst. Third Preliminary Report on the Results of the Second Dolan 

Expedition to West China and Tibet: Four New Birds from Tibet. 2 pp. .25 

Price lists, grouped by subjects, covering many of the contributions which have 
appeared in the Proceedings and Journal, will be supplied on request. Additional 
listings, now being prepared, will shortly make available many important papers on all 
branches of natural history hitherto not for sale as separates. 

Unless purchaser is known to us cash should accompany all orders for separates. 



ACADEMY OF NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA 
19th and The Parkway, Philadelphia, Penna. 

February, 193S. 



PROCEEDINGS 



OF 



The Academy of Natural Sciences 



OF 



PHILADELPHIA 

(Founded 1812) 



VOLUME LXXXIX 



1937 



philadelphia 
The Academy of Natural Sciences 

1938 



Thi s One 




7N2 



E-UJQ 



-Q 



5H 



PUBLICATION COMMITTEE 



James A. G. Rehx, Chairman William J. Fox, Editor 

Charles M. B. Cadwalader Witmer Stone 

Fkam is W Pennell 



CONTEXTS 



For Announcements, etc., see General Index 

PAGE 

Allen. G lover M. Second Preliminary Report on the Result of the Second Dolan 
Expedition to West China and Tibet: A New Race of Ochotona. Pub- 
lished October 25. 1937 341 

Cadbubt. John W.. 3rd. Lepidoptera Collected in Northern British Columbia by 
Miss Josephine de X. Henry. Part I. — Rhopalocera. Published January 
6. 1938 . 387 

Cotter. John Lambert. The Occurrence of Mints and Extinct Animals in Pluvial 
Deposits near Olovis. New Mexico. Part IV. — Report, on Excavation at 
the Gravel Pit. 1936. Published March 12. 1937 1 

Cresson. Ezra T.. Jr. Zoological Results of the George Vanderbilt African Ex- 
pedition of 1934. Part VIII, — Lepidoptera: Rhopalocera. Published 
November 5. 1937 369 

De Sch .m en see. Rodolphe Meyer. First Preliminary Report on the Results of 
the Second Dolan Expedition to West China and Tibet : Two New Birds 

from Tibet. Published October 20. 1937 339 

. On a New Species of Drongo from Siam. Published October 20. 1937 337 

Di n n. Em.mett Reid. The Snake Genus Enulius Cope. Published January 14. 193S 415 
Fowler. Henry W. A Collection of Havtian Fishes Obtained by Mr. Stanley 

Woodward. Published June 30. 1937 309 

. Notes on Fishes from the Gulf Stream and the New Jersey Coast. 

Published June 30. 1937 297 

. Zoological Results of the Third De Schauensee Siamese Expedition. 

Part VIII.— Fishes Obtained in 1936. Published May 19, 1937 125 

Lovebidge. Arthur. Zoological Results of the George Vanderbilt African Expedition 

of 1934. Part VII.— Reptiles and Amphibians. Published June 22, 1937 . . 265 

Pennell. Francis W. Castilleja in the Charleston Mountains, Nevada. Pub- 
lished January 14. 1938 419 

. Taxonomy and Distribution of Aragoa. and its Bearing on the 

Geological History of the Northern Andes. Published January 14. 1938 .. 425 

Rehn. James A. G. African and Malagasy Blattidae (Orthoptera), — Part III. 

Published May 5. 1937 17 

. A Second Study of New and Little-known Madagascar Grouse- 
locusts (Orthoptera. Acrididac. Acrydinae). with a Key to the Species of 
Thymochares. Published July 3. 1937 317 

Rehn. James A. G. and John W. H. Rehn. Further Notes on the Genus Hemi- 

menia (Dermaptera. Hemimerina, Hemimeridae). Published July 10, 1937 331 

Roberts. H. Radclyffe. Studies on the Family Acrididae (Orthoptera) of 

Venezuela. Published November 5. 1937 343 

Schafer. Ernst. Third Preliminary Report on the Results of the Second Dolan 
Expedition to West China and Tibet : Four New Birds from Tibet. 
Published November 5. 1937 385 



Abstracts of the Minutes of the Proceedings 433 

Minutes of the International Symposium on Early Man March 17-20. 1937 439 

The Joseph Leidy Medal. -Fifth Award 448. 



PROCEEDINGS 

OF THE 

ACADEMY OF NATURAL SCIENCES 

OF 

PHILADELPHIA 

1937 

THE OCCURRENCE OF FLINTS AND EXTINCT ANIMALS IN PLUVIAL 
DEPOSITS NEAR CLOVIS, NEW MEXICO. PART IV.— REPORT 
ON EXCAVATION AT THE GRAVEL PIT, 1936 

by John Lambert Cotter. 
Introduction 

The tendency to exaggerate the importance of archaeological discoveries 
becomes apparent to everyone who has followed such announcements through 
from the first glowing accounts on the subject in the press to the final, more 
conservative, report in some scientific publication, months and even years 
later. In spite of the first astonishing accounts, the final conclusions, in 
most rases, add very little to what was already known. It is the accumu- 
lation of little bits of evidence from many sources as time goes on which 
gives us a better picture of the problem before us. 

Thus it is with the work near Clovis, New Mexico. Nobody realizes 
better than those of us who have taken part in these investigations that the 
results thus far, after more than three seasons of work in that region, have 
not added as much to the general knowledge of man's antiquity in North 
America as they have confirmed what other workers had already known 
or suspected. It is, therefore, with these ideas in mind that the following 
report of John L. Cotter has been prepared, setting forth the field work 
carried on during the summer of 193(3. It is recognized that while certain 
new evidence was obtained, dealing with the association of extinct animals 
and man-made objects of stone and bone, one of the chief results lies in the 
definite confirmation of evidence submitted by earlier investigators of this 
particular problem. One of the earliest of these was Koch who reported 
in 1839 the finding of mastodon remains associated with stone points. Of 
the more recent announcements of an association somewhat similar to that 
near Clovis is that from Dent, Colorado, reported upon by J. D. Figgins 
in 1933. 

(1) 



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Previous reports have dealt with the work at the gravel pit and sur- 
rounding regions between Clovis and Portales. The present report brings 
the results up to date. Mr. Cotter, who has kindly undertaken to write it, 
is well fitted to do so. Since his first interest in the Folsom problem he 
has devoted almost continuous study to the typology and distribution of 
Folsom and Yuma points, first under Professor E. B. Renaud at the Uni- 
versity of Denver, later under J. D. Figgins at the Colorado Museum of 
Natural History, and, in field work, at the Lindenmeier site in Colorado 
under Mr. Figgins, with me at Clovis during the past summer, and with 
Dr. Frank H. H. Roberts, Jr., of the Smithsonian Institution, at the Linden- 
meier site again at the end of the summer. It is expected that the work 
will be continued during the coming summer with the hope of adding an- 
other bit of evidence that will help to piece together the picture of man's 
antiquity in the New World. 

Acknowledgment for the support of the 1930 project at Clovis is due 
to the Carnegie Institution of Washington, and The University Museum 
of Philadelphia, for co-operating with the Academy of Natural Sciences of 
Philadelphia, and to Mrs. John Penn Brock, and Mrs. Lincoln Godfrey, Jr. 
of Philadelphia. 

Edc.ar B. Howard 



The site known as " the gravel pit " is situated in Blackwater Draw, 
between Portales and Clovis, New Mexico, west of U. S. Highway 70. The 
exact location is the southeast corner of the southwest quarter of Section 25, 
Township I X., Range 34 E. 

Work done previously at this site has been fully described by Howard, 1 
Howard and Antevs, 2 and Stock and Bode. 3 Following a preliminary in- 
spection of the gravel pit, which was found to have undergone considerable 
erosion along the walls and filling, the party, led by Dr. Howard, began 
work July 1, 1930. It was first thought advisable to examine the margins 
of the pit thoroughly for traces of skeletal remains and artifacts possibly 
exposed by recent weathering. At the same time a test trench was begun 
on top of the dump situated at the southeast corner of the large rectangular 
excavation (150x250 ft., approx.). 

1 Howard, E. B. Evidence of Early Man in North America. The University 
Museum Journal, Vol. XXIV. Numbers 2-3. Phila.. 1935. 

- Howard, E. B. and E. Antevs. The Occurrence of Flints and Extinct Animals in 
Pluvial Desposits near Clovis, New Mexico. Part 1, Introduction (Howard), Part II, 
Age of the Clovis lake clavs (Antevs). Proc. Acad. Natural Sciences of Phila., Vol. 
LXXXVII, 1935, pp. 299-312. 

3 Stock, C. and F. D. Bode. The Occurrence of Flints and Extinct Animals in 
Pluvial Deposits near Clovis, New Mexico. Part III, Geology and vertebrate pale- 
ontology of the later Quaternary near Clovis, New Mexico. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sciences 
of Phila., Vol. LXXXVI1I, 1936, pp. 219-211. 



NATURAL SCIENCES OE PHILADELPHIA 



3 



Re-examination of the tops of the dumps surrounding the pit resulted 
in the recovery of a fine Folsom point (PI. 1, fig. 2), the base of which 
was broken. This point lay exposed on silty clay material obviously de- 
rived from the " blue " stratum of the pit, and it was near this find, in the 
same type of material, that a test trench was begun. Scarcely an hour's 
work, sifting with a half-inch screen, netted a perfect Folsom point (PI. 1, 
fig. 3). No more flint was found in the trench, which was continued to a 
depth of three feet and a length of twelve feet, thus transecting the blue 
portion of the dump. Although prospects were thus found to be excellent 
for recovering specimens of lithic industry by working the dump wherever 
the blue earth was available, it was thought expedient to concentrate efforts 
upon locating evidence in undisturbed portions of the blue stratum about 
the periphery of the pit (Text plate 1 shows a section of the pit walls). 

Accordingly the sides of the pit where sections of blue material and the 
underlying caliche and sand were exposed were carefully observed. The 
following day, July 2, Dr. Howard located the cervical vertebra of a mam- 
moth which lay partly exposed by erosion in the southwest corner of the pit. 
In the process of recovering this specimen, a second vertebra and an ulna 
(the distal end of which was badly damaged) also of mammoth, were dis- 
closed. At this time, the entire Clovis party, consisting of Alexander B. 
Brock, Lincoln Godfrey, Malcolm Bull, and John L. Cotter, set to work 
under Dr. Howard's direction to prepare the bones thus exposed, and to 
determine if more evidence were present. 

Work of freeing the second vertebra from the silty bluish clay dis- 
closed that the mammoth bones rested directly on top of a deposit of fine 
speckled sand. It was in this sand, one inch beneath the top contact with 
the bluish clay and one inch beneath this vertebra, that the first artifact 
was found, a lanceolate point of dark-gray chalcedony, 95 mm. long and 
30 mm. wide (max.), distinguished by large flaking modified by marginal 
retouch, and by incipient grooving extending up from the base, 20 mm. on 
one side, 30 mm. on the other. This grooving was in the style of the 
"channel" or "fluting" of the true Folsom point, but did not extend far, 
or modify greatly, the original lens-shaped cross section. By sighting 
horizontally to the bank, where the bluish clay was still intact, it was 
estimated that the point was situated approximately two and one-half feet 
below the top of the blue stratum. 

As work progressed, three carpals, a metacarpal, a humerus, and part 
of a scapula, all of mammoth, were also uncovered within a radius of five 
feet from the point. Each of these bones was located resting on the bottom 
contact of the bluish clay, and none extended into the underlying speckled 
sand more than two inches. Above the mammoth bones, as excavation 
progressed into the bank proper, bison bones were noted in profusion oceu- 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF 



I Vol. LXXXIX 




Text-Plate 1. — Gravel Pit. 



1937 J 



NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA 



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pying a fairly uniform position in the bluish clay directly above the mam- 
moth bones, and occasionally lying in contact with the upper surfaces of 
the latter. The bison bones, which were in a rather fragile state, extended 
into the speckled sand in only two instances. 

After this cluster of mammoth bones was uncovered, an area 15 feet by 
32 feet was laid off, and a systematic effort was begun to uncover the 
skeletal material which was now recognized as extending westward and 
northward well into the bank of the gravel pit. 

Excavation soon revealed a tusk, traces of a cranium, a molar, several 
foot bones, and three ribs, associated with the other mammoth bones origi- 
nally located, so as to indicate strongly that the collection represented a 
single animal. This conjecture was further strengthened by the discovery 
of a second mammoth cranium, with upper jaw and two large tusks intact, 
some fi^e feet north of the location of the original artifact. The tusks and 
jaw lay mainly in the silty bluish clay, extending into the speckled sand 
beneath a maximum of four inches. 

First traces of the second mammoth soon led to the finding of further 
evidence of the presence of man. A large sub-triangular flake scraper, well 
worked on the broadest edge, lay three inches above the sheath of the left 
tusk in silty blue clay. The artifact was seven inches above the upper 
contact of the speckled sand. (See Text illus.) Shortly afterward the re- 
moval of material from between the tusks revealed an elongated flake with 
lateral retouching, which lay three inches below the bottom contact of the 
blue clay in speckled sand (Plate 3, fig. 3). 

This artifact was viewed in situ by Dr. Frederica de Laguna and her 
mother. Dr. Grace A. de Laguna, who visited the site several times and 
participated in the work. Dr. de Laguna located the left scapula of the 
second mammoth, immediately behind the head, and lying on the speckled 
sand. The finder also discovered an unworked flint chip four inches above 
the scapula, in close association with some fragmentary bison bones. The 
artifact between the mammoth tusks was also seen in place by Dr. Ernst 
Antevs and Dr. Harold S. Colton, who visited the gravel pit at this time. 

Enough bone material had been uncovered by now to necessitate pre- 
paration for removal. Accordingly the first set of long bones, the semi- 
articulated humerus and ulna of Mammoth 1. were capped with stiffened 
burlap. As the underlying sand was being worked away to permit turning 
the ulna, the first bone artifact was revealed lying horizontally one inch 
below the damaged distal end of this bone, and half an inch above, and to 
the side of. a metacarpal. Plate 5, fig. 2 shows ulna set before discovery 
of bone artifact; Plate 6, fig. 1 shows artifact in situ; Plate 7, artifact, 
detailed view. The distance of this bone artifact from the original Folsom- 
like artifact was ten inches, the former lying six inches below the bottom 



1937] 



NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA 



7 



contact of the bluish clay in speckled sand (See Text-plate 2, Diagram of 
Pit). The bone artifact, measuring 25 mm. long, and 15 mm. in diameter 
at the thicker end, was left in situ and later removed, undisturbed, with the 
ulna and foot bone, the matrix of sand around them being hardened with 
shellac, and the resulting block being enclosed in a plaster sheath. 

Shortly afterward a second bone artifact corresponding to the first in 
general, but differing in one important aspect, as we shall discuss later, was 
located in situ eleven inches south of the right tusk of Mammoth 2 and 
seven inches below the bottom contact of the blue clay, in speckled sand 
(Plate 2). 

Excavation northward in the area designated soon revealed more of the 
second mammoth skeleton. Behind the scapula and head lay a cluster of 
ribs, a set of three articulated thoracic vertebrae, and a set of five articu- 
lated thoracic vertebrae. Four feet to the west of the five vertebrae and 
also behind the head of the second mammoth, a complete right femur lay 
three quarters in the bluish material, extending into the speckled sand to a 
depth of three inches. Another set of two articulated vertebrae was found 
later near the first two sets. In the process of cleaning the set of three 
vertebrae, an unworked chalcedony flake was located directly above the 
center unit in bluish clay. 

As work progressed north, and the overlying bison debris in the upper 
portion of the blue material was removed, a tibia, an atlas, and an ulna of 
the second mammoth were uncovered. A partially worked flake was found 
six inches above the center of the ulna. The ulna was one of the few 
mammoth bones which lay almost entirely in the speckled sand, with the 
upper surface on the contact with the bluish clay. The worked flake was 
six inches above this contact in the clay, and lay five inches below a bison 
foot fragment. Two more flakes were also located in the vicinity of Mam- 
moth 1 The first, of reddish chalcedony, was not retouched. This flake 
lay 24 inches west of the distal end of Mammoth 1 tusk, in sand three 
inches beneath the contact with the bluish clay, and three and a half inches 
below and -even inches west of the proximal end of a bison scapula. The 
second, a gray chalcedony flake with one edge worked, appeared 31 inches 
south of the middle of Mammoth 1 tusk, and three inches in the speckled 
sand. 

A second entire chalcedony point was located in situ between the distal 
end of Hie Mammoth 2 ulna and the proximal end of the humerus, beside 
which lay the radius. The point lay in speckled sand one inch from the 
contact with the blue clay, and four inches from the ulna and humerus 
respectively (Plate 3, fig. 1 and Text illust.). 

At this time the bones and artifacts then exposed in situ were seen by 
numerous visitors, including Dr. C. Stuart Johnston and Mrs. Johnston, 



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THE ACADEMY OF 



I Vol. LXXXIX 




1937] 



NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA 



9 



Mr. Don Savage, of Canyon, Texas, and Mr. Floyd V. Studer of Amarillo, 
Texas. 

The last artifact uncovered in position was located directly below the 
left scapula of Mammoth 2 during the process of undercutting for the re- 
moval of the bone. This artifact, a center fragment of a point of gray 
chalcedony, was measured in situ before removal, and was found to be one 
inch below the middle portion, proximal side, in speckled sand. The scapula 
lay in a horizontal position approximately on the contact of the bluish clay 
and speckled sand, so that the point fragment lay three inches below this 
contact. 

Two more important finds were made as the mammoth bones were re- 
moved to reveal the sand beneath. The first was a large bison scapula, 
which lay thirteen inches below the clay-sand contact, just north of the ulna 
of the second mammoth. The second was a horse cannon bone, badly 
rodent-gnawed, which lay live inches under the Mammoth 2 lower jaw, 
and thirteen inches beneath the clay-sand contact. A bison foot bone, 
located eight inches above this contact, and directly above the same mam- 
moth jaw, completed a clearly representative sequence of occurrence. Fif- 
teen inches northwest of Mammoth 2 right tusk and thirteen inches below 
the contact of the blue clay and speckled sand, two horse teeth were found. 
At this point the deeper gravel was found to lie eighteen inches below the 
horse teeth. 

When all bones were removed from the pit, a final precaution was taken 
of sifting the remaining undisturbed speckled sand. This resulted in the 
recoverv of a complete, relatively crude, point of reddish chalcedony (Plate 
4. fig. 4>. It was estimated that this artifact must have come from a depth 
of not less than a foot beneath the bluish clay. Some six chalcedony arti- 
facts found on the surface of the dumps surrounding the pit complete the 
lit hie finds made at this site. These specimens will be mentioned later in 
the summary of artifacts. 

Final work was greatly facilitated by the arrival of Mr. C. T. R. Bo- 
hannan and Mr. R. M. Burnet from Carlsbad, where they had been engaged 
in reconnaisance in the Guadalupe Mountains under Dr. Howard's direc- 
tion. Preliminary excavation by Mr. Burnet ;it the northeast corner of 
the gravel pit laid the groundwork for future efforts in this locality. 

Brief Review of Geological and Paleontological Evidence 

We have seen from the foregoing account that, in general, the strati- 
graphy of the mammoth pit is characterized by the occurrence of three 
more or less distinct layers aggregating approximately seven feet: first, a 
brownish dune sand extending down two and a half feet from the sur- 
face; second, a bluish material containing sand, grit, and clay, representing 



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I Vol. LXXXIX 



an average thickness of three feet; and third, a speckled sand layer aver- 
aging one and a half feet in thickness and extending to a depth of seven 
feet. Beneath the speckled sand an increasingly coarse gravel ranges to 
an undetermined depth. These deposits are illustrated in the diagrams of 
the west and north walls, seen in Text-plate 3. It will be further noted 
here that bands of indurated sand of a darker color occurred in the speckled 
sand. Analyses of the bluish clay material and the speckled sand are 
furnished through the courtesy of A. W. Postel, of the Department of 
Geology of the University of Pennsylvania. These analyses demonstrate 
the fact that the bluish material contains much of the speckled sand itself, 
the color being accounted for to some extent by the added presence of 
carbonized vegetal material. Thus there remains a close affinity between 
the bluish material and the speckled sand, as opposed to the marked dif- 
ference between the bluish material and the caliche, which underlies the 
former in other parts of the pit and does not bear fossil material. The 
analyses follow: 

Blue Clay: 

Tourmaline: brown (common), violet and green (rare) 
Epidote (Medium) 

Hornblende, green, brown (very common) 
Pink garnet (common) 
Zircon (rare) 
Apatite (rare) 

Speckled Sand: 

Tourmaline, brown 

Pink Garnet 

Apatite 

Zircon 

Epidote 

Hornblende, brown, green (very rare) 

With striking, though not quite absolute uniformity, a relatively dense 
debris of bison bones, occasionally articulated, but usually scattered and in 
poor state of preservation, occupies the upper two-thirds of the bluish clay 
layer, and ranges as much as a foot and a half into the overlying brownish 
sand. Only two instances of bison bones lying in speckled sand were ob- 
served. These bones lay eight inches and thirteen inches respectively below 
the top contact of this sand with the bluish material. 

The lower third of the bluish clay material was found to contain, char- 
acteristically, the upper portions of mammoth bones, which lay with an 
average of one-third of their bulk in the underlying speckled sand. Occa- 
sionally a mammoth bone lay entirely in the speckled sand immediately 
beneath the contact. 



1937 I NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA 11 

In the speckled sand proper several horse bones occurred at an average 
depth of thirteen inches below the top contact with the bluish clay. These 
bones, while probably all of the same species, varied in size. Turtle cara- 
pace fragments also appeared characteristically in the speckled sand at 
tliis depth. 

The following is a list of vertebrates represented at the mammoth pit: 

Parelephasl cf. columbi (Falconer) 
Bison, extinct species or subspecies 
Equus, extinct species 
Cervus, species indct. 
Rodent, species indet. 
Terrapene ornata Agassiz 

Archeological Evidence 

The following is a summary list of artifacts and lithic flakes recovered 
from (1) the mammoth pit and (2) the dumps of the gravel pit proper. 
Initial serial numbers correspond with those plotted on the pit diagram, 
Text-plate 2. All artifacts are illustrated natural size. 

The palcontological material and artifact 9-9 are now part of the Clovis 
collections of The Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia; the re- 
mainder of the artifacts has been added to the collection of lithic finds from 
Clovis at The University Museum of Philadelphia. 

Mammoth pit artifacts disclosed in situ: 

9-7 Sub-triangular flake retouched as side scraper, gray chalcedony. 
Located in bluish clay seven inches above contact with speckled sand, three 
inches above left tusk sheath of Mammoth 2 (Plate 6. fig. 2, and Text 
Must. p. 12). 

9-4 Complete Folsom-like point, gray chalcedony. Located in speckled 
sand one inch below contact with bluish clay and two inches beneath ven- 
tral border of Mammoth 1 vertebra (Plate 3. fig. 2 and Text illust. p. 12). 

9-22 Complete Folsom-like point, gray chalcedony. Located in speckled 
sand one inch below contact with bluish clay and between Mammoth 2 
ulna, distal end, and humerus, proximal end, four inches from each bone 
respectively (Plate 3, fig. 1 and Text illust. p. 12). 

9-21 Center fragment of a point, gray chalcedony. Located in speckled 
sand one inch below ventral surface of Mammoth 2 left scapula, approxi- 
mated three inches below the top contact of the speckled sand (Plate 3, 
fig. 4). 

9-9 Bone artifact, located in speckled sand six inches below top con- 
tact, one inch below distal end of Mammoth 1 ulna, small end of artifact 
extending five inches from phalanx. Artifact ten inches from first Folsom- 
like point (Plate G, fig. 1; Plate 7). 

9-10 Bone artifact, located in speckled sand seven inches below top 
contact, eleven inches south of Mammoth 2 right tusk (Plate 2; Plate 5, 
fig. 3). 

9-8 Retouched flake, gray chalcedony. Located in speckled sand three 
inches below top contact, between tusks of Mammoth 2. one inch from tusk 
sheath (Plate 3, fig. 3). 



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9-27 Flake, unworked, reddish chalcedony. Located in speckled sand 
three inches from top contact, three and a half inches below bison scapula. 

9-14 Flake, worked, gray chalcedony. Located in speckled sand three 
inches from top contact, near mammoth 1 tooth. 

9-34 Worked flake, possibly used as scraper. Located in blue clay six 
inches above bottom contact with speckled sand, and six inches above 
center of mammoth 2 ulna. 




Text Illustration. — Two Folsom-like Points and Side Scraper Associated with Mammoth 
Bones at Gravel Pit. The Smaller Point was Associated with Mammoth 1. the Larger 
Point with Mammoth 2. 



9-26 Flake of chalcedony, light gray, located with set of three articu- 
lated mammoth 2 vertebrae. In speckled sand two inches below top 
contact. 

9-33 Not in situ: I ngrooved point of lanceolate shape and relatively 
crude flaking, reddish chalcedony. Located one foot or more in speckled 
sand below top contact with clav, near mammoth 2 left scapula (estimate) 
(Plate 4, fig. 4). 



1937) 



NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA 



13 



Lithic artifacts located in situ in rain-eroded portions of bluish clay in 
walls of gravel pit (see diagram of gravel pit, Text-plate 1). 

9-16 Tip of point, no groove apparent, gray quartzite. Located in 
surface of bluish clay in south bank of gravel pit. 

9-15 Fragment of pointed, double-edged side scraper on a flake. (Plate 
4, fig. 1). 

Lithic artifacts located in or on surface of dumps surrounding gravel pit: 

9-12 Complete Yuma blade of type distinctive of Clovis Lake beds. 
Mottled reddish chalcedony (Plate 4, fig. 2). 

9—17 Complete true Folsom point, gray chalcedony (Plate 1, fig. 1). 

9-23 Complete small ("midget") Folsom point, gray chaleedonv (Plate 
4, fig. 5). 

9-18 Complete true Folsom point, gray chalcedony (Plate 1, fig. 4). 
9-1 True Folsom point, gray chalcedony (Plate 1, fig. 2. Reverse side 
has short groove). 

9-29 Flake side scraper. Brown quartzite. 

9-28 Tip portion of knife blade. Speckled gray chalcedony. 

9-30 Tip of point, reddish chert. 

9-32 End fragment of side scraper, reddish-tan quartzite. 

From the accompanying illustrations it will be seen that the first obser- 
vation as to typology is that the two chalcedony points located in association 
with the mammoth are specifically Folsom-likc. as determined by their 
short, superficial grooves, the relative boldness of flaking, and the ground 
basal edges. The fragmentary third point, located beneath the scapula of 
the second mammoth, while lacking the basal portion, gives noticeable 
indication of having been of the same type as the first two points. The 
fourth point, located in the speckled sand beneath the mammoth deposits, 
is certainly relatively cruder, completely lacking a groove, although the 
lateral basal edges are ground. 

It is important to note that points have been found associated with 
bison in previous years at other nearby sites. 

On the dumps surrounding the gravel pit. however, where the blue 
materia! was piled up by the road companies, points were recovered which 
are of Hie finest " classic " Folsom design, with grooves extending from 
one half to almost the entire length of the point from the base. These 
points range, as do the Folsom points from the type site near Folsom, New 
Mexico, from blades with maximum breadth pointward of the middle to 
true lanceolate shape (maximum breadth baseward of the middle). All of 
these points have characteristic grinding of the basal edges. A single 
" midget " Folsom, located on the west dump, is illustrated on Plate 4, fig. 5. 
In this location was also found another type of point, possibly a knife 
blade, which is illustrated on Plate 4, fig. 2. This type is as typical of the 
Clovis erosion basin occurrences as arc the true Folsom and Folsom-like 
points, and is represented by several specimens previously recovered in the 



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14 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF 



I Vol. LXXXIX 



region by Dr. Howard, as well as many in collections made from the Clovis 
district 

This year a side scraper of triangular form was located in near asso- 
ciation with the second mammoth in the main excavation. This scraper, 
of light gray chalcedony, was the only artifact which lay in the blue clay 
material at the mammoth pit (with the exception of a slightly worked 
chalcedony flake, 9-34). A fragment of a large double-edged side scraper 
and the tip of a knife or a point, both of chalcedony were, however, located 
in bluish clay deposits along the banks of the gravel pit. Although these 
last two artifacts were not excavated, they were unmistakably in situ when 
discovered, partially exposed by rain erosion. Both scrapers are of the 
large flake type with retouched edges, and are not distinguishable from 
types familiar to historic Indians. 

The bone artifacts both occurred in the speckled sand. The first was 
closely associated with the distal end of the ulna and a phalanx of the 
foreleg of the first mammoth. This artifact was left in situ and removed 
in the block containing the ulna and foot bones, and the matrix in which 
they were embedded. In the laboratory at The Academy of Natural Sciences 
the artifact was left in position, but was freed from the adhering sand 
sufficiently to determine its shape (Plate 7). The artifact was seen to be 
a cylindrical shaft of bone, 252 mm. long and 15 mm. in diameter at the 
thicker end, beveled at both extremities. Striations are indicated on both 
bevels, although these are less distinct at the thicker end, which was found 
damaged. The second bone artifact (Plate 2) is 234 mm. long, and 17 mm. 
in maximum diameter. This specimen is likewise cylindrical in shape, 
tapers, and has a well-defined bevel marked with oblique transverse cuts or 
scratches. It differs, however, in that it has only a very slight bevel at the 
tapering end, which shows no scratches. The surface of this bone artifact 
is smooth except for a few faint scratches running transversely which occur 
towards the bevel. 

Conclusions and Discussion 

The following facts seem paramount as we view the evidence gained 
during the past season's excavation at the Clovis gravel pit: 

1. Deposits of bluish sandy clay, together with a speckled sand, which 
is one of the constituents of the former, bear certain bone remains of ex- 
tinct animals with which are associated two Folsom-like points, a frag- 
mentary- point, a scraper, and several flakes, all of chalcedony, and two 
bone artifacts. The occurrence of these bones resolves itself into certain 
characteristics: the bison bones, except for a cannon bone and a scapula, 
occurred in the blue material immediately above the mammoth. The 
mammoth bones occupied the contact of the blue material and the speckled 
sand beneath. Below the mammoth bones, horse bones and traces of turtle 
shells occurred in the speckled sand at a depth of thirteen inches from the 



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NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA 



15 



contact with the bluish material. Of the stone and bone artifacts only the 
side scaper and a slightly retouched chalcedony flake occurred in the blue 
material, the rest lying in speckled sand. 

2. That the lithic and bone artifacts at the excavation were in definite 
association with, and thus contemporaneous with, the mammoth bones, if 
not the bison, horse and other bones, is unmistakably demonstrated by the 
evidence. On the whole there is nothing to indicate in the stratigraphy 
that there is any marked difference in the ages of the bison, mammoth, and 
horse bones, although there is a distinct tendency toward a relative sequence 
in the occurrence of these three species, as we have described. What Antevs 
has noted in the summary and conclusions of his discussion, " Age of the 
Clovis Lake Clays " 1 seems entirely applicable to the deposits of the 
mammoth pit. 

From an anthropological standpoint, the artifact finds would seem to 
merit some discussion. The two chalcedony points characterized by bold 
flaking and incipient grooving from the base correspond specifically to the 
type of artifact described by Howard 1 and termed Folsom-like. From 
the aspect of typology these Folsom-like points are related to the points 
of true Folsom design in the Clovis erosion beds, i.e. those points which 
correspond in design to the specimens from the Folsom type site. That 
these particular Folsom-like points bear a definite cultural relation to the 
Folsom points is strongly indicated by the fact that several true Folsoms 
have been recovered from the blue clay material excavated from the gravel 
pit proper. Since it is impossible to determine, however, whether these 
Folsom points came from the upper or lower portions of the blue material, 
or whether they were once associated with bison, mammoth, or other bones, 
we are forced to preclude as yet anything more than an implied relationship. 

On the other hand, the complete ungrooved chalcedony point and the 
two bone pieces bear a specific relation to the two Folsom-like points, 
having all been found in the speckled sand, more or less in close association 
with the mammoth bones. The contemporaneity of the deposition of these 
artifacts cannot be doubted. 

The tapering, cylindrical, bone artifacts with beveled ends present a 
type of craftsmanship in boneworking not hitherto associated with Folsom 
industries as represented in recorded sites. That the beveled ends with 
cross striation on the surfaces were fitted to the beveled ends of other 
shafts and lashed, can be safely assumed. This technique of splicing shafts 
and foreshafts was known to Indians of North America and Eskimos alike. 
The literature of Eskimo material culture is too voluminous for citations 

1 The Occurrence of Flints and Extinct Animals in Pluvial Deposits near Clovis. 
New Mexico, Part II, Proc. of Acad, of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. Vol. LXXXVII, 
1935, pp. 299-313. 



Copyrighled material 



here of the well-known fact that sites throughout the Eskimo area from 
northeast Greenland to western Alaska yield foreshafts and other shaft 
parts cut obliquely at the ends for splicing. These cut ends characteristic- 
ally show transverse lines created either purposely or in the process of 
cutting. It is interesting to note concerning the Clovis bone artifacts that 
the first is beveled at both ends. The second artifact has a definite bevel 
only at one end, giving rise to the possibility that the piece may itself have 
been employed as a lance head, or even to accommodate a toggle in which 
a point was mounted. From the evidence of these two bone implements 
it may at least be implied that shafts employed by the makers of Folsom- 
like points at Clovis were made of more than one piece. 



< IG) 



AFRICAN AND MALAGASY BLATTIDAE (ORTHOPTERA) , — PART III 



by James A. G. Rehn. 

The prefatory remarks to Part I of these studies 1 gave the reasons for 
their presentation, and the student is referred to this earlier contribution 
for my general acknowledgments and similar comments, as well as to Part 
II of the series which appeared in 1933." 

The present part is made up of six major sections, comprising in the 
subfamily Pseudomopinae the description of a new genus (Namablatta) 
and a study of the species of the genus Euandroblatta; in the Panchlorinae 
preliminary revisions of the species of the genera Leucophaea, Nauphoeta 
and Stilpnoblatta; and in the Perisphaerinae a study of the species of the 
genus Agi$, and of the members of the African subgenus Fanoblatta of the 
otherwise Oriental genus Pseudoglomeris. In addition distributional data 
have been assembled on the African species of Panchlora and on the genera 
Pronauphoeta and Isoniscus. 

The new entities described in the present part are one new genus, twenty 
new species and one new subspecies. In addition to the illustration of these, 
I have been able to present figures of certain previously known species 
which have remained unfigured for many years, and several of which have 
in the meantime accumulated extensive synonymies, the true relationships 
of which are here presented for the first time. 

I am indebted to Dr. B. P. Uvarov, of the Imperial Institute of Ento- 
mology, for invaluable help in the comparison of material with certain of 
Walker's types. This has given to the nomenclature used in certain of the 
present studies greater authority and permanency. 

PSEUDOMOPINAE 

A New Genus from Austral Africa 

NAMABLATTA,- new genus 

Allied to Supella Shelford, agreeing in the general form of the head, 
palpal proportions, pronotal form, character and disposition of the tegminal 
and alar veins in the male, in the general development of the male abdomen 
and in the equal, marginally unspecialized tarsal claws. The new genus, 
however, differs chiefly in the armament of the ventro-cephalic margin of 
the cephalic femora being of Type B, i. e. those proximad of distal group 

1 Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., LXXXIII, pp. 305-387, pis. 31-35, (1931). 

2 Idem, LXXXIV. pp. 405-511, pis. 30-33, (1933). 

3 In allusion to its occurrence in the land of the Namas. 

(17) 



18 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF 



[Vol. LXXXIX 



being piliform, while this series of Supella is of Type A, or with equally 
robust spines decreasing in length and size distad to apical group. In the 
female the tegmina are very brief, transverse, lateral and lamellate, no 
longer than the mesonotum, while the wings are lacking. In Supella females 
the tegmina and wings are fully developed but abbreviate. 

Generic Characters. — Fully alate in the male; tegmina in female brief, 
lateral, lamellate, non-functional, wings absent in female. Form elongate, 
slender in male; short, subelliptical in female. Head pyriform in outline; 
eyes broadly separated at occiput ; inter-ocellar area with a slight ( $ ) 
in distinct i ' i transverse, rounded subangulation passing from occiput to 
face; palpi slender, elongate. Pronotum of male in outline subtrapezoidal, 
distinctly narrowing cephalad, caudal width little greater than length, disk 
subdeplanate, caudad with a pair of converging sulci, joined near the weakly 
arcuate caudal margin by a transverse connected sulcus; pronotum of female 
transverse, semicircular in outline, caudal margin subtruncate; disk with- 
out sulci. Tegmina of male narrow, markedly surpassing apex of abdomen, 
apex rounded; marginal field very narrow; discoidal sectors oblique; anal 
field elongate pyriform. Wings of male with slight and narrow intercalated 
triangle present; costal veins subincrassate distad; discoidal vein entire; 
ulnar vein with complete rami. Tegmina of female no longer than meso- 
notum, lateral, widely separated, truncate distad, with definitely indicated 
venation elements. Wings absent in female. Dorsum of abdomen of male 
with seventh tergite having glandular specialization mesad; ultimate tergite 
(supra-anal plate) transverse trigonal; ultimate sternite (subgenital plate) 
of male trigonal, acute, with symmetrical disposed styles. Abdomen of 
female broad, deplanate dorsad. Cephalic femora with ventro-cephalic 
margin armed proximo-mesad with a group of large spines, followed abruptly 
by a series of very short, subpiliform spinulcs and a distal (apical) group 
of two large spines. Caudal tarsi with metatarsus longer than other articles 
combined; all articles with apical pulvilli. Tarsal claws equal in length, 
margins simple; arolia present. 

Genotype. — Blatta bitacniata Stal. 

This strikingly beautiful, and in the male graceful, genus is apparently 
limited in its distribution to the more arid portions of southwestern Africa. 
Its relationship to Supella is close and their common origin seems evident. 
It would appear to me that this relationship, and the apparently circum- 
scribed distribution of Namablatta, is additional evidence pointing to the 
probable African origin of the now widely distributed Supella. 

Namablatta bitaeniata (Stal). Plate 8, figs. 1-5. 

1858. Blatta bitaeniata Stal, Ofv. Kongl. Vetensk.-Akad. Forh., XV, p. 308. [ 2 ; 
near Swakop River (Southwest Africa).] 

Bechuan aland Protectorate: Gemsbok Pan, Kalahari; April 23 to 
May 5, 1930; (Vernay-Lang Expedition) ; one male; [Transvaal Museum]. 

Southwest Africa: Namutoni District, near Etosha Pan, Damaraland; 
July 9-11, 1930; (De Schauensee Expedition), one female; 4 [A.N.S.P.]. 

* Here selected as allotype. 



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NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA 



19 



Okahandya; March 2 to 18, 1928; (R. E. Turner); one male; [Brit. Mus. 
Nat. Hist.]. Pomona Island; October, 1925; one male; [A.M.N.H.] . 

Cape Province: Henkries, Bushmanland ; October, 1911; (Lightfoot) ; 
one male; [So. Afr. Mus.]. Pella, Bushmanland; (G. Alston); one male; 
[So. Afr. Mus.]. Jackal Water, Bushmanland; October, 1911; (Lightfoot) ; 
one female; [So. Afr. Mus.]. Ookiep, Bushmanland; October 17, 1885; 
(L. Peringuey) ; one female; [So. Afr. Mus.]: November 20, 1885; one 
male; [Geneva Mus.]: (L. Peringuey) ; one male; [U.S.N.M.]. Van Wyk's 
Vley, Carnarvon District; 1893; (Alston); one female; [So. Afr. Mus.]. 
" Cape of Good Hope "; one male; [Geneva Mus.]. 

No data: one female; [So. Afr. Mus.]. 

This species is known in the literature only from its brief original diag- 
nosis, based almost solely on the more evident color features, and a sub- 
sequent supplementary description, apparently of the original male material, 
by Stal. 3 Bolivar has recorded the species from Assinie, West Africa, 6 
without comment, but this, I am certain, is an erroneous determination, as 
the species is one peculiar to extreme desert conditions. It is essential for 
future workers that the species be redescribed in a modern fashion, and 
that the previously undescribed, very different looking female be character- 
ized. I am therefore briefly summarizing the features of the male, from 
the Gemsbok Pan individual, and designating an allotype. 

Male. Head with greatest width across eyes equal to four-fifths of 
greatest depth of head (as 44 to 55), lateral borders of ventral portion of 
head acutely oblique convergent to buccal region; interspace between eyes 
at occiput slightly broader than that between internal margin of antennal 
scrobes (as 14 to 13) ; ocellar spots marked sublunate in shape, encompass- 
ing dorsal border of antennal scrobes, facing ventro-laterad, area between 
same in profile rounded obtuse-angulate, definite but without transverse 
carina; palpi with proportions of three distal articles, reading proximad, as 
follows, 16, 19 and 18; ultimate article elongate subsecuriform, penultimate 
elongate infundibuliform, antepenultimate subcylindrical, faintly enlarging 
distad. 

Pronotum with greatest length contained slightly more than one and 
one-fourth times in greatest width, which is at caudal third; cephalic margin 
moderately arcuate, broadly rounding into the weakly arcuate, caudad 
obliquely diverging lateral margins, which narrowly round over the point 
of greatest width to short, oblique, caudad converging, arcuate sections, 
passing regularly into the relatively broad, gently arcuate caudal margin: 
hyaline lateral sections as a whole weakly impressed, so that surface con- 
tour is subdepressed below that of colored disk, area of the lateral margins 
weakly and narrowly recurved. 

Tegmina surpassing apex of abdomen by about two-fifths of their length, 
greatest width, which is at distal third, contained three and two-fifth times 
in greatest length of same; apex narrowly rounded; marginal field exceed- 

»Ofvers. K. Vetensk.-Akad. Forhandl., 1871, no. 3, p. 375, (1871). 
« Ann. Soc. Ent. France. LXII, p. 171, (1893). 



20 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF 



[Vol. LXXXIX 



ingly narrow, equal to less than one-fourth the greatest width of anal field, 
reaching distad nearly to line of apex of anal field; anal field with greatest 
width contained two and seven-tenth times in greatest length of same; 
costal veins twelve to thirteen in number; discoidal sectors of all origins 
six in number, several bifurcate to ramose; axillary veins four in number. 
Wings with apex rounded ; costal veins of all origins eight in number, several 
distad bifurcate or ramose; ulnar vein with four 7 complete rami; medio- 
discoidal area mesad faintly broader than medio-ulnar area at same point, 
divided into subquadrate areolets by transverse nervures. 

Sixth abdominal tergite with distal margin broadly and shallowly ob- 
tuse-arcuate emarginate: seventh abdominal tefgite subexcavate meso- 
proximad, there with a median, transversely rounded but sublongitudinal 
raised area, proximad acuminate in shape, densely covered with adpressed, 
proximad directed hairs; whole median third of tergite slightly raised above 
level of lateral sections, this area with its boundaries converging in proximal 
two-thirds, subcqual and with parallel margins in distal third; distal 
margin of tergite broadly arcuato-emarginate, that section involving the 
raised median portion somewhat differentiated and more strongly concavo- 
emarginate: eighth tergite strongly transverse, distal margin weakly obtuse- 
angulate mesad; ultimate tergite (supra-anal plate) transverse, relatively 
brief, mesad obtusely subproduced, immediate apex narrowly truncate, 
meso-distal portion of tergite cut off from more proximal portion by a 
transverse arcuate surface impression: a large pair of infra-cereal plates 
largely -Inn t > it" much of anal orifice, the two meeting on median line. Cerci 
elongate, relatively slender, composed of eleven articles, attenuate subfusi- 
form, deplanate dorsad. Ultimate sternite (subgenital plate) much resem- 
bling that of Supella supcllectilium, trigonal in ventral aspect, faintly 
broader proximad than median length; stylar bases at distal third of the 
converging lateral margins, which at the inter-stylar apex are arcuately 
joined, but in addition with a small median concavity; styles simple, of 
equal length, briefly upcurved or hooked at apex, lying within anal orifice 
on dorsal surface of sternite. 

Cephalic femora with ventro-cephalic margin armed meso-proximad 
with five large spines, the two distal spines of unequal length; ventro-caudal 
margin with two spaced large spines distad, one of which is apical. Median 
and caudal femora armed ventrad with spaced series of large spines. 

Allotype. — 9 ; Namutoni District, Damaraland, Southwest Africa. July 
9-11, 1930. (De Schauensee South African Expedition.) [Academy of 
Natural Sciences of Philadelphia.] 

Head in dorsal view but narrowly visible cephalad of the pronotum; 
in cephalic aspect attenuate (ventrad) pyriform, greatest width across eyes 
equal to nine-elevenths of greatest depth (as 45 to 55) ; occipital interspace 
faintly broader than area between internal margins of antennal scrobes 
(as 19 to 18) ; palpi with relative proportions of three distal articles (read- 
ing proximad) as 13, 17 and 16. 

Pronotum with greatest caudal width equal to more than one and a 
quarter times its greatest median length (as 93 to 65) ; lateral margins 
regularly arcuate convergent cephalad, the narrow cephalic margin but 

7 In other males these may ho as few as two. 



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NATURAL SCIKXCKS OF PHILADELPHIA 



21 



weakly differentiated from the even arcuation of the lateral margins; 
caudo-lateral angle.- rounded subrectangulate ; caudal margin areuato- 
truneate: surface contour of hyaline lateral areas as in male, disk low 
arcuate transversely, nearly straight longitudinally as seen in profile, no 
true sulci present. 

Tegmina short, hardly extending caudad of the distal margin of the 
mesonotum, transverse suhquadrate, greatest width (mesad) slightly greater 
than costal marginal length of tegmen, length of sutural margin equal to 
four-sevenths of median width: costal margin very faintly arcuate, disto- 
costal angle very narrowly rounded rectangulate, sutural margin arcuate, 
distal margin moderately oblique, sinuato-truncate disto-costad, disto- 
sutural angle rounded; humeral trunk distinct, thick, arcuate, reaching 
distal margin mesad, marginal field broad, anal sulcus distinct, arcuatcly 
paralleling humeral trunk, reaching distal margin one-third <>f it- length 
costad of disto-sutural angle, four axillary veins indicated, thread-like, regu- 
larly spaced; median interspace between tegmina broad, equal to three- 
fourths the width of a single tegmen (as 29 to 38). Distal margin of meso- 
notum sinuato-truncate; distal margin of metanotum very broadly and 
shallowly concavo-emarginate, caudo-lateral angles of metanotum rectangu- 
late, lateral margins of same weakly arcuate. 

Abdomen relatively broad, semi-elliptical in outline, dcplanate dor-ad: 
penultimate tcrgitc with distal margin broadly but shallowly convex; ulti- 
mate tergite (supra-anal plate I short, transverse, low trigonal, apex shal- 
lowly emarginate, there producing two low marginal rounded sublobations, 
from apical emargination there is continued proximad an evident linear 
sulfation. Ultimate sternite (subgenital plate) broad, transverse, distal 
margin broadly arcuate between low obtuse lateral, infra-cereal shoulders 
of the margin, mesad with a very slight infolding or puckering of the 
margin: cerci damaged. 

Cephalic femora with ventro-cephalic margin having but three large 
spines in the meso-proximal group in the only available female possessing 
cephalic limbs. 8 

Coloration. — General pale base color light ochraceous-buff, becoming 
ochraceous-buff distad on the tegmina in the male; dark pattern mummy 
brown. Male with head bearing broad, subparallel bars of prout's brown on 
occiput and dorsal half of face, separated by a narrow, dorsad expanding pale 
area, buccal region and palpi washed with prout's brown; eyes mummy 
brown to bister; antennae pale, proximal article lined on internal face and 
annulate proximad with prout's brown, second article distad prout's brown 
passing to buckthorn brown: pronotum with the marked, caudad expanding 
and moderately divergent bars of the general dark color, lateral areas 
hyaline: tegmina with a broad, distad narrowing dash of the general dark 
color reaching to slightly distad of middle to tegmen, proximad in position 
entirely suturad of humeral trunk, moving distad to the trunk: abdomen 
pale with the area of the stigmata, base and apex of the cerci and glandular 
area on seventh tergite marked with mummy brown to prout's brown; 
coxae marked proximad, femora lined dorsad and ventrad to a greater or 
lesser degree, and tibiae varied with areas of mummy brown. Female with 

8 The allotype is in all other respects better preserved than the other females, but 
lacks all the legs. Xo one female seen has more than two limbs intact. 



22 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF # (VOL. LXXXIX 

head almost wholly prout'a brown, palpi pale, lined or clouded with mummy 
brown, eyes russet (bister in some other females!, antennae lacking: pro- 
notum with disk solidly between prout's brown and mummy brown in shade, 
lateral areas clear hyaline except that narrowly the dark disk extends to 
the caudo-lateral angles of the pronotum: mesonotum and metanotum pale 
with caudal margins rather narrowly (mesonotum) or broadly (metanotum) 
bordered with the dark general color: tegmina pale with a few discal and 
distal marginal points of dark color: abdomen dorsad dark solidly except 
for proximo-lateral pale spots on tergites three and four, broader lateral 
pale pattern on six and seven, while the ultimate tergite is sharply pale 
mesad; venter of abdomen with two groups of two each of paired lateral 
pale spots; limbs as a whole more uniformly pale than in male. 

Mkakuhkmexts (in millimeters) 

Greatest Length Greatest 
Length Length of width of of width of 
of body pronotum pronotum tegmen tegmen 

$, Gemsbok Pan 10.6 2.60 3.31 12.2 3.57 

9, Xamutoni District, allotype . 9.1 2.60 3.86 1.47 1.59 

The localities given above, plus the type locality, furnish all the known 
information on the distribution of the species. 

The Species of the Genus Euandroblatta 

In 1922 '■' the genus Euandroblatta was erected for two austral African 
species of symplocoids showing marked affinity with the other genera of 
that stock, but possessing, along with a regular scries of spines of uniform 
type on the ventro-cephalic margin of the cephalic femora, tarsal claws of 
unequal length and markedly asymmetrical development. The species then 
known had, and all others now known have, distinctive and characteristic 
male genitalic features which show the basic affinity of the species, and cut 
them off from all other genera, when taken with the type of femoral spines 
and tarsal claws. 

In 1933 10 a study of Gerstaeckcr's types of West African blattids showed 
that one of his species, itself a synonym of one previously described by both 
Walker and Saussure, and a fourth species described as a Liosilpha by Shel- 
ford, were also members of the genus Euandroblatta. 

In the analysis of extensive African series now in my hands for study, 
I have recognized five other undescribed species of the genus, making a 
total of eight, and the present contribution brings together the at present 
available information on this striking and peculiarly African genus. 

For the present study I have had before me a total of one hundred and 
four specimens of the genus, including the above mentioned type of Ger- 
staecker's Phyllodromia amplicollis and that of my Euandroblatta propera. 

'■' Rehn, Ann. Transv. Mus., IX, pp. 19, 31. pis. I, figs. 21-23. II, figs. 24 and 25. 
">Rehn. Proc. Acad. Xat. Sci. Phila.. LXXXIV. p. 440. 



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23 



The greater portion of the material is from the series of the British Museum 
of Natural History, which includes representatives of six of the eight species 
here recognized. The Academy collections will possess material of five of 
that total. 

EUANDROBLATTA Rehn 

1869. Bkdta Saussure, Mem. Soc. Phys. Hist. Nat. Geneve, XX, p. 250. fin part.] 

(Not of Linnaeus. 1758.) 
1883. PhyUodromia Gerstaecker, Mitth. Naturw. Ver. von Neu-Vorpomm. unci 

Riigcn, Greifswald. XIV, p. 66. I In part.] (Not of Serville, 1839.) 

1907. Ischnoptcra Giglio-Tos, Bollett. Mus. Zool. Anat. Comp. Univ. Torino, XXII, 
no. 563, p. 2. [In part.] (Not of Burmeister, 1838.) 

1908. Liosilpha Shelford, Deutsch. Entom. Zeitschr., 1908, p. 120. fin part.] (Not 
of Stal, 1874.) 

1922. Euandroblatta Rehn. Ann. Transv. Mus., IX, pp. 19, 31, pis. I, figs. 21-23. II, 
figs. 24 and 25. 

Genotype (by original designation). — Euandroblatta propcra Rehn. 

There is no occasion to repeat here the original description of the genus, 
or to discuss anew its general relationship. In 1933 11 I pointed out, from 
the evidence of its genotype, that Liosilpha Stal is probably entirely Neo- 
tropical in distribution, and also is in no way closely related to Euandro- 
blatta. As our knowledge of the numerous symplocoid genera elaborates, 
it may be necessary to recast former opinions as to the nearest relatives 
of the present peculiarly African genus, but the time for that has not as 
yet arrived. The purpose of this review is to describe certain new species, 
and to place together much unreported distributional and seasonal infor- 
mation on those species previously known. 

Distribution of genus. — Reaching from north-central Tanganyika, south- 
ern and south-western Uganda, the northern Belgian Congo, central Came- 
roons and the Ivory Coast, south as far as Zululand and over much of the 
Transvaal. We know nothing as to its occurrence in Angola or Southwest 
Africa, or in Nigeria and other portions of Upper Guinea. That the genus 
will be found to be more widely distributed is virtually certain, and its 
occurrence in Angola at least can be expected. 

The maximum differentiation of the genus occurs in the territory em- 
braced in Katanga, Northern and Southern Rhodesia and Nyasaland. It 
is quite possible this is its center of distribution, yet the species occurring 
there have less extensive ranges than that form occurring across much of 
truly Equatorial Africa {curta). 



" Idem, pp. 440-441. 



24 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [VOL. LXXXIX 




Map showing (hi dist ril)iit ion of the species of :h« genus Euanii 'roblalla, using the exact 
localities from which the forms are now known. Dots indicate the localities for E. curta, 
circles of E. kabaka, solid squares for E. propcra, hollow square for E. matabele, solid triangles 
for E. sclovsi, hollow triangles for E. jallae, vertical cross for E. claviqera, oblique cross for 
E. marshalli. (I have not been able to locate Kunungu. Belgian Congo an additional locality 
for E. curta.) 

Key to the Species 

1. Size very small, body less than 11 millimeters in length (abdominal 

features of $ not known) matabele, new species 

Size larger, body more than 12 millimeters, usually more than 15, in 
length 2 

2. Ultimate sternite (subgenital plate) of $ with sinistral style far longer 

than distal one 3 

Ultimate sternite (subgenital plate) of male with sinistral style shorter 
than dextral one, latter strongly falcate. (Size smaller, length of 
body of $ , 13.6 mm.) marshalli, new species 



Copyrighted material 



1937| NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA 25 

3. Sinistral style of ultimate sternite (subgenital plate) of 6 elongate 
clavate, thickened, blunted at apex. (Median section of distal margin 
of ultimate sternite broadly arcuate.) clavigera, new species 



Sinistral style of ultimate sternite Csubgenital plate) of $ acute, 

bayonet-like, or slenderly subcultriform 4 

4. Median portion of distal margin of ultimate sternite (subgenital plate) 
of $ strongly produced 5 

Median portion of distal margin of ultimate sternite (subgenital plate) 
of $ rounded, not strongly produced 6 



5. Production of median portion of distal margin of ultimate sternite (sub- 

genital plate) of i rounded rectangulate. Ultimate sternite of S 
dorsad of base of sinistral style not strongly quadrate lamellate; 
sinistral style slightly thickened in distad third, subclavate. 

jallac (Giglio-Tos) 

Production of median portion of distal margin of ultimate sternite (sub- 
genital plate) of c acute. Ultimate sternite of $ dorsad of base of 
sinistral style strongly quadrate lamellate; sinistral style tapering, 
attenuate sclousi, new species 

6. Median portion of distal margin of ultimate sternite (subgenital plate) 

of $ symmetrically arcuate; sinistral style of same substyliform, 
relatively thick, yet bluntly tapering; dextral style very short and 

simple, not depressed or denticulate propera Rehn 

Median portion of distal margin of ultimate sternite (subgenital plate) 
of $ unsymmetrically arcuate; sinistral style of same tapering, acu- 
minate, subflagellate; dextral style short, stout, subdepressed, den- 
ticulate 7 

7. Ultimate tergite (supra-anal plate) of $ triangular, converging sides 

nearly straight, apex narrowly rounded. Ultimate tergite (supra- 
anal plate) of 9 more sharply trigonal, lateral margins nearly straight 
convergent to fissate apex. Tegmina with costal margin distad defi- 
nitely rounding to the proportionately narrower apex, curta (Walker) 
Ultimate tergite (supra-anal plate) of 8 linguiform, lateral margins 
markedly arcuate convergent distad, apex more broadly rounded. 
Ultimate tergite (supra-anal plate) of 9 with lateral margins weakly 
sigmoid convergent to fissate apex. Tegmina with costal margin distad 
but little rounded to the proportionately broader apex. 

kabaka, new species 

Euandroblatta prcpera Rehn. 

1922. Euandroblatta propera Rehn, Annals Transv. Mus., IX, p. 32, pi. I, fi^s. 21, 
22. [5,9; Pretoria, Transvaal.] 

Transvaal: Moordrift; October, 1909; (C. J. Swierstra) ; one female; 
[Transv. Mus.]. Grootdraai, Olifants River, N.E. Transvaal; October, 1927; 
(H. Lang) ; one female; [Transv. Mus.]. Barberton; December, 1897 -Jan- 
uary, 1898; (J. P. Cregoe) ; one female; [So. Afr. Mus.]. Malelane, Bar- 
berton District; October, 1920; (H. Lang); one female; [Transv. Mus.]. 
Boksburg, east of Johannesburg; 1911 ; one female; [So. Afr. Mus.]. 

Zululand: Nagana Research Laboratory; 1922; (H. H. Curson) ; one 
male; [Brit. Mus. Nat. Hist.]. 



20 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF 



[Vol. LXXXIX 



In addition to this material I have before me a paratypic female. While 
most of the above-listed specimens are of the female sex, the identification 
of these has been made possible by careful comparison with that sex of all 
the other known species of the genus. In addition the abdominal color 
pattern is a distinct aid in the recognition of the species. 

There is some variation in size, but not enough to cause difficulty in the 
association of the species. 

The distribution of propera is now known to reach from Zululand, and 
probably adjacent Portuguese East Africa, across the eastern and north- 
eastern Transvaal to the Pretoria and Johannesburg area, its range extend- 
ing to at least as high as 5000 feet above sea-level. 

Euandroblatta matabele, new species. Plate 8, fig. 6. 

A diminutive species probably more nearly related to E. propera than 
any other. But a single female is known, and I would not describe it 
without knowledge of the male features, if the species was not so sharply 
and readily separable. When the male is known it will probably show very 
distinctive genitalic characters. AVhen compared with the female sex of 
propera the present species is seen to have but a fraction of the bulk, the 
pronotum to be less strongly transverse, the marginal field and the scapular 
field of the tegmina distinctly narrower, the tegminal axillary and costal 
veins fewer, the caudo-lateral angles of the abdominal tergites more rect- 
angulate and less produced, the ultimate tergite (supra-anal plate) more 
distinctly transverse trigonal and more feebly notched at apex, while the 
species also possesses a more transverse head, stockier palpi and lighter 
and more elongate limbs. 

Type. — 9 ; Bulawayo, Southern Rhodesia. [South African Museum.] 

Size very small, the smallest member of the genus (body length, 10.7 
mm.): form more slender than in the related species. 

Head hardly at all visible cephalad of pronotum when viewed from 
dorsum; in cephalic aspect the head is seen to be very broad cordiform, 
strongly narrowing ventrad of eyes to buccal region, greatest width across 
eyes subequal to depth of head: occipital outline, as seen in cephalic 
aspect, moderately arcuate, very faintly more so than the adjacent eye 
arcuation; least interspace between eyes broad, equal to two-thirds that 
between internal margins of antennal scrobes: palpi very robust and short, 
the ultimate article exceptionally stout and large proportionately, its length 
equal to one and two-third times the greatest (extensor) length of the 
penultimate article and over two and one-half times its flexor length, depth 
of ultimate article as seen in lateral aspect almost as great as half its length, 
extensor outline in same aspect nearly straight, flexor outline distinctly 
arcuate, apex blunt acute; penultimate article almost trigonally infundi- 
buliform, its depth distad subequal to its axial length and equal to two- 
thirds its greatest (extensor) length; antepenultimate article of the form 
usual in the genus but very stout, equal to seven-tenths the length of the 
ultimate article. Antennae incomplete but the remaining portions stouter 
than in the related species. 



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NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA 



27 



Pronotum trapezoidally ovate, median length contained about one and 
three-tenth times in greatest width, which is at caudal third: cephalic 
margin distinctly arcuate, its curvature essentially that of the head, laterad 
passing, without definite angles, into the gently arcuate, oblique, caudad 
diverging lateral margins, which broadly rounding over the lateral angles, 
pass into the quite short but definite caudo-lateral margins, which in turn 
are nearly straight convergent, continuing over the rounded but definite 
lateral angles of the caudal margin into the latter, which is transverse and 
but weakly arcuate, almost without trace of a median angulation: surface 
of pronotal disk appreciably deplanate, lateral areas moderately declivent. 

Tegmina failing to reach apex of abdomen by a distance equal to half 
the pronotal length, in shape elongate lanceolate, as a whole of subequal 
width, apex broadly rounded, greatest (median) width equal to two-fifths 
of tegminal length: costal margin moderately arcuate, less distinctly so in 
median half, sutural margin nearly straight for most of its length, distinctly 
arcuate briefly proximad, and in distal fourth rather abruptly so to the 
broadly rounded and not at all acuminate apex: marginal field rather 
narrow for the genus, its greatest width subequal to a third the same 
dimension of the anal field, acuminate distad but its apex falling distinctly 
short of that of the anal field; scapular field of moderate width, almost 
twice as broad as the marginal field; anal field rather elongate pyriform: 
mediastine vein faintly sigmoid; costal veins seventeen in number (count- 
ing all bifurcations as units), all to a degree arcuate oblique, instead of 
straight oblique; humeral trunk faintly sigmoid, moderately arcuate proxi- 
mad; discoidal sectors sublongitudinal, 12 eight in number (counting all 
bifurcations) ; anal vein moderately arcuate in proximal half, thence oblique 
and nearly straight to the distal sixth, where it is quite sharply arcuate, 
joining the sutural margin in a right angle at a point briefly proximad of 
the middle of the margin; but six axillary veins clearly defined, those 
toward anal vein quite widely spaced, while those toward the sutural 
margin arc closely placed. Wings reaching to tegminal apices. 13 

Caudo-lateral angles of abdominal tergites not at all produced, nar- 
rowly rounded rectangulate to (distad) obtuse-angulate, penultimate tergite 
with its margin weakly arcuate: ultimate tergite (supra-anal plate) very 
broad and low trigonal, its greatest median length contained almost three 
times in the greatest proximal width of the tergite (as 2.2 to 6.5) ; lateral 
margins straight convergent to the blunt and very shallowly emarginate 
apex: ultimate sternite (subgenital plate) with its margin broadly arcuate 
with only the faintest intimation of a separation of the lateral and median 
portions of the same: cerci incomplete. 

12 As will be noted in many other species of blattids with moderate tegminal reduc- 
tion in genera with tegmina averaging somewhat longer, the abbreviation of the tegmina 
has thrown the sectors into a slightly oblique trend instead of their being entirely 
longitudinal as in the related species. This is due, apparently, to a resultant crowding 
between the humeral trunk and the anal vein, which are the fundamental venations! 
boundaries, and the lack of space preventing the usual proximal arcuation of the rami 
which thus bend normally into the longitudinal trend. This condition should not be 
confused with the true oblique tmnd of the discoidal sectors which we now know is one 
of the features of a number of genera. 

13 The type is unique and in a damaged condition which will not permit spreading 
without assuming unwarranted risk. 



28 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF 



[Vol. LXXXIX 



Limbs lighter and more elongate than in E. propcra; cephalic femora 
having spines of ventro-cephalic margin relatively short, but disposition 
and general character as usual in genus, distal group three, large proximal 
group two to three, ventro-caudal margin with four spaced spines, the distal 
the longest; caudal tibiae relatively slender: caudal tarsi with proximal 
article slightly longer than remaining articles, its pulvillus apical; arolia 
large, tarsal claws strongly asymmetrical. 

Color of disk of pronotum and tegmina ochraceous-buff with a definite 
tinge of ochraceous-orange, the pronotal disk unmarked except for weak 
indications of the paired comma-like darker lines placed latero-cephalad, 
as in the other species of the genus; lateral areas of pronotum subhyaline; 
marginal field of tegmina relatively opaque. Head and limbs of the gen- 
eral dorsal color, the head with a relatively deep inter-ocular bar of mars 
brown; antennae pale buckthorn brown. Dorsal surface of abdomen almost 
solidly mummy brown, the tergit.es rather broadly margined laterad with 
ochraceous-buff proximad, evenly darkening distad to ochraceous-orange, 
the latter involving the entire distal two-thirds of the ultimate tergite 
(supra-anal plate) ; ventral surface of abdomen with its disk paler mummy 
brown, approaching hay's russet mesad on the ultimate sternite (subgenital 
plate), the sternites laterad bordered with ochraceous-buff, slightly tinted 
with ochraceous-orange on the more distal ones, the pale margin not ex- 
tending distad on the ultimate sternite caudad of the cerci; latter prout's 
brown. 

Length of body, 10.7 mm.; length of pronotum, 2.68; greatest width of 
pronotum, 3.44; length of tegmen, 7; greatest width of tegmen, 2.6. 

The type of this most interesting species is unique. The discovery of 
the male sex is awaited with interest. 

Euandroblatta curta (Walker). Plate 8, figs. 7-10. 

1868. Blatta curta Walker, Cat. Spec. Blatt. Brit. Mus., p. 220. [ ° ; " Congo ".] 

1869. Bllatta] anomala Saussure, Mem. Soc. Phys. Hist. Nat. Geneve, XX, p. 250. 
[ $ ; Gaboon.] 

1883. P[h]yll[odromia] amplicollis Gerstaecker, Mitth. Naturw. Ver. von Neu- 

Vorpomm. und Riigen, Greifswald, XIV, p. 66. [ $ ; Dangila, Gaboon.] 
1893. Blatta amplicollis Bolivar, Ann. Soc. Entom. France, 1893, p. 171. [9; 

Assinie, Ivory Coast.] 
1908. Liosilpha bicolor Shelford, Deutsch. Entom. Zeitschr., 1908, p. 120, pi. II, fig. 

5. IS , 2 (type) ; Cameroons.] 
1933. Euandroblatta anomala Rehn, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., LXXX1V, p. 440, 

pi. 31, figs. 15-20. [Gerstaecker's type re-examined, generic position and 

synonymy of amplicollis established and material recorded from Lambarene, 

Ogowe River and Libreville, Gaboon River, Gaboon.] 
1933. Euandroblatta bicolor Rehn, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., LXXXIV, p. 441. 

[Generic position.] 

Cameroons: Lolodorf; April, 1914; (A. I. Good); one male; [Carnegie 
Museum]. Edea; one male; [Hebard Cln.]. Johann-Albrechtshohe ; 
(Rhode) ; one male, one female; [Vienna Mus.]. Mundame; (Rhode) ; two< 
females; [Vienna Mus.]. 



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NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA 



29 



French Equatorial Africa; Gaboon: Libreville, December, 1913; (G. 

Babault) ; one male: 14 January 1-2, 1931 ; (A. Tinant) ; one male; 15 [Mus. 

Belg. Congo]. Lambarcne, Ogowe River; 1911 and 1912: (R. Ellenberger) ; 

two females (one minus abdomen); [Paris Museum]. 
French Equatorial Africa ; Middle Congo: M'Bamoa, twenty-five miles 

west of Brazzaville, 1903; (Montezer) ; two females; [Paris Museum]. 
Belgian Congo: Vista, Lower Congo District; August 12, 1920; (H. 

Schouteden); one female; [Mus. Belg. Congo]. Moanda, Lower Congo 

District; August 21, 1920; (H. Schouteden) ; one male; [Mus. Belg. Congo]. 

Banana, Lower Congo District; June 20 and August, 1910; (Dr. Eticnne) ; 

one male, one female; [Mus. Belg. Congo]. Boma, Lower Congo District; 
(R. F. Achille); one female: July 30. 1928; (Lt. M. Van Delft); one 

female; [Mus. Belg. Congo]. Tshela, Mayumbe, Lower Congo District; 

February 13-24, 1916; (R. Mayne) ; one male; (Mus. Belg. Congo]. Temvo. 
Mayumbe, Lower Congo District; (Lance); one female; [Mus. Belg. 
Congo]. Congo da Lemba, Lower Congo District; April and May. 1911; 
(R. Mayne); one female, one immature; [Mus. Belg. Congo]. Tumba 
region, Lower Congo District; August-November, 1915; (P. Vanderijst) ; 
one immature; [Mus. Belg. Congo]. Kisantu, Lower Congo District; May, 
1919 and December, 1920 and 1927, 1932; (P. Vanderijst) ; one male, three 
females, three immatures; | Mus. Belg. Congo]. Lemfu to Ngidinga, Lower 
Congo District; (P. Vanderijst) ; one immature; [Mus. Belg. Congo]. Kwa- 
mouth, Lower Congo District; June, 1921; (H. Schouteden); one female; 
[Mus. Belg. Congo]. Lower Kasai; July, 1913 and September, 1920; (P. 
Vanderijst); two males, one immature; (Mus. Belg. Congo]. Kolo-Kwilu- 
Madiata; September, 1913; (R. Verschueren) ; one male; [Mus. Belg. 
Congo]. Eala, Equator District, 1917 (females only); (R. Mayne); one 
male, two females; | Mus. Belg. Congo |. Luebo. Kasai District; (D. W. 
Snyder); one male; [U.S.N.M.]. Ubangi District; July 12, 1921; (H. 
Schouteden); one female; [Mus. Belg. Congo]. Isangi, Aruwimi District; 
August 1, 1909; (Lang and Chapin) ; one female; [A.M.N.H.]. Stanley- 
ville, Stanleyville District; February. 1915; (Lang and Chapin) ; one male: 
[A.M.N.M.]. Niangara, Uele District; November 17-19, 1910; (Lang and 
Chapin); one female; [A.M.N.H.]. Kunungu; 1932; (Schouteden); one 
male; | Mus. Belg. Congo |. 

The synonymy of amplicollix under Saussure's anomala was established 
by me in 1933 after examining Gerstaecker's type. 16 At that time I con- 
sidered Shelford's tricolor to be distinct. An increasingly critical study of 
other names proposed for West African blattids pointed toward Walker's 

1 1 This specimen was compared by me in 1933 with the typo of amplicollis. 
'■•Already recorded by me (Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila.. LXXXIV, p. 441. (1933) ). 
•° Vide supra. 



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30 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [VOL. LXXXIX 



curta being based on the same species as those of Saussure and Gerstaecker. 
The description, however, was by no means conclusive, and at my request 
Dr. Uvarov kindly compared the female individual from Congo da Lemba, 
here recorded, with the types of Walker's Blatta curta now in the British 
Museum of Natural History. His comments leave no question in my mind 
as to the identity of Saussure's anomala and Gerstaecker's amplicollis with 
Walker's insect. 

Dr. Uvarov's notes are as follows: " Two specimens with the same data 
as above." [This refers to the types of Periplaneta flcxivitta Walker, re- 
garding which his notes are, " collected by Andrew Curror, R. N. Surgeon 
and presented to B [ritish] M[useum] by Dr. Richardson in 1843. They 
are labelled simply ' Congo ' and no further details are obtainable as to 
locality, but it appears probable from the collector's profession that they 
were taken on the coast of West Africa." ] " Sex unknown [Walker gives 
them as females], as the abdomens are missing in both. Tarsal claws 
strongly unequal, both falciform in shape. Venation of elytra and wings 
as in your species. Proportions of posterior tarsal joints: 30:11:7:2.5:14. 
Spines on the ventro-cephalic margin of anterior femora of uniform type, 
slightly decreasing in size distally. Palpi appear different from your ex- 
ample, as will be seen in the enclosed camera-lucida sketch. The shape 
of the distal article is identical in both type specimens, though they differ 
in the length of elytra (11 and 12.5 mm. respectively) and may represent 
two sexes ". 

The palpi difference referred to above by Dr. Uvarov is almost entirely 
in the more slender antepenultimate article of the types, as compared with 
the specimen sent. This is doubtless due to a difference in the method of 
preservation, as I find that in material dried after immersion in a liquid 
preservative this article is more slender, apparently much more contracted 
in diameter than in individuals preserved without immersion. The ultimate 
palpal article also is liable to show a difference in the lateral outline if it 
is more depressed or compressed than what may be called its normal 
condition. 

From Dr. Uvarov's comments, and my knowledge of the matter dis- 
cussed in the preceding paragraph, I feel there is no question but that 
W'alker's Blatta curta was based on the present species. 

The locality " Congo " placed on the types refers either to the Congo 
estuary district, from which I am here recording numerous specimens, or 
the old kingdom of Congo in nearby northern Angola. 

With the rather extensive series above listed now available for exami- 
nation, it is clearly evident that Shelford's bicolor was based on the inten- 
sively and contrastingly colored phase of the species, known to him only 
for the Cameroons, and which is well represented by the Lolodorf and 



1937] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA 31 

Johann-Albrechtshohe individuals recorded above, all of which fully agree 
with Shelford's description. 17 The Edea male and the two females from 
Mundame have the fuscous element in the transverse barring of the venter 
of the abdomen less marked or extensive, while in that from Edea and one 
of those from Mundame the tibiae and tarsi arc nearer cinnamon-brown 
that blackish fuscous. 

There is also some approach to the bicolor extreme in color features 
in other material in the Gaboon and Belgian Congo series recorded above, 
and there is no feature of structural difference or proportions to distinguish 
the Cameroons and Gaboon individuals. The disk of the dorsal surface of 
the abdomen is frequently almost solidly pitch brown, as in certain indi- 
viduals of both sexes from Johann-Albrechtshohe, Mundame, Lolodorf, 
Lambarene, M'Bamou, Boma, Stanleyville and Niangara, but this discal 
infuscation is not linked with the infuscation of the tibiae. A Tshela. 
Mayumbe male with the tibiae distinctly infuscate has the disk of the 
abdominal dorsum almost without infuscation, and is in this respect in full 
agreement with the Edea, Cameroons male. It is clearly evident the species 
has intensive and recessive color phases, but not all elements of the color 
pattern are equally responsive. 

A detailed description of the male sex of the species, drawn from 
Gerstaecker's type, has been given by me in the paper to which reference has 
already been made. Due to shrivelling and distortion in this type the 
structure of the distal abdominal tergites described does not represent the 
normal condition, and on account of the telescoping of the eighth tergite 
under the seventh, the ninth was erroneously called the eighth. The figure 
of the dorsum of the abdominal apex in the present study should be used 
instead of the 1933 description for an understanding of the contour of the 
sixth to ninth abdominal tergites of the male. 

The present series shows that, as in numerous members of related 
general, the tegmina and wings of the males are always longer and more 
ample than in the female sex. There is a marked amount of variation in 
general size in both sexes, but no single series is sufficiently large to show 
whether this is individual or geographic, the indications, however, pointing 
toward geographic correlation of this feature. 

The extremes in size in the above listed material measure (in milli- 
meters) as follows: 

Creates! Length Greatest 
Length Length of width of of width of 

of body pronotum pronotum tegmen tegmen 



<J , Lower Kasai 13.5 3.8 5.2 12.2 4.1 

$, Luebo 16.5 4.9 7.4 16.3 6.4 

9, Kwamouth 11.2 4 5.8 10.2 4.5 

9, M'Bamou 14.3 5.1 7.5 11.S 6 



,7 Shelford erroneously associated bicolor with the peculiarly American genus 
Lio.silphn. 



32 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [VOL. LXXXIX 

The distribution of curta covers a greater area than any other member 
of the genus, reaching from the Ivory Coast (Assinie, as reported by Boli- 
var) to Niangara, Uele District, Belgian Congo, and from as far north as 
Johann-Albrechtshohe, Cameroons and Niangara, south to the region of 
the lower Congo and most of the main Kasai. It is essentially a species 
of the forest region, but enters the transitional (gallery) forest belts to the 
north and south of the solidly forested area. 

Euandroblatta kabaka, 1 * new species. Plate 8. figs. 11-13. 

Very closely related to E. curta, which it apparently replaces in Uganda 
and other areas along the eastern edge of the Lower Guinea Forest Dis- 
trict. 19 The chief features of difference are the broader, linguiform pro- 
duction of the ultimate tergite (supra-anal plate) of the male, as opposed 
to the definitely triangular shape of the same area in curta; the less trigonal 
outline of the same tergite in the female, the converging lateral margins 
in kabaka being appreciably sigmoid and distinctly less straight oblique 
than in curta, the apex, of course, briefly fissate in both species; and the 
tegmina in their entirety more uniformly subequal in width than in curta, 
the costal margin distad less definitely arcuate and the tegminal apices 
broader and more subtruncate. 

Type. — 6 ; Between Entebbe and Mityana, 20 Uganda Protectorate. 
July 31, 1912. (C. C. Gowdey.) [British Museum of Natural History.] 

Size medium; form and surface as a whole much as in E. curta. 

Head as seen from dorsum but narrowly visible cephalad of pronotum, 
in cephalic aspect broad cordiform, very slightly broader across eyes than 
deep (as 10 to 9.5), markedly narrowing ventrad from eyes to buccal 
region ; occipital line, as seen in cephalic aspect, moderately arcuate, slightly 
more so than the adjacent eye outline as seen in the same view; least 
interocular space equal to one-half that between internal margins of ah- 
tennal scrobes (as 1.9 to 3.8): palpi of the type characteristic of the genus; 
distal article one and three-fourth times as long as the penultimate (as 3.5 
to 2), penultimate very short and broadly infundibuliform, antepenultimate 
four-fifths as long as ultimate (as 2.8 to 3.5): antennae longer than the 
body. 

Pronotum in outline ovate sub-trapezoidal, greatest median length con- 
tained one and nine-twentieth times in greatest width of same, which is 
placed slightly cephalad of the caudal third: cephalic margin moderately 
arcuate, laterad broadly rounding into the slightly arcuate, caudad diverg- 
ing lateral margins, which pass by the distinct and very narrowly rounded 
lateral angles into the brief but definitely marked caudo-lateral sections of 
the margin, these very weakly arcuate, strongly convergent and continuing 
by a well rounded, but still evident angulation into the sub-obtuse angulate 

18 Kabaka, the title of the native ruler of the Baganda people. 
10 As used bv Chapin in his " Birds of the Belgian Congo " (Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat 
Hist.. LXV, p. 90 ? (1932) ). 

-° This is also spelled Mitiana and Mitiyaua. 



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NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA 



33 



caudal margin, the median very low production of which is very broadly 
rounded; all margins very narrowly cingulate, slightly broader laterad: 
surface of pronotum as a whole transversely low arcuate, faintly more 
deplanate on the disk, longitudinally very weak arcuate. 

Tegmina with greatest median width contained two and three-fifth times 
in the tegminal length, in general shape subrectangulate-lanceolate with 
apex not at all produced: costal margin as a whole low arcuate, slightly 
less so mesad than proximad and distad; sutural margin in large part nearly 
straight, distal fourth broadly arcuate to the well rounded and not at all 
acuminate apex, which is nearer the costal axis than that of the main por- 
tion of the sutural margin: marginal field broad, at widest point (proximad) 
equal to seven-twentieths the width of anal field, its greatest width con- 
tained four and one-half times in greatest evident length of field, its apex 
distinctly failing to reach distad as far as that of the anal field; scapular 
field moderately wide, at broadest point equal to twice that of marginal 
field; anal field pyriform, greatest width contained two and three-tenth 
times in length of same: mcdiastine vein very faintly arcuate distad; costal 
veins of scapular field fifteen in number, including each bifurcation in this 
count, straight, oblique; humeral trunk moderately arcuate; discoidal sec- 
tors longitudinal, ten in number; anal vein well arcuate in proximal half, 
then straight oblique for approximately two-fifths of its length and finally 
passing by an obtuse-angulation into a brief, straight, more oblique and 
less longitudinal section, which joins the sutural margin but faintly proxi- 
mad of the middle; axillary veins seven to eight in number. Wings with 
apex having the same curvature as apex of tegmen: costal veins of all 
origins fifteen in number, non-clavate; discoidal vein straight, median 
simple, medio-discoidal area in greater part subequal in width to medio- 
ulnar, never wider, cross-veins in former relatively regular, making areolets 
rectangular; ulnar vein in type with but three rami, of which median one 
is triramose. 21 

Seventh abdominal tergite with its distal margin very shallowly con- 
cave, lateral margins oblique convergent, caudo-lateral angles distinct but 
obtuse, glandular depression occupying in length the proximal third of the 
median half (transversely) of the surface of the tergite, the depression 
deeply concave and in general form transversely bilobate. the lateral sec- 
tions longer (longitudinally ) than the same median dimension of the gland 
area, seen from dorsum the lateral borders of the area are arcuate con- 
vergent, its distal border concave: ninth tergite 2 -' as in E. curt a: ultimate 
tergite (supra-anal plate) with its median produced area distinctly lingui- 
form, the median length of the same production equal to the proximal width 
of that area, lateral margins definitely arcuate, little converging in proximal 
half, very definitely so in distal half, apex rather broadly rounded with a 
shallow median emargination: ultimate sternite (subgenital plate) unsym- 
metrical, its greatest length appreciably dextrad of middle and margining 

21 The three females examined show a range in these rami from the condition found 
in the type to an opposite extreme having five regular spaced and undivided rami 
t allotype). 

22 Due to the eighth tergite being relracted and hidden in the typo of (icrstaeckor's 
amplicollis (= carta Walker), the ninth tergite was erroneously called the eighth by me 
when redescribing Gerstaecker's tvpe (sec Proe. Acad. Nat. .Sci. Phila.. L XXXIV, pp. 
440-443, (1933) ). 



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PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [VOL. LXXXIX 



dextral stylar socket on mesal side, general contour of margin of sternite 
reading from dcxtral base as follows, — oblique arcuate to dcxtral cereal 
socket, the latter relatively broad and hardly at all excavate, this followed 
by the low rounded point of greatest length, which bears on its periphery 
a few short dentiform points, and from which sinistrad the margin of the 
sternite is moderately oblique subsinuate to the extreme sinistral (and infra- 
cereal) side of the sinistral stylar socket, the lateral (dextral) margin of 
the sternite thence brief and sublongitudinal ; dextral style relatively short, 
falciform, spiniform at apex, directed mesad, subdepressed, dorsal surface 
of convex margin in distal half supplied with six spaced dentiform spines, 
slightly more evident than those on adjacent portion of margin itself; 
sinistral style much as in curta, about twice the length of the dextral, 
tapering, elongate subulate, its acute apex evenly curved dorsad," its margins 
unspined: cerci elongate, surpassing apex of ultimate tergite by a distance 
equal to the length of the latter, subfusiform but elongate attenuate in 
distal half, made up of twelve segments, subdepressed. 

Cephalic femora moderately stout, with ventro-cephalic margin bearing 
ten regularly spaced, stout spines in addition to the distal group of three, 
the spines mesad the shortest, increasing in length distad and proximad, 
ventro-caudal margin with four spaced spines in distal half: median and 
caudal femora moderately robust: caudal tarsi with proximal article sub- 
equal in length to that of the remaining ones combined, pulvillus apical; 
arolia relatively large; tarsal claws markedly unequal. 

Allotype. — 9, Buamba Forest, Semliki Valley, Uganda Protectorate. 
Elevation, 2300 feet to 2800 feet. November 3-7, 1911. (S. A. Neave.) 
[British Museum of Natural History.] 

Differing from the above description of the male sex in the following 
noteworthy features. 

Size and surface similar to male, form more robust, broader, tegmina 
slightly broader and blunter distad. 

Head with occipital line, as seen in cephalic aspect, slightly more flat- 
tened than in male; least interocular space slightly less than twice that 
between internal margins of antennal scrobes (as 2.2 to 4.1) ; palpi with 
distal article one and four-fifth times as long as the penultimate (as 2 to 
2.21, antepenultimate seven-eighths the length of the distal (as 3.5 to 4). 

Pronotum slightly broader than in male, greatest length contained 
slightly more than one and eleven-twentieth times in greatest width of 
same (as 4.2 to 6.62). 

Tegmina with greatest median width contained two and two-fifth times 
in the tegminal length, even more subrectangulate sublanceolate than in 
male, apex not at all produced, broadly rounded, margins otherwise as in 
male except that distad the sutural margin rounds more abruptly and 
strongly to the distal margin, the similar rounding of the distal portion of 
the costal margin also more abruptly arcuate to apex: marginal field very 
slightly broader than in male, its breadth equal to two-fifths the greatest 
width of the anal field, the greatest width of marginal field contained four 

a The extent to which this style can be rotated is not known, and the direction given 
is solely that evident in the type. Any rotation of the style would naturally change 
the direction of this subuncinate curving of the apex. 



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35 



times in the greatest evident length of same; anal field with greatest width 
contained two and one-tenth times in greatest length of same: discoidal 
sectors eight in number. 

Ultimate tergite (supra-anal plate) broad trigonal, its median length 
contained nearly two and seven-tenth times in the greatest proximal width 
of tergite (as 3.5 to 9.3), lateral oblique converging margins shallowly sig- 
moid, apex weakly bilobate, the median V-incision shallow and relatively 
broad; ultimate sternitc (subgenital plate) with distal margin transversely 
low arcuate, passing laterad into the oblique lateral margins which are 
faintly sinuate ventrad of the cereal bases; cerci as in male. 

General color of dorsal surface of pronotum and of tegmina, head and 
basal portion of limbs deep ochraceous buff with a marked zinc orange 
tendency. Head with a very broad interocular bar of mummy brown; 
eyes ranging from blackish fuscous to dresden brown; antennae and palpi 
of the general color, the ultimate article of the latter narrowly touched 
with mummy brown at base and apex. Pronotum with the faint impres- 
sion of a darker lyrate pattern in the disk produced apparently by muscle 
attachments; the paired oblique darker markings bordering the disk latero- 
cephalad in all the species of the genus well indicated, mummy brown. 
Dorsal surface of abdomen ranging (individually) from zinc orange to 
ferruginous, paler and less rufescent proximad, disk of tergitcs three to six 
fuscous, leaving paler broad lateral borders and usually very narrow distal 
edgings to each tergite. the latter broader in the male (type) than in the 
females; ventral surface of abdomen with the same colors as the dorsal 
surface but the dark disk much smaller, restricted to not more than four 
of the evident proximal sternites, while nearly all the sternites may or may 
not be narrowly edged with light ochraeeous-buff distad and laterad, this 
broken into beading. Cerci of the paler abdominal color. Tibiae and tarsi 
of the paler abdominal color. 

Measurements (in millimeters) 

Greatest Length Greatest 

Length Length of width of of width of 

of body pronotum pronotum tegmen tegmen 

■•. Mil. vana. ////>, 14.2 4.03 5.87 13 5.04 

9 , Buamba Forest, allotype . . 13.5 4.2 6.62 12.9 5.36 

In addition to the type and allotype 1 have before me two females 
which I am considering paratypes. These are from the Daro (or Durro) 
Forest, Toro, Uganda Protectorate, elevation of 4000 to 4500 feet, taken 
October 25-29, 1911, by S. A. Neave, and from the British Museum of 
Natural History; and from between Lakes Tanganyika and Albert- 
Edward," taken in 1910 by Rudolf Grauer and from the collection of the 
Vienna Museum. These specimens fully agree with the allotype in all 
noteworthy features. 

From the data before me it is evident that kabaka replaces the West 
African curta in Uganda and other contiguous areas along the eastern edge 

23 As Grauer did considerable work in the mountains of the Lake Kivu district, and 
also in the forests of the ea>teni edge of the Belgian Congo, it is warranted to assume 
this specimen came from either one of these areas. 



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PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF 



[Vol. LXXXIX 



of the Forest Province, reaching from at least as far north as the lower 
Semliki River to Toro and probably Lake Kivu. We have no evidence of 
its occurrence east of Lake Victoria and very likely its presence requires a 
definite forest influence. While in much of Uganda the forest areas arc 
localized and not as general as in all of the Lower Guinea Forest Sub- 
province, the areas of true forest are comparable in extent to those of the 
" gallery forest " belt present to the north of that Subprovince, and in which 
curta occurs. 

Euandroblatta jallae (Giglio-Tos). 

1907. l\.srlnn>i>t( ra] jallae Giglio-Tos, Bollett. Mus. Zool. Anat. Com]). Torino. 
XXII. no. 563. p. 2. \ $ ; Kazunsrula, Zambesi River. Rhodesia.) 

1908. 1'criplaneta adclungi Karny, Denksehr. Med.-Xaturwiss. Gesell. Jena, XIII. 
p. 380. pi. XXI. fi<r. 27. [ $ ; Levinsrstane (error for Livingstone), Zambesi 
River.] 

1922. Euandroblatta jallae Rehn. Ann. Transvaal Mus.. IX. p. 34, pi. 1. fig. 23. pi. 
II. figs.. 24 and 25. [Generic position. 1 

Belgian Congo: Lomami: Kabinda; (Dr. Schwetz); one female; [Mus. 
Belg. Congo]. 

Belgian Congo: Katanga: between Luapala River and Tumbwe; No- 
vember 24, 1930; (G. F. de Witte); one female; [Mus. Belg. Congo], 
Lukafu; December 6-22, 1930; (G. F. de Witte); one female; [Mus. Belg. 
Congo | . Busanga; October, 1922; one presumably female (abdomen lack- 
ing) ; [Mus. Belg. Congo]. 

Northern" Rhodesia: Mid-Luangwa Valley, elevation 3000-3180 feet; 
August 23-31, 1910; (S. A. Neave) ; one male; [Br. Mus. Nat. Hist.]. 

Southern Rhodesia: Mt. Chirincla, October-November, 1911; (C. F. 
M. Swynnerton) ; one male; [Br. Mus. Nat. Hist.]. 

Nyasaland: Mlanje, elevation 2300 feet; October 4, 1913, November 
8-11, 1912, December 21, 1913; (S. A. Neave); two males, eight females; 
[Br. Mus. Nat. Hist.]. 

Portuguese East Africa: no exact locality, 1907; (G. A. K. Mar- 
shall); one male, one female; [Br. Mus. Nat. Hist.]. Foothills north of 
Mt. Chaperone, elevation 2500 feet; November 19, 1913; (S. A. Neave); 
one female; [Br. Mus. Nat. Hist.]. 

In addition to these specimens I have before me the male labelled 
" Zambesia " which I figured in 1922, as noted above. 

In 1922 I suggested the probability 24 that Karny's Pcriplaneta adelungi 
would prove to be the same species as Giglio-Tos' Ischnoptera jallae, these 
described from localities hardly fifty miles apart. In the light of present 
knowledge I have gone over the situation anew and now feel there can be 
no question of the correctness of the then suggested synonymy. Karny's 
description of the ultimate tergite (supra-anal plated as " trigona, apice 

24 Ann. Transv. Mus., IX, p. 34. 



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obtusata taken with features of the coloration of the abdominal dorsum, 
is sufficient to establish the specific identity of adelungi. 

The detailed description of the male genitalia and the figures of the 
same already given by me should assist in the recognition of this well- 
marked species. 

There is an appreciable amount of size variation in the Mlange series 
of females, as the measurements (in millimeters) of the extremes shown 
below testify. With these are the measurements of the two Rhodesian 
males, which furnish the extremes of the series for that sex. 

Greatest Length Greatest 
Length Length of width of of width of 

of body pronotnm pronotum tegmen tegrnen 

9. Mlanje 15.8 5 6.5 13.5 5.8 

9, Mlanje 17. G 5.2 7.1 16.3 6 

$, Mt. Chirinda 15 4.6 6 14 5.5 

$, Mid-Luangwa Valley 18 4.4 6.5 15.8 6 

Taken with previously published measurements these show there is 
quite noticeable individual, and possibly also geographic, size variation, 
but the representation of males is too limited to be convincing on the latter 
point. 

The body coloration in jallae shows a range from a recessive extreme, 
which was described by me in 1922, with the fuscous areas greatly limited 
on both the dorsal and ventral surfaces of the abdomen, to an opposite 
intensive condition in which the incomplete and broken intermarginal fus- 
cous markings of both surfaces coalesce on the venter into broad, nearly 
continuous bars, sharply contrasting the ochraceous borders and the buck- 
thorn brown to rufescent disk, and on the dorsum suffuse almost the entire 
surface except for the rather narrow ochraceous lateral border-, and that 
of the distal portion of the ultimate tergite (supra-anal plate), as well as 
a proximo-mesal rufescent area. 

The Busanga, Katanga individual here reported lacks its abdomen, but 
it has an exceptionally intensive coloration, with all the dorsal surface 
except the pale ochraceous lateral borders to the pronotum and similar 
colored marginal fields of the tegmina solidly fuscous, virtually mummy 
brown, while the palpi and limbs are heavily washed with the same. It 
distinctly suggests the coloration of the Nearctic Parcoblatta pensylvanica. 

The distribution of jallae is now known to extend from Southern Rho- 
desia (Mt. Chirinda) northward across the Zambesi into southern Nyasa- 
land (Mlanje), northeastern Rhodesia (Mid-Luangwa Valley) and south- 
eastern Katanga (Lukafu and between Luapula and Tumbwe), westward 
as far as the Zambesi above Victoria Falls (Kazungula) and eastward into 
Portuguese East Africa. 



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[Vol. LXXXIX 



Euandroblatta selousi, 25 new species. Plate 8, figs. 14 and 15. 

This species is more nearly related to E. jallae than any other, but from 
this it is readily separable in the male sex by the genitalia, while in the 
female the two can be distinguished only by rather subtle relative features. 
In the male the ultimate sternite (subgenital plate) has the production of 
its interstylar section distinctly and rather sharply acute-angulate, instead 
of roundly rectangulate as in jallae, the sinistral style is more regular 
arcuate tapering and less subclavate, the distal margin of the same sternite 
sinistrad of the insertion of the sinistral style is sharply rectangulate emar- 
ginate instead of obliquely sinuate, while dorsad of the base of the style it 
is developed into a subquadrate chitinous plate, which has its distal margin 
closely serrulato-denticulate. In jallae the analogous structure to this last- 
mentioned plate is less than a fourth the size found in selonsi, and has its 
free margin rounded, with fewer, less numerous teeth. 

In the female of selousi, when compared with that of jallae, the sole 
features which seem to be of diagnostic value are the relatively narrower 
marginal field of the tegmina in selousi, and the more delicately notched 
apex of the ultimate tergite (supra-anal plate) in the same insect. 

Type. — 6 ; Lulanguru, seventeen miles west of Tabora, Unyanyembe, 
Tanganyika Territory. Elevation, 1148 meters. November, 1917. (G. D. 
H. Carpenter.) [British Museum of Natural History.] 

Size relatively large (for the genus) ; form very similar to that of 
E. jallae. 

Head for most of its width narrowly evident cephalad of pronotum as 
seen from dorsum; outline of head, as seen in cephalic aspect, cordiform, 
the greatest width across eyes subequal to depth of head; occipital line 
weakly arcuate, continuous with the curvature of the eyes; interspace 
between the eyes relatively narrow, not greater than half that between the 
internal margins of the antennal scrobes, infra-ocular borders of head 
regularly straight oblique convergent ventrad to the narrow buccal region: 
ultimate palpal article with its extensor length equal to one and nine- 
twentieth times the same length of the penultimate article, of the moderately 
inflated elongate securiform type found in all the forms of the genus; form 
of the penultimate article rather elongate, infundibuliform, more attenuate 
than in E. jallae, its distal width equal to but faintly more than two-fifths 
of the extensor length of article; antepenultimate article but slightly shorter 
than extensor length of ultimate article (as 3.2 to 3.8). Antennae surpass- 
ing length of body by at least the pronotal length. 

Pronotum in general semi-ovate subtrapezoidal, its greatest median 
length contained one and nine-twentieth times in greatest width of same: 
cephalic margin broadly and evenly arcuate, passing laterad without defi- 
nite angles into the caudad diverging but faintly arcuate lateral margins; 
point of greatest width faintly cephalad of caudal third, the angle narrowly 
rounded but well marked; caudo-lateral margins short, nearly straight, 

25 In memory of Frederic Courtney Selous, an ever-memorable figure in the natural 
history of South and East Africa. 



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eaudad convergent; caudal margin very weakly obtuse-angulate mesad: 
surface of disk subdeplanate, lateral areas of pronotum moderately decli- 
vent, evenly rounding into disk. 

Tegmina elongate lanceolate, greatest median width but faintly more 
than one-third the length of same: costal margin but moderately arcuate 
except in distal fifth where it bends quite sharply to the blunt, rounded 
apex; sutural margin nearly straight except in the distal fourth which is 
obliquely arcuate to the apex, the position of which is slightly suturad of 
the median axis of the tegmcn: marginal field with its greatest width con- 
tained five and one-third times in the length of the field, equal to one-third 
the width of the anal field; scapular field equal to two-fifths the tegminal 
width; anal field elongate, very blunt pyriform, its greatest width equal to 
virtually two-fifths the length of the field (as 4.5 to 11.5), apex broad and 
blunt: mediastine vein straight oblique; costal veins twenty-one to twenty- 
three in number counting all rami of all origins in the scapular field; dis- 
coidal sectors twelve in number, completely longitudinal except for the 
proximal arcuation of a number of the group; anal vein not at all sigmoid, 
moderately and broadly arcuate at proximal two-fifths, proximad of same 
virtually straight and almost longitudinal, distad of same straight oblique, 
at distal sixth vein is arcuate rather abruptly and thence nearly straight 
transverse, joining the sutural margin at a right angle at two-fifths of the 
length from its base; axillary veins eight in number, rather closely placed. 
Wings with apex as that of tegmina, costal veins of all origins, (including 
rami) fifteen in number,-" non-clavate, six or so mesad faintly heavier than 
the others; medio-discoidal and medio-ulnar areas subequal in width, both 
relatively narrow, the cross-veins forming numerous rectangulate areolets; 
ulnar vein with six complete and two incomplete rami. 

Abdominal tergites two to six with caudo-lateral angles moderately 
produced, the immediate apices narrowly rounded; distal margin of sixth 
tergite in general transversely concave, this shallowly but appreciably 
Insinuate on each lateral half: seventh tergite somewhat longer than the 
sixth, caudo-lateral angles obtuse, not at all produced, distal margin trans- 
versely truncate with median half low arcuate expanded; surface of seventh 
tergite with proximal half of median area occupied by a markedly excavate 
glandular impression in which rises a central elevated tectate structure, 
that in turn has its ventro-distal face very distinctly and concavely ex- 
cavate, seen from dorsum this structure is low carinate medio-longitudinally, 
its apex acute and its distal outline biconcave in same view; surface of 
median section of tergite distad of this structure subdeplanate with numer- 
ous spaced briefly chaetigcrous shagreenous points, which are directed 
proximad; surface of tergite laterad of central surface ascending in that 
direction from the depression to slightly converging, low. non-carinate 
swellings which reach nearly to the distal margin and each of which bears 
on their internal slope mesad an off-set shoulder bounding distad a circular 
lateral section of the glandular depression and bearing on its dorsal surface 
a group of elongate chaetae, while laterad of these elevations the surface 
of the tergites is subdeplanate toward the lateral margins: eighth tergite 
relatively short, distal margin low arcuate, caudo-lateral angles not at all 
produced and obliquely subtruncate; ninth tergite quite short, less exposed 

-•"•The series of the species shows as many as eighteen clearly indicated. 



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than eighth, distal margin arcuate to same degree as that of eighth, caudo- 
lateral angles briefly produced, moderately acute: ultimate tergite (supra- 
anal plate) produced trigonal, its greatest median length equal to five- 
sevenths of the proximal width between points dorsad of the cereal axes, 
lateral margins straight, regularly oblique convergent to the bluntly rounded 
apex, surface of tergite with a narrow and shallow but definite medio- 
longitudinal sulcation, distal portion of plate weakly deflexed: ultimate 
sternite (subgenital plate) decidedly asymmetrical, slightly acute trigonally 
produced, the point of greatest length appreciably dextrad of median line, 
general shape of margin of tergite, reading from dextral base, to dextral 
stylar section slightly inclined mesad, virtually straight, angle dextrad of 
stylar socket sharp, subrectangulate, socket rather deeply concave, thence 
to most distal point the margin is straight oblique, the angle of that point 
rectangulate, from which sinistrad the sternite is bimarginate, the stylar 
socket between the two, of the margins the ventral sinistrad of the angle 
is almost straight oblique to the much more proximal, broader but much 
more shallow sinistral stylar socket, this situated virtually at the normally 
evident sinistral base, the more dorsal margin borders a supra-stylar lamel- 
late expansion of unusual character, developed as a broad rectangulate 
flange-like plate, in area little less than all the remainder of the sternite, 
its rectangulate apex extending distad almost as far as the true apex of 
the sternite, both the distal and sinistral borders of this expansion concave, 
the former with a regular and pronounced series of mesad recurved teeth 
of uniform length; ventral surface of ultimate sternite subdeplanate as a 
whole except for a dorsal upcurving on the dextral side; dextral style short, 
simple, slightly tapering, blunt, distinctly failing to reach apex of sternite, 
with a few short radiating chaetae; sinistral style heavy, moderately taper- 
ing, falciform, subcompressed, reaching nearly to apex of sternite, its apex 
blunt and on convex side with a few closely placed teeth, the same side 
with a number of erect, spaced chaetae: cerci of the usual type, tapering, 
little expanded, distinctly surpassing apex of ultimate tergite. 

Cephalic femora with ventro-cephalic margin bearing thirteen stout and 
spaced spines, increasing in length proximad and distad, the longer proxi- 
mal ones three in number and approximately equal in length to half that 
of the most distal spine; ventro-caudal margin with five spaced spines 
(including longer distal ones); caudal tarsi with proximal article slightly 
longer than remaining articles combined (as 8 to 7), pulvillus distal; arolia 
large; tarsal claws markedly unequal. 

Allotype. — 9 ; same data as type. [British Museum of Natural His- 
tory.] 

Differing from the above description of the male (type) in the follow- 
ing noteworthy features. 

Head with occipital interspace between eyes somewhat broader, slightly 
greater than half that between internal margins of antennal scrobes (as 
2.3 to 4.3). 

Pronotum essentially as in male but slightly les< strongly transverse 
and cephalic and caudal margins slightly less produced, the former not as 
distinctly arcuate, the latter less appreciably obtuse-angulate mesad. 

Tegmina distinctly broader and less elongate, not surpassing apex of 
abdomen, in general outline rectangularly lanceolate, the greatest median 



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width contained approximately two and six-tenth times in the terminal 
length; apex broadly and transversely arcuate, not at all produced: costal 
margin with its distal arcuation to apex shorter and much sharper and 
more abrupt than in male; sutural margin with its corresponding passage 
to apex much shorter and more abrupt than in male, although somewhat 
broader than the costal transition in the present sex: scapular field equal 
to one-third the tcgminal width; anal field shorter and broader than in 
male, its greatest width equal to but slightly less than half the length of 
the field (as 4.3 to 9j, the general outline of the same as in male but less 
elongate, the greatest width mesad instead of at two-fifths of the field's 
length: costal veins eighteen to twenty-one, counting all rami in the scap- 
ular field; discoidal sectors ten to eleven in number; anal vein as a whole 
more generally arcuate and less straight oblique; axillary veins nine in 
number. Wings with apex bluntly arcuato-truncate; costal veins of all 
origins eighteen in number, none at all thickened, ulnar vein with five 
complete (counting bifurcations of one rami each as complete) and one 
incomplete rami. 

Caudo-lateral angles of abdominal tergites two and three subrect- 
angulate, of four and five subacute produced, of six and seven obtuse, of 
the latter subproduced; surface of seventh tergite simple, unspecialized, its 
distal margin weakly but appreciably sigmoidally sinuate in each lateral 
half, mesad the margin being very broadly and extremely shallowly obtuse- 
angulate emarginate; eighth tergite very narrowly evident, its distal margin 
transverse truncate except for the moderately acute produced caudo-lateral 
angles; ninth tergite very narrowly exposed, finely sulcate medio-longitu- 
dinally, distal margin transversely arcuato-truncate, caudo-lateral angles 
hardly at all produced, rectangulate: ultimate tergite (supra-anal plate) 
appreciably transverse trigonal, its greatest length but slightly more than 
one-third the greatest proximal width, lateral margins of production nearly 
straight oblique convergent, apex distinctly and broadly obtuse-angulate 
emarginate, the resultant bounding lobes rounded; surface of tergite in 
proximal half weakly subsulcate medio-longitudinally, broad impressed 
concave areas indicated on each side mesad of the cereal bases: ultimate 
sternite (subgenital plate) broad, distal margin as a whole broadly arcuate, 
very faintly sinuate ventrad of the cereal bases. 

General color of dorsal surface and much of ventral one ochraceous-buff, 
washed on disk of pronotum and most of tegmina except marginal and 
considerable of sutural fields, which arc also subhyaline, with pale zinc 
orange. Dorsal surface of abdomen with a mummy brown <li-cal infusca- 
tion of the proximal six tergites, varying from paired intermarginal band- 
ings which are very narrow proximad and expanded and converging on 
the fifth and sixth tergites, with the seventh more rufescent and occasionally 
the eighth and ninth largely and the base of the ultimate narrowly mummy 
brown, to the opposite extreme in which the whole dorsal surface of the 
abdomen except the pale lateral borders, the distal portion of the ultimate 
tergite (supra-anal plate) and a restricted subtriangular medio-proximal 
area are similarly dark, in some specimens the eighth and ninth tergites 
are as rufescent (kaiser brown) as the seventh tergite, and the dark area 
proximad on the ultimate tergite is broken in two and represented by paired 
small dark patches at the lateral bases, lateral pale borders of dorsum 



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pronounced and evident to caudo-lateral angles of ninth tergite, on seventh 
of male broadened into patches involving all mesad to the oblique swellings 
of the surface: venter of abdomen pale proximad becoming kaiser brown 
meso-distad, intermarginal dark bars present and broken into detached 
blotches on most of the sternites, these varying in size and exact shape, 
distal margins of sternites regularly beaded with pale ochraceous-buff and 
the darker color; ultimate sternite (subgenital plate) of female marked 
marginally with mummy brown; cerci mummy brown, occasionally paler 
distad. Head with interocular bar relatively deep, in tone prout's brown 
to mummy brown; eyes bister to mars brown; antennae pale proximad 
becoming progressively more tawny distad; palpi pale, rarely the ultimate 
article is infuscate distad with mummy brown. Limbs of the pale color 
with tibial spines pale tawny. 

But one of the males seen has the dorsum of the abdomen largely in- 
fuscate. this being from Morogoro, while the females are either extremes 
of that type or closely approach that condition. The three males with the 
pronounced infuscation of the eighth and ninth abdominal tergites are two 
from Lulanguru (one the type) and one from Morogoro. Whether there is 
a regional correlation of this latter condition remains to be determined 
when more material is available. 

Mkasi hkmknts rili millimeters) 

Greatest Length Greatest 

Length Length of width of of width of 

of body pronotnm pronotum tcjrmcn tegmcn 

6 

Lulanguru, Tanganyika, type .. 15.3 :;.9I 5.7 15 5.2 
Lulanguru. Tanganyika. 

paratype 16.4 3.86 5.53 16.1 5.62 

Between Tabora and Kigoma. 

Tanganyika, paratype 15.2 3.91 5.7 15 5.2 

Morogoro, Tanganyika, 

paratype ". 13 3.94 5.95 13.2 — 

Bua River. Xya>aland 13.8 3.94 5.7 15.7 5.2 

2 

Lulanguru, Tanganyika. 

allotype 17.2 4.11 5.04=8 13.2 5.12 

Lulanguru, Tanganyika. 

paratype 15.2 4.03 6.12 13.3 4.87 

Usangu District, Tanganyika . 12.7 3.61 5.12 10.3 3.69 

In addition to the type and allotype of sclonsi 1 have before me a 
series of seven males and three females, of which three males and two 
females are considered paratypes. These specimens are from the following 
localities: 

Lulanguru, seventeen miles west of Tabora, Tanganyika. December 
(one dated 3-25), 1917. (G. D. H. Carpenter.) One male, two females 
(paratypes) . [Brit. Mus. Nat. Hist.] 

27 The tegmina are badly curled and width measurements not possible. 

28 The lateral areas are slightly more decliyent than normal and this width should 
be slightly greater in an uncompressed specimen. 



NATURAL SCIKXCKS OF ]'H II.ADKI.l'IIIA 



43 



Between Tabora and Kogoma, Tanganyika. (Lt. Stamper.) One male 
(paratijpe). [Mus. Belg. Congo.] 

Morogoro, Tanganyika. January 4, 1911. (A. Loveridge.) One male 
(paratypc) . [Nairobi Museum.] 

Usangu District, south-central Tanganyika. Elevation, 3500-4500 feet. 
November 29 to December 15, 1910. (S. A. Neavc.) One female. [Brit. 
Mus. Nat. Hist.] 

Mzimba (labelled Mazimba), Nyasaland, November 24, 1910. (Dr. J. 
E. S. Old.) One male. [Brit. Mus! Nat. Hist,] 

Bua River, Nyasaland. November 29, 1910. (Dr. J. E. S. Old.) One 
male. [Brit. Mus. Nat. Hist.] 

Zomba, Nyasaland. February, 1911. (Dr. J. E. S. Old.) Two males. 
[Brit. Mus. Nat. Hist.] 

From these specimens it is evident that regionally we may find marked 
size fluctuation and that individual variation appears to be but slight, the 
size of the western Tanganyika individuals being surprisingly uniform. 
The female from the Usangu District is very small, as the above measure- 
ments show, and at a casual glance would, for this reason, be considered 
to represent a different species. Comparison, however, discloses the iden- 
tity of the specimen with the other individuals of sclousi. 

The distribution of this species is quite interesting in that while jallae 
occurs in northeastern Rhodesia and up into Katanga, sclousi apparently 
replaces it in most of Nyasaland, yet both occur in the southern part of 
that protectorate. It is the only species of Euandroblatta known to occur 
in Tanganyika, and in that direction it defines the northeastern limit of 
the range of the genus. However, further work may show that sclousi 
occurs in portions of southern Kenya. 

Euandroblatta clavigera,- 9 new species. Plate 8, figs. iY>-i8. 

This species, which has strikingly distinctive male genitalic features, 
needs comparison only with E. marxhalli, described on a subsequent page. 
In size it is a large species bearing a marked superficial resemblance to E. 
jallae. One glance at the ultimate sternite (subgenital plate) of the male 
shows the two species are not closely related, the median portion of this 
being broadly and rather evenly arcuate, the dextral style short and simple, 
while the sinistral one is strongly arcuate at the base and then developed 
into a nearly straight, expanding, distally rounded, club-like structure, in 
no way like the tapering style of jallae. The margin of the sternite dorsad 
of the base of the sinistral style shows no approach to the rectangulate 
expansion of this area seen in sclousi. In 7narshalli the dextral style is the 
highly modified one, but in that species, which is also much smaller and 



- ,J In allusion to the club-like sinistral style of the male ultimate sternite. 



44 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF 



| Vol. LXXXIX 



proportionately more slender, the sinistral style is far longer than the dex- 
tral style is in clavigera, in fact much like the sinistral style seen in sclousi. 

Type. — $ ; On railroad 311 kilometers (approximately 190 miles) from 
Kindu," Region of the Lualaba River, Belgian Congo. At night. (Dr. 
Russo.) [Museum of the Belgian Congo.] 

Size relatively large (for genus); form with well developed tegmina 
and wings much surpassing abdominal apex; surface moderately polished. 

Head rather narrowly visible cephalad of pronotum as seen from dor- 
sum, in cephalic aspect cordiform, very slightly deeper than width across 
eyes (as 10.8 to 10.3) ; occipital line as seen in cephalic view weakly arcuate, 
its curvature evenly continuing that of the eyes; interspace between eyes 
contained one and three-fourth times in that between internal margins of 
antennal scrobes: palpi of the type usual in the genus, ultimate article one 
and three-fifth times in the greatest (extensor) length of penultimate article, 
the latter short and broad infundibuliform, its greatest distal depth slightly 
less than one and one-half times the extensor length of same; penultimate 
article approximately four-fifths as long as ultimate one (as 3.3 to 4) : 
antennae distinctly surpassing the body in length. 

Pronotum trapezoidally semi-ovate, with its greatest length contained 
slightly less than one and one-half times in its greatest width, which is at 
the caudal third: cephalic margin arcuate, passing into the obliquely and 
moderately arcuate, caudad divergent lateral margins without appreciable 
intervening angles, lateral angles rounded obtuse, caudo-lateral margins 
short, convergent arcuate, passing by definite but obtuse and rounded angles 
into the very low arcuate caudal margin; all margins of pronotum nar- 
rowly cingulate, slightly heavier laterad than elsewhere: surface of pro- 
notum with disk subdeplanate, appreciably declivent laterad. 

Tegmina elongate elliptico-lanceolate, greatest median width contained 
two and four-fifth times in the greatest length of same, apices surpassing 
that of abdomen by a distance nearly equal to the pronotal length: costal 
margin moderately arcuate in proximal two-fifths and strongly so in distal 
sixth, between nearly straight; apex narrowly rounded; sutural margin in 
large part nearly straight, very briefly arcuate proximad, much more ob- 
liquely arcuate in distal fourth to apex: marginal field of moderate width, 
its greatest breadth contained four and one-half times in the length of the 
field .-Hid equal To one-third the greatest width of the anal field, apex of 
marginal field distinctly failing to reach as far distad as the apex of the 
anal field; scapular field at widest point equal to two-fifths the total teg- 
minal breadth; anal field elongate subpyriform, its greatest length equal to 
two and one-sixth times its greatest width: mediastine vein nearly straight 
oblique, faintly inbowed in proximal half, ventrad markedly lamellato- 
elevate; costal veins twenty-three in number, including bifurcations as 
individual counts, oblique, straight, becoming sublongitudinal distad; hu- 
meral trunk appreciably arcuate in proximal half; discoidal sectors of all 
origins ten in number, longitudinal, the longer ones appreciably arcuate 
toward humeral trunk in their proximal halves; anal vein not at all sig- 

30 This would be about forty kilometers northwest of Kongolo, near the boundary 
of the Stanleyville and Katanga Provinces. The line is at approximately three hundred 
kilometers from Kindu. 



1937 J 



NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA 



45 



moid, the arcuation of the proximal half followed distad by a straight 
oblique section, which passes by a narrowly rounded but distinct obtuse 
angulation to a short straight distal portion, which joins the sutural margin 
at a right angle situated at two-fifths the length of the margin; axillary 
veins eight in number. Wings with apex of same outline as tegminal apex: 
costal veins of all origins twenty in number, six or so mesad very faintly 
thickened, in no sense clavate, all oblique, medio-humeral and medio-ulnar 
areas narrow, subequal in width, both divided by rather poorly marked 
cross-veins into rectangulate areolets, ulnar vein with six complete and two 
incomplete rami, all simple in character. 

Abdominal tergites two to six with caudo-lateral angles produced, 
progressively less marked from rounded acute (proximad) to subrectangu- 
late (sixth) ; seventh tergite with lateral margins distinctly subarcuate con- 
vergent distad, the caudo-lateral angles obtuse, distal margin as a whole 
concave, surface of tergite mesad impressed concave with glandular area 
almost hidden under sixth tergite, 31 bounded laterad by subparallel sub- 
longitudinal low rounded ridges, which near the distal margin are joined by 
similar but more decided oblique, straight convergent folds, which mark off 
relatively broad lateral areas which are subdeclivent and appreciably con- 
cave; eighth tergite almost hidden under seventh, its distal margin broadly 
concave; ninth tergite very short, its distal margin transverse truncate in 
median half, the caudo-lateral angles strongly produced, acute, the border 
of their internal side subsigmoid: ultimate tergite (supra-anal plate) pro- 
duced trigonal, the production roughly equilateral, the converging margins 
straight, apex blunt, very shallowly arcuatc-emarginate, surface at the 
proximal sixth with a transverse impression, production evenly decurved 
distad: ultimate sternite with its median exposed length but slightly greater 
than the proximal width, interstylar section produced in a slightly asym- 
metrical strongly arcuate lobation, the ventral surface of which is ovate 
deplanate to appreeibly proximad of the axis of the stylar sockets and as a 
whole contrasted with the evenly transverse arcuate more proximal portion 
of the sternite, the line between the two areas not at all sharply defined 
dextrad, but sinistrad the definition is by a subcarinate and arcuate ridge; 
sockets of both styles rectangulately incised in the margin of the sternite, 
tlic sinistral distinctly larger than the dextral; dextral style short, its length 
about three times its basal width, simple, tapering, virtually straight, sub- 
spiniform acute at apex, surface with a number of short chaetae; sinistral 
style an elongate clavate appendage many times the size of the dextral 
style, more slender at base than in distal three-fifths, moderately arcuate 
in proximal half, straight distad, when directed mesad extending across 
nearly three-fourths of the sternite's width, apex bluntly rounded and with 
several recurved teeth, the dorsal surface with the greater part of its length 
rather closely armed with similar recurved teeth and a few scattered elon- 
gate chaetae: cerci incomplete. 

Limbs moderately robust: cephalic femora with ventro-cephalic margin 
having thirteen spines in its series, from the three large distals evenly 
lengthening proximad until the four proximal ones are but slightly shorter 
than the third (from apex) of the distal group; ventro-caudal margin with 

31 The type being unique I have not endeavored to relax the abdomen in order to 
•ascertain more exactly the conformation of the gland area. 



Copyrighted material 



46 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [VOL. LXXXIX 



five spaced spines, increasing in length distad: arolia large; tarsal claws 
strongly unequal; caudal tarsi lacking. 

General color ochraceous-buff, pronotal disk slightly darker. Head 
with broad interocular bar of mummy brown, antennae becoming tawny 
mesad; palpi of general color; eyes dresden brown to mummy brown. 
Pronotum with a ghost lyrate pattern of darker muscle attachments; usual 
paired oblique dashes distinct, hooked latero-caudad, prout's brown. Dor- 
sum of abdomen largely mummy brown distad to sixth tergite, much paler 
mesad and narrowly edged laterad with dull tawny; seventh and more 
distal tergites dull zinc orange, the base of the ultimate tergite and virtually 
all of the narrow eighth and ninth approaching mummy brown; venter of 
abdomen kaiser brown mesad, laterad passing broadly to mummy brown, 
ultimate sternite (subgcnital plate) of the paler shade; cerci (as far as 
preserved) deep fuscous. 

Length of body, 15.1 mm.; length of pronotum, 4.11; greatest width of 
pronotum, 6.04; length of tegmen, 17; greatest width of tegmen, 5.87. 

The type of this most distinctive species is unique and the female sex 
not as yet known. 

Euandroblatta marshalli, <J new species. Plate 8, figs. 19-22. 

This species needs comparison only with the preceding one (E. clavi- 
gera), in the diagnosis of which will be found comments on the genitalic 
differences of the males of the two species. Marshalli, however, also differs 
from clavigera in its distinctly smaller size and more slender form, at least 
in the male sex, the female of the latter species not being known at this time. 

Type. — $ ; Salisbury, Mashonaland, Southern Rhodesia. January, 
1906. (G. A. K. Marshall.) [British Museum of Natural History.] 

Size relatively small (for genus): form elongate and slender, less robust 
than the other species, tegmina and wings elongate, surpassing apex of 
abdomen: surface distinctly polished. 

Head visible cephalad of pronotum for entire width as viewed from 
dorsum; in cephalic aspect the head outline is elongate cordiform, the 
greatest depth slightly greater than width across eyes (as 8.5 to 8), the 
exact half ventrad of the eyes with the lateral margins regularly and 
straight convergent to the narrowly rounded extremity of the labium: 
occipital outline as seen in cephalic aspect evenly arcuate with the curva- 
ture of the eyes; interspace between eyes equal to but slightly more than 
a third that between internal margins of antennal scrobes (as 1.2 to 3.3): 
palpi damaged: antennae lacking. 

Pronotum in general outline subtrapezoidal semi-ovate, its greatest 
median length contained twice in the greatest width, which is at caudal 
third: cephalic margin broadly arcuate, rounding laterad without delimit- 
ing angles into the obliquely diverging, but faintly arcuate lateral margins, 
which pass by the narrowly rounded lateral angles into the brief and sub- 

32 Dedicated to Sir Guy A. K. Marshall, Director of the Imperial Institute of 
Entomology, in appreciation of his entomological labors in Africa, which have helped 
so materially to increase our knowledge of the insect life of that continent. 

3:! See description of allotype. 



Copyrighted material 



1937] 



NATl'RAL SCIENCES OE PHILADELPHIA 



47 



arcuate, convergent caudo-lateral margins, these in turn virtually con- 
tinuous with the gently arcuate caudal margin: surface of disk broadly 
deplanate, laterad rather narrowly and but moderately declivent. 

Tegmina narrowly lanceolate, margins subparallel for a considerable 
part of the length, surpassing apex of abdomen by a distance appreciably 
greater than the pronotal length, greatest width contained nearly three and 
two-fifth times in the tegminal length: costal margin virtually straight 
except for the arcuation of the proximal fourth and of the distal fifth; 
apex very narrowly rounded; sutural margin with a brief proximal arcua- 
tion and a broader curve to the apex in the distal fourth, the remainder 
virtually straight: marginal field very narrow for the genus, its greatest 
width less than a sixth the length of the field (as 2 to 13) and two-sevenths 
that of anal field, apex of marginal field failing to reach as far distad as 
apex of former field; scapular field with width equal to slightly less than 
three-sevenths of total width of tegmen; anal field very slender and elon- 
gate, attenuate subpyriform in shape, its greatest width contained almost 
three times in the length of the field (as 3.5 to 10): mediastine vein distad 
of proximal sixth straight oblique; costal veins of all origins and characters 
nineteen to twenty-one in number, the more proximal ones distinctly 
arcuate; humeral trunk straight except for usual arcuation of proximal 
third; diseoidal sectors of all origins longitudinal in general direction, nine 
in number; anal vein nearly straight longitudinal in proximal third, then 
broadly and gently arcuate to an oblique, nearly straight section which by 
a short and relatively abruptly hooked falcation joins the sutural margin 
at two-fifths of the tegminal length; axillary veins closely placed, seven in 
number, as in diseoidal field with well-marked longitudinal intercalated 
nervures. Wings with apex well rounded; costal veins of all origins sixteen 
in number, non-clavate, a group of eight faintly thickened; mcdio-discoidal 
and medio-ulnar areas subequal in width, divided by cross-veins into 
numerous quadrate or rectangulate areolets; ulnar vein with four complete 
and one incomplete rami. 

Abdominal tergites two to six with the caudo-lateral angles moderately 
acute produced: seventh tcrgite longer than sixth, caudo-lateral angles not 
at all produced, subobtuse, distal margin low convex mesad, faintly and 
broadly concave each side of same; glandular impression occupying slightly 
more than half of the width of the more proximal part of the tergite, laterad 
the impression is markedly concave-excavate, while mesad it bears a trans- 
verse structure much as described for E. sclousi, but in the present species 
this is lower, more strongly transverse, much less excavate disto-ventrad, 
and lacks on its dorsum a medio-longitudinal cannula, while its thickened 
margin is subconcave when seen from dorsum; surface of tergite imme- 
diately distad of glandular area structure with numerous very fine sha- 
greenous points, the above mentioned concavities defining the glandular 
impression laterad are bordered laterad and caudad by converging low 
sigmoid swellings, which fail to reach the distal margin and cut off the 
relatively broad and subconcave lateral sections of the tergite from the 
central specialized area: eighth tergite relatively short, caudo-lateral angles 
rounded obtuse, lateral margins arcuate, distal margin arcuato-truncate: 
ninth tergite with exposed surface longer than that of eighth, caudo-lateral 
angles acute produced, lateral margins virtually straight, subparallel, distal 
margin convex mesad, concave laterad of the central section: ultimate 



48 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF 



[Vol. LXXXIX 



tergite (supra-anal plate) almost equilaterally trigonal, greatest median 
length slightly greater than half the proximal width of tergite between 
cereal bases, lateral margins of production in greater part straight oblique 
convergent, apex rather broadly rounded; surface of tergite shallowly im- 
pressed medio-longitudinally, in proximal half there are two closely placed . 
converging narrow sulci enclosing a low carinulate area, in distal half a 
single fine sulcus is indicated: ultimate sternite (subgenital plate* moder- 
ately asymmetrical, in general proportions transversely rectangulate, its 
greatest exposed length equal to five-eighths the greatest width, distal 
margin with an interstylar arcuate lobation, which is situated distinctly 
dextrad of the median line, the shape of the distal margin reading sinistrad 
from the disto-dextral angle being as follows — angle roundly lobate, the 
lobe subvertical in position, dextral stylar socket deeply excavate, arcuate- 
rectangulate in outline, thence sinistrad to the much broader and shallower 
sinistral stylar base extends the interstylar lobation of the margin which is 
equal to almost half the total width of the sternite, is evenly arcuate sinis- 
trad and arcuato-sinuate dextrad, a sinistral super-stylar supplementary 
lamellation present as in E. selousi but much less prominent than in that 
species, its distal margin subtruncate and lateral angle obtuse, its border 
with radiating short chaetae, but no teeth, disto-sinistral angle of margin 
of sternite arcuately sublobate as is disto-dextral but less produced; sur- 
face of sternite undulately subconcave in all of distal half between cereal 
bases; dextral style greatly elongate, slender, falcate, reaching sinistrad 
across distal margin to distad of extreme sinistral side of base of sinistral 
style, not at all clavate but of even width, at base quite sharply bent 
arcuate, thence broadly arcuate, apex subacute, in section most of the style 
is subcircular but appreciably deplanate proximad; sinistral style hardly 
more than half the total length of the dextral but of the size and general 
character found in a number of the other species of the genus, being directed 
mesad, gently arcuate, subdepressed, subequal in width in approximately 
two-thirds of its length, moderately tapering in distal third, apex bluntly 
rounded, dorsal margin of extensor face with a series of eight recurved 
spiniform teeth, the most distal close to the apex: cerci elongate, slender, 
tapering, little broadened, in an incomplete condition surpassing apex of 
ultimate tergite by at least the length of the latter. 

All limbs relatively slender. Cephalic femora with ventro-cephalic 
margin bearing sixteen spines, the sixth from the distal end the shortest, 
thence in both directions they regularly increase in length the largest proxi- 
mad subequal in length to the second from the distal extremity, the distal 
spine very long, slightly more than twice as long as the second, ventro- 
caudal margin with four spaced spines: cephalic tibiae quite slender, sub- 
equal in width except for brief proximal narrowing. Caudal tibiae much 
narrower than usual in genus: caudal tarsi with proximal article slightly 
longer (one and one-fifth times) than the remaining articles combined, 
pulvillus distad; tarsal claws unequal; arolia large. 

Allotype. — 9; Salisbury, Mashonaland, Southern Rhodesia. (G. A. 
K. Marshall.) [British Museum of Natural History.] 

The following features are those of noteworthy difference from the above 
description of the male (type). 



1937 j 



NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA 



49 



Size relatively small; form robust, much more so than general build of 
male, tegmina and wings relatively short, distinctly failing to reach the 
abdominal apex. 

Head with interocular space almost equal to three-fourths that between 
internal margins of antennal scrobes (as 2.6 to 3.6): palpi with extensor 
length of ultimate article equal to one and one-half times the same length 
of the penultimate article, in profile elongate subsecuriform; penultimate 
article short infundibuliform, its greatest distal depth equal to half of the 
extensor length; antepenultimate article straight, slender, its length equal 
to five-sixths of extensor length of ultimate article and its depth not quite 
equal to a fourth its length: antennae incomplete. 

Pronotum relatively narrower and more trapezoidally, less semi-ovate 
than in male, the greatest median length contained slightly less than one 
and one-half times in the greatest width of the same: cephalic margin 
more definitely delimited from the lateral margins than in male, a broadly 
rounded but still appreciable transition being evident, lateral margins less 
strongly oblique and slightly more arcuate than in male, caudo-lateral 
margins more distinctly convergent than in male and virtually continuous 
with the caudal margin, which itself is faintly obtuse-angulate mesad: 
surface of disk faintly more arcuate and more definitely cucullate laterad 
than in male. 

Tegmina failing to reach apex of abdomen by a distance equal to two- 
thirds the pronotal length, in outline elliptico-lanceolate with apex blunt, 
greatest width contained two and one-half times in the tegminal length: 
costal margin evenly arcuate throughout, rounding a little more strongly 
distad to the relatively broad apex; sutural margin distad of anal vein 
straight, toward apex like sutural rounding but a little more sharply, while 
usual proximal arcuation is distinct but brief, anal field section of this 
margin faintly arcuate: marginal field of but moderate width, its greatest 
breadth not more than one-fifth the length of the field and one-third that 
of anal field; scapular field with width equal to two-fifths that of entire 
tegmen; anal field of same general shape and character seen in male but 
less strongly attenuate, its greatest width contained two and two-fifth 
times in the length of the field (as 3.5 to 8.5): costal veins of all char- 
acters and origins nineteen in number; humeral trunk slightly arcuate in 
proximal two-thirds, discoidal sectors of all origins eight in number, in 
distal part longitudinal; anal vein in general contour as in male but less 
sharply hooked distad and joining sutural margin at a right angle very 
faintly distad of middle of margin; axillary veins as in male. Wings 
damaged in allotype. 

Abdominal tergites not at all distinctly produced caudo-laterad, surface 
of none glandularly specialized; distal margin of sixth tcrgite evenly con- 
cave, of seventh transversely weak bisinuate, the caudo-lateral angles 
obtuse, distal margin of eighth tergite transversely truncate, the caudo- 
lateral angles rounded obtuse; distal margin of ninth tergite faintly arcu- 
ate: ultimate tergite (supra-anal plate) low trigonal, the median length 
equal to three-eighths the proximal width, the lateral margins oblique sub- 
concave convergent, the apex with a shallow but very definite obtuse- 
emargination, the resultant low lobes rounded; surface of tergite concave 
excavate on each side of a median area: ultimate sternite (subgenital plate) 
broadly arcuate distad: cerci damaged. 



50 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF 



[Vol. LXXXIX 



Cephalic femora with fourteen spines in ventro-cephalic series: caudal 
tarsi damaged. 

General color of dorsal surface ochraceous-buff with a definite wash on 
the pronotal disk, occiput and most of the tegmina, except the marginal 
field and (in the male) the more proximal border section of the scapular 
field, of pale ochraceous-orange, the pronotal disk with very faint intima- 
tions of the oblique lines indicated at its cephalic border in most of the 
species of the genus; limbs (with coxae) and face as well as antennae (as 
remaining) and palpi ochraceous-buff; eyes mottled dresden brown to 
mummy brown; interocular bar prout's brown, sharply defined ventrad, 
blending dorsad. Abdomen with pale base color ochraceous-buff, faintly 
washed with zinc orange in male, on the dorsum this being limited to 
moderately broad lateral borders, distinctly broadening distad and reach- 
ing to disto-lateral angles of ninth tergite, disk of dorsum of abdomen of 
female almost solidly mummy brown, a median pale area on the three 
proximal tergites narrowing distad, the ultimate tergite solidly dark except 
for a pale distal section, male with the discal infuscation of the female 
represented by broad distad convergent bars which reach to the seventh 
tergite, fading on the lateral parts of the glandular area, the remainder of 
the apex of the abdomen pale; ventral surface in both sexes with broad 
pale borders extending distad to the cereal bases, these bordered mesad by 
mummy brown this paling in median area to hays' russet, the ultimate 
sternite of female, except for pale lateral borders, almost uniform mummy 
brown, in the male the ventral dark bars becoming obsolete on the sixth 
sternite, the whole median area is ochraceous-buff washed with ochraceous- 
orange; cerci of male (lacking in female) dull zinc orange. Limbs pale 
with tibial spines inclined toward tawny. 

Measurements (in millimeters) 



S , type . . . 
9 , allotype 







Greatest 


Length 


Greatest 


Length 


Length of 


width of 


of 


width of 


df body 


pronotum 


pronotum 


tegmen 


tegmen 


13.6 


2.85 


4.28 


15.2 


4.2 


13.2 


3.27 


4.78 


9 


3.61 



The type and allotype are all I have seen of this most striking and 
distinctive species. The sexes show the most pronounced sexual dimor- 
phism to be found in the genus. In the absence of further information it 
is not possible to make any estimate of the extent of its distribution. 

PANCHLORLNAE 
The Species of Leucophaea 
LEUCOPHAEA Brunner 
1865. Leucophaea Brunner, Nouv. Syst. Blatt. p. 278. 

1892. Rhyparobia Krauss, Zoolog. Anzeiger, XV, p. 165. (Based solely on 
maderae.) 

Genotype (by designation of Rehn, 1903 34 ). — Leucophaea maderae 
(Fabricius) [Blatta maderae], 

3* Trans. Am. Entom. Soc, XXIX, p. 282, (1903). 



1937] 



NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA 



51 



The genus Leucophaca is clearly of African origin, although its best 
known and most widely distributed species ( madi rae ) has been carried by 
commerce over a considerable portion of the tropical and subtropical world, 
where it is established as a domiciliary pest. However, as shown on a 
following page, under maderae, that species' distribution as of to-day is by 
no means universal over the warmer regions of the world, and may, with 
that of certain other blattids generally assumed to be circumtropical in dis- 
tribution, furnish interesting evidence on the historical side of man's un- 
witting agency in the spread of species which have acquired domiciliary 
habits. 

From the evidence of its relatively general occurrence in tropical Africa, 
and its much more localized distribution in many other portions of the 
tropics, taken with the associated presence of closely related species in 
portions of West Africa, I feel maderae had its origin in that territory, 
possibly in that portion usually spoken of as Upper Guinea. Slave ships 
in colonial times brought the species from the Guinea coast to the West 
Indies and coastal Brazil, where it is now common and general in occur- 
rence, although elsewhere in tropical America much more irregularly dis- 
tributed. 

I have before me material of six species of the genus Leucophaca from 
Africa, these probably representing all the known forms referable to the 
genus. Arranged in a linear sequence they show a transition from one 
extreme having a moderately deplanate pronotum with its latero-cephalic 
portions gently oblique declivent ventro-ccphalad, to an opposite one in 
which the whole pronotum is heavier, subcucullate and with its low arcuate 
disk passing regularly into the arcuate declivent latero-cephalic sections. 
The two extremes, on casual examination, appear very different, but a more 
detailed study of all the species shows very little which could be utilized as 
characters for further generic division. 

The order in which I would place the species is, thoracica (Kirbyl, 
puerilis new species, maderae (Fabricius), congicus new species, grandi.s 
(Saussure) and capelloi (Bolivar). The first mentioned represents the 
extreme with the more deplanate pronotal disk, while capelloi has the heavy 
subcucullate type. 

The following key is a purely artificial one, based in part on color char- 
acters, but should prove of service in differentiating the species now known 
which are clearly referable to the genus. A number of other species have 
been referred to Leucophaea (usually as Rhyparobia) by various authors, 
but more recent work has made evident their correct generic associations. 

1. Pronotum solidly pitch black. Tegmina markedly bicolored by con- 
trasted blackish areas on a pale ground, or at least areas of concen- 
trated blackish punctae producing a bicolored effect, in cither case one 
blackish group present distad in the ulnar field, another midway 
between that point and the apex. Body and limbs solidly blackish. .5 



52 



PKOCEEIHXGS OF THE ACADEMY 01' 



[Vol. LXXXIX 



Pronotum not solidly pitch black, its base color usually light, and always 
with a more or less evident lyrate pattern of darker maculations. 
Tegmina never solidly bicolored, anal area always lacking a large 
dark patch, the discoidal field showing with greater or lesser emphasis 
a multi-tessellate dark pattern on a pale group, never solid in its 
maximum intensification. Body and limbs almost invariably not 
solidly blackish 30 2 

2. Size smaller (length of prontum, 6.3 to 10 mm., length of tegmen, 

28.8 to 41) 3 

Size larger (length of pronotum, 12 to 13.2 mm.; length of tegmen, 
43.3 to 59.5) 4 

3. Average size smaller (length of pronotum. 6.1 to 7.6 mm.; length of 

tegmen, 28.8 to 35.2). Marginal field of tegmina narrower; anal field 
of same more elongate pyriform. Limbs proportionately shorter and 



Average size larger (length of pronotum, 8.3 to 10 mm.; length of tegmen, 
33 to 41). Marginal field of tegmina broader; anal field of same 
broader, more semi-elliptical, less pyriform. Limbs proportionately 



4. Interocular space broader. Tegmina with the area of the humeral trunk 

in large part washed with a longitudinal fuscous cloud, the areolation 
of the discoidal field more densely fuscous, clearly areolate, but less 
tessellate in appearance. Caudal tarsi with proximal article more 
elongate, equal to two-fifths of tarsal length. Ultimate tergite (supra- 
anal plate j of female broader, divided, marginally subtransverse crenu- 

lato-truncate congicus, new species 

Interocular space narrower. Tegmina with the area of the humeral 
trunk infuscate only in proximal portion, and then definitely marked 
and not at all clouded, the areolation of the discoidal field much less 
dense, contrastingly tessellate. 36 Caudal tarsi with proximal article 
stouter, equal to one-third of tarsal length. Ultimate tergite (supra- 
anal plate) of female narrower, roundly bilobate, marginally not at 
all subtransverse or crenulato-truncate grandis (Saussure) 

5. Pronotum distinctly deplanate, not transversely arcuate subcucullate. 

Tegmina with texture more delicate and membranous; blackish pattern 
of same of solid character, not concentrated punctae. . thoracica (Kirby) 
pPronotum not at all deplanate, transversely arcuate subcucullate. Teg- 
mina with texture heavier and more coriaceous; blackish pattern of 
same less solid, usually distinctly made up of concentrated punctae, 
the latter component elements always evident capelloi (Bolivar) 

It is not feasible at this time to attempt a comprehensive study of generic 
relationships of the genera contained in the Panchlorinae, and in conse- 
quence a full analysis of that type must await future study. It suffices to 
say, however, that Leucophaea is more nearly related to Nauphoeta — 

* 5 In rare intensive individuals of marlrrae the ventral surface is nearly solid 
blackish, but (his is by no means the norm of the species, and this condition is 
accompanied by the most intensive concentration of the blackish areolation of the 
tegmina seen in maderae. 

36 By recession this tessellation is occasionally sparser, weaker and less extensive 
than in other individuals. However, there is no possibility of confusion of such 
specimens with L. congicus. 



more robust 



puerilis, new species 



longer and more slender 



maderae (Fabricius) 



1937] 



NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA 



53 



similarly an African genus — than it is to Pycnoscelus, with which it is gen- 
erally associated. The interrelations of these genera, Panchlora, Pronau- 
phoeta, H eminauphoeta and the American Tribonium complex are by no 
means simple, and a true understanding of their affinity will be secured only 
after detailed study. Whether present generic lines in this group are natural 
or purely artificial also must be determined. 

Leucophaea thoracica (Kirby). 

1903. Rhyparobia thoracica Kirby, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., (7) XI, p. 404. 
L $ ; Ntunda, Shire River, Nyasaland.] 

Belgian Congo: Kiambi, Tanganyika-Moero District; July 20, 1911; 
(Dr. Valdonio) ; one male; [Mus. Belg. Congo]. 

Tanganyika Territory: Morogoro; 1912; (K. Schwarze) ; one male; 
[Dresden Mus.]. 

Southern Rhodesia: Umtali; January, 1932; I P. A. Sheppard) ; one 
male ; [ Transvaal Mus. | . 

Chopard 37 has already figured this species and called attention to the 
amount of variation occurring in the blackish markings of the tegmina. In 
the Kiambi male the two large blackish areas are completely separated on 
the sinistral (upper) tegmen, there being no connecting line of areolations, 
while the usual dextral blotch is completely absent from the dextral (under) 
tegmen. In the Umtali male both blotches are connected by a very definite 
and nearly (dextral) or quite (sinistral) solid group of areolations, narrower, 
however, than in the specimen figured by Chopard. The distal blotch on 
the dextral tegmen is, however, marked, but not more than half as broad 
as that on the sinistral tegmen. The proximal margin of the distal blotch 
is transverse truncate in the Umtali specimen and quite irregularly arcuate 
in that from Kiambi. 

The range of the species is now known to extend from the southwestern 
portion of Kenya Colony (Amala River, Sotik, and Lemek Valley, Nyanza 
District, both reported by Chopard in 1921) and eastern Katanga (Kiambi), 
Belgian Congo, south to Nyasaland (Shire River) and the eastern portion 
of southern Rhodesia (Umtali). 

Leucophaea puerilis, new species. Plate o. figs. 26 and 27. 

Closely related to L. maderae, of which at first glance the present species 
would appear to be merely a diminutive individual. A careful comparison, 
however, shows that, while puerilis is in general a replica of maderae, the 
two are quite distinct and that puerilis may be separated from the previously 
known species by its distinctly smaller size, the definitely narrower marginal 
field of the tegmina, the more elongate pyriform shape of the anal field of 
the same, and the proportionately shorter and more robust limbs. This 

:i7 Voy. de M. Babault dans l'Afrique Orient. Angl., Res. Scient.. Orth., p. 18, pi. 1, 
fig. 5, (1921). 



54 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [VOL. LXXXIX 

species is clearly an endemic West African close relative of maderae, thus 
pointing out the original home of the latter more widely distributed species. 
The distribution of puerilis, as shown below, covers a considerable portion 
of the West African region between the Ivory Coast and central Gaboon. 

Type. — $ ; Lower Ogowe River, Gaboon, French Equatorial Africa. 
[Hebard Collection, Type no. 1267.] 

Size (for the genus) relatively small; form as in L. maderae; surface 
texture somewhat more polished. 

Head for nearly its entire width visible cephalad of pronotum ; interspace 
between eyes with its least width less than that between ocellar spots. 

Pronotum in form and sculpture as in L. maderae, except that in propor- 
tions it is more strongly transverse and the lateral angles are slightly 
sharper; greatest width of pronotum equal to one and one-half times its 
median length. 

Tegmina in proportions slightly narrower and more elongate than in 
L. maderae, with the wings surpassing the apex of the abdomen by a distance 
equal to the length of pronotum, greatest tegminal width contained three 
times in greatest tegminal length; marginal field relatively narrow, its 
deplanate portion of more uniform width, and with the costal margin of that 
area distinctly less strongly arcuate than in maderae; anal vein less strongly 
arcuate and the anal field in consequence narrower and more longitudinal 
pyriform in shape. 

Genital features as in L. maderae. 

Limbs in their entirety stockier, more robust and proportionately shorter 
than in L. maderae, all the elements exhibiting this tendency; throughout 
the tibiae are proportionately broader and the tibial spines and spurs shorter 
and stouter. 

Allotype. — 9 ; same data as type. [Hebard Collection.] 
Differs from the female sex of L. maderae in the same features given 
above for the male. 

In coloration the present species is an exact duplicate of L. maderae, and 
a description of its color features would merely be a repetition of those of 
that very well known species. The same amount of recession and intensifi- 
cation of the pattern seen in L. maderae is to be found in L. puerilis, the 
cribrose pattern of the distal half of the discoidal field of the tegmina, the 
strength of the pencilling of the anal vein of the tegmina and the varying 
emphasis of the elements of the pronotal markings all are as in maderae. 

Measurements (in millimeters) 

Greatest Length Greatest 

Length Length of width of of width of 

of body pronotum pronolum tegmen tegmen 

L. puerilis 

$ , Dimbokro, Ivory Coast, 

paratypc 27.7 6.5 10.5 29.5 9.5 

S . Lolodorf, Cameroons, 

varaiype 34.3 6.S 9.9 30 10 



Copyrtghted material 



1937] 



NATURAL SCIENCES OE PHILADELPHIA 



55 



Mkasirkmknts (in millimeters) — (continual) 









Greatest 


Len ,r t li 


( Ireat i 




Length 


Lenpt h of 


width of 


of 


width 




of body 


pronotum 


pronotum 


t i" r inpn 


togim 


L. puerilis (continued) 












j£ T.nirnr f^ffnnrQ T?i\*oi» 
O * .LiUWtl UgUWc XYl\LI, 












1 _ > 1 1 \ t~\ t~\ 1 1 111 






1 1 


OLA 


i n o 


o . JjiiiiiiJiU eiiu, v^gowe i\i\ri. 














31.5 


7.2 


11.3 


31 


10.1 




30 


7.6 


12 


35.2 


11.7 


$ , Efulen, Cameroons, 












para type 


31 


6.9 


10 


28.8 


9.8 


9 , Lower Ogowe River, 














30.5 


6.3 


10 


30 


9.2 


$ . Lambarene, Ogowe River, 














27.8 


6.1 


9.2 


29 


9 


9 . Lambarene, Ogowe River. 














28 


6.5 


9.8 


30 


9.8 


L. maderae 












3 , Bit je, Cameroons 


38 


8.5 


12.7 


30 


11.4 


$ , Bitje, Cameroons 


41.3 


9.3 


14 JR 


39 


13.5 




36 


S.3 


13.5 


36.5 


12.2 




40 


10 


14.5 


41 


13.5 



In addition to the type and allotype 1 have before me the following adult 
specimens of puerilis, all of which may be considered paratypic: 
Liberia, one female; [U.S.N.M.]. 

Vicinity of Dimbokro, Ivory Coast, 1910; (Capt. Posth) ; one male; 
[Paris Mus.]. 

Duala, Cameroons; October, 1911; (von Rothkirch) ; one male. 
Lolodorf, Cameroons, February, 1925; (A. I. Good); one female; 
| ( 'arnegie Mus. | . 

Efulen, Cameroons; November 12, 1920; (H. L. Weber); one female; 
[Carnegie Mus.]. 

Lambarene, Ogowe River, Gaboon, French Equatorial Africa; 1911 and 
1913; (R. Ellenberger) , two males, one female; [Paris Mus.]. 

Samkita, Ogowe River, Gaboon, French Equatorial Africa; 1910; (R. 
Ellenberger) ; one male; [Paris Mus.]. 

" Congo " 1893; (Guiral) ; one male; [Paris Mus.]. 

An immature female individual from Flandria, Equator District, Belgian 
Congo; March 31, 1932; (R. P. Hulstaert); [Mus. Belg. Congo] is referred 
to L. puerilis on account of the limbs being heavier than in similar indi- 
viduals of L. maderae. It is also smaller than in the same stage of the 
latter species and has the cerci stouter proximad. 

It is evident that L. puerilis has a considerable distribution along the 
West African coast and certainly for at least a considerable distance inland. 



56 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF 



[Vol. LXXXIX 



Apparently it is a truly forest type occurring in both sections of the West 
African Forest Province. Whether the present records encompass all or but 
a part of the range of the species remains to be determined. It is evident, 
however, that L. puerilis is by no means as widely distributed in Africa as 
maderae. 

The only noteworthy feature of structural variation exhibited by the 
series is that in the male sex alone the interocular width varies individually 
from but little narrower than the distance between the ocellar spots, to an 
opposite extreme in which the interspace is but faintly more than half 
the same distance. Virtually the same fluctuation is seen to occur in series 
of L. maderae. 

Leucophaea maderae (Fabricius). Plate 9, fig. 28. 

1781. [Blatta] maderae Fabricius, Spec. Ins., I, p. 341. [Madeira Islands.] 
Canary Islands: Gran Canaria; September, 1894; one male, one female; 

[U.S.N.M.]. 

Senegal: Dakar; 1911; one male; [Paris Mus.]: 1907; (Walterlot) ; 
one female; [Paris Mus.]. No exact locality, 1900; (A. Chevalier); one 
immature individual; [Paris Mus.]. 

French Guinea: Region of Pita, Fouta d'Jalon; 1910; (H. Pobeguin) ; 
one female; [Paris. Mus.]. 

Sierra Leone: 1906; (E. Boullet), one female; [Paris Mus.]. 

Upper Volta: Region of Lobi; 1906; (Lieut. Greigert) ; one male; | Paris 
Mus.]. 

French Sudan: Shores of the Niger; 1888; (Tetuan) ; two immature 
males, one immature female; [Paris Mus.]. 

Ivory Coast: 1907; (A. Chevalier); one male; [Paris Mus.]. Vicinity 
of Dimbokro; 1910; (Capt. Posth) ; one male, one female; [Paris Mus.]. 

Dahomey: Vicinity of Zougou-Kuande, Upper Dahomey; 1908; (Lieut. 
Brot) ; two females; [Paris Mus.]. 

Cameroon's: Batanga; March and April, 1914; (F. H. Hope) ; one male, 
one female, two immature females; [Carneg. Mus.]. Lolodorf ; May, 1923; 
(A. L. Good) ; one female; [Carneg. Mus.]. Ebolowa; May 20, 1932; (H. 
C. Wing); one immature male; [Carneg. Mus.]. Bitje, Ja River; June, 
1909 (dry season) ; (Bates) ; five males, eight females, one immature male, 
one immature female. 

San Thome Island: Rio de Ouro; 1906; (Ch. Gravier) ; one male; [Paris 
Mus.]. No exact locality; one male, one female. 

Spanish Guinea: San Benito River; 1885; (Guiral) ; four males, four 
females, one immature individual; [Paris Mus.]. 

French Equatorial Africa ; Gaboon : between Lambarene and the sea ; 
1901 ; <E. Haug) ; one immature male; [Paris Mus.]. 



1937| 



NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA 



57 



French Equatorial Africa; Middle Conco: vicinity of Brazzaville; 
1907; IE. Roubaud and A. Weiss); one female; [Paris Mus.J. No exact 
locality; 1909; (J. dn Rouchct de Chazotte); one female; |Paris Mus.]. 
Region of N'Ten, Cameroons-French Congo boundary; 1907; (Caj>t. 
Cottes); one male, one female; [Paris Mus.J. Region of Ouesso, Sanga 
River; 1906; (Dr. J. Gravot) ; one immature male; [Paris Mus.]. 

Kabinda: January, 1933; (Mine. Gillardin), one male; [Mus. Belg. 
Congo | . 

Belgian Conco: Malela, Lower Congo District; July 5 to 8, 1915; 
(Congo Expedition; Lang and Chapin) ; twenty-eight males, forty-one 
females, twenty-eight immature individuals of both sexes; [A.M.N.H.]. 
Boma, Lower Congo District; June 11 to 18, 1915; (Congo Expedition; 
Lang and Chapin); one immature individual; | A.M.N.H.]. Mayumbe 
region, Lower Congo District; (Cabra) ; one immature female; [Mus. Belg. 
Congo]. Mushie to Leopoldville ; March, 1931 ; (Lieut. J. Ghesquiere) ; one 
male; [Mus. Belg. Congo]. Lukalela, Lake Leopold II District; one im- 
mature female; [Mus. Belg. Congo]. Bongo, Lake Leopold II District; 
(Cabra); one immature female; [Mus. Belg. Congo]. Moma, Equator 
District; 1928; one immature female; [Mus. Belg. Congo]. La Molenge, 
Ubangi District; January, 1930; (H. J. Bredo) ; one male; [Mus. Belg. 
Congo]. Buta, Uele District; 1925, 1926 and 1930; (R. Fr. Joseph) ; three 
immature males, one immature female; [Mus. Belg. Congo |. Bambesa, 
Uele District, 1930; (Leontovitch), two males, two females: September 25, 
1933; (Leferre), one female; [Mus. Belg. Congo]. Dingila, Uele District; 
June 20, 1933; (H. J. Bredo); two males; [Mus. Belg. Congo]. Avakubi, 
Kibali-Ituri District; one immature male; [Mus. Belg. Congo]. Maniema 
District; I Cuisimer ) ; one male; | Mus. Belg. Congo]. Lusambo, Sankuru 
District ; 1921 ; (Lieut. Ghesquiere) ; two females, one immature male; [Mus. 
Belg. Congo]. Lusuku, Lomami District; December, 1930; (P. Quarre), 
one immature individual; [Mus. Belg. Congo]. Kasai District; one imma- 
ture male; [Mus. Belg. Congo]. Kikole-Luena, Katanga District; Feb- 
ruary, 1930; (L. Courtois) ; one immature male; [Mus. Belg. Congo]. 
Kalassa; November 17, 1912; (Dr. J. Bequaert ) ; one immature male; [Mus. 
Belg. Congo]. 

Angola: N'Dalla Tando; December 29, 1908; one male, one female. 
Pico Avezedo; July 23 to 27, 1925; one female; [A.M.N.H.]. Chitau; 
August 1 to 12, 1925; one small immature individual; [A.M.N.H.]. 

Region of the Lakes: (Dr. Sagona) ; one immature male; [Mus. Belg. 
Congo]. 

Luanda Protectorate: Nakaunga; July 16. 1921: (C. B. Lankester) ; 
one female. 



58 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF 



[Vol. LXXXIX 



Kenya Colony: Elgon District; April to May, 1914; (Dr. Bayer) ; one 
immature female; [Mus. Belg. Congo], 

Portuguese East Africa: Inhambane; December 7, 1912; (K. H. 
Barnard) ; one male, one female; fSo. Afr. Mus.]. Masieni; August, 1924; 
(G. J. Davis) ; one male; [Trans. Mus.]. Lourengo Marques; February 17, 
1928; (C. VY. Howard); one female: 1911; (B. Paulas) ; one immature 
female; [So. Afr. Mus.]. 

Natal: Durban; September-October, 1907; (G. F. Leigh) ; two females; 
[Trans. Mus.]: May 18. 1914; one male; [Albany Mus.]. 

The above listed detailed records of the African distribution of this sup- 
posedly circumtropical species embrace more information on its occurrence 
in the continental Ethiopian Region than is contained in all the previously 
published literature. Although doubtless increasing its range steadily, this 
species is less generally distributed than is usually supposed, as is true of 
certain other widely dispersed domiciliary cockroaches. From quite exten- 
sive sections of the tropics we have but little or no information as to its 
occurrence, while in other areas it is almost anywhere. 

In my opinion the species is a native of West Africa, and its spread into 
portions of the New World by commerce was chiefly due to the slave trade. 
It is more generally distributed in the West Indies and in certain areas of 
Brazil than in other portions of the Americas, which would be the natural 
corollary of introduction dating back to the slave trade. 

At this writing we have no information on the species occurrence in 
either of the Rhodesias, Bechuanaland or any portion of the Transvaal. 
Similarly there is little bearing on its presence in northeastern Africa. The 
records of maderae from Madeira, the Canaries, Morocco, Andalusia, Spain 
and Corsica 38 are readily understandable as due to infiltration in colonial 
commerce with western Africa. From the East Indies past literature gives 
solely its occurrence in Java (Brunner 39 and Hanitsch 40 ) and in the Philip- 
pines (Brunner). 39 From the latter archipelago I have seen material taken 
at several localities. The species has also been taken on four of the 
Hawaiian Islands. 41 Its presence in Java and the Philippines can be ex- 
plained by accidental colonial introduction from Africa, either directly or 
secondarily from the Canaries or the western Mediterranean region, and in 
Hawaii by more recent transplanting, probably from the Philippines. The 
absence of the species from India, Australia, southern China and the greater 
part of Malaysia attests its non-endemism there. 

38 The collection of the Academy contains a male from Corsica, received from De 
Saussure. 

■""Nouv. Syst. Blatt., p. 283, (1865). 
••"Stett. Ent. Zeit., XCI, p. 191, (1930). 

41 All Hawaiian records summarized hv Hebard (Ocas. Papers Bern. Pauahi Bishop 
Mus.. VII, p. 334. (1922) ). 



Copyrighted material 



1937] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA 59 

Leucophaea congicus, new species. Plate g. figs. 23-25. 

In size equal to L. grandis, and in linear position between that species 
and L. maderae, but nearer the latter. From grandis it can readily be 
distinguished by the appreciably broader interocular space, the more evenly 
arcuate cephalic margin of the pronotum, the larger impressed discal 
pronotal pattern, the lack of a punctulate tegminal pattern and the pres- 
ence instead of a broad fuscous wash over much of the discoidal field of 
the tegmina as well as in the area of the humeral trunk, the proportionately 
longer caudal metatarsus, and the much broader, divided but quite abruptly 
subtransverse crenulato-truncate, instead of roundly bilobate, ultimate 
tergite (supra-anal plate) of the female. From L. maderae the present 
species can at once be separated by its far greater size, the absence of a 
punctulate tegminal pattern, and the more robust limbs, while in both of 
the females of congicus before me the pronotum has a general suffusion not 
seen in any of the large number of L. maderae here recorded. 

Type. — 9 ; Banana, District of Lower Congo, Belgian Congo. Septem- 
ber 15, 1909. (Congo Expedition; Lang and Chapin.) [American Museum 
of Natural History.] 

Size large; general form and surface texture much as in L. grandis except 
for the more transverse and more rugulosc pronotum. 

Head broad, but slightly deeper than width across eyes; least interspace 
between eyes hardly more than half that between antennal scrobes. 

Pronotum transverse, with greatest median length contained almost one 
and one-half times in greatest width of same, in shape sub-trapezoidally 
ovate; cephalic margin broadly arcuate between the lateral points of 
greatest width, weakly flattened dorsad of head: caudal margin inter- 
humeral ly very broadly and weakly obtuse-angulate; short caudo-lateral 
portions of margin nearly straight, moderately converging caudad from the 
quite definite but rounded point of greatest width to the weakly marked 
passage into the caudal margin, narrowly cingulate throughout: in trans- 
verse section the disk is moderately deplanate, appreciably declivent over 
the entire lateral areas; surface of pronotum with a weakly impressed and 
indistinct lyrate pattern essentially as in L. grandis but of larger size, 
texture of surface of pronotum impresso-punctulate on dorsum, laterad 
becoming finely and irregularly wrinkled, with definite transverse fold-like 
wrinklings in the vicinity of the caudal margin and dorsad of the head, in 
the latter area more delicately so than in the former, scattered over much 
of the surface of the entire pronotum are traces of a pattern of low small 
tuberculiform papillae, obsolete in some areas and clearly evident in others, 
and when so ranging from infrequent (intermarginally on lateral areas) to 
rather numerous and closely placed (supra-cervical section). 

Tegmina surpassing apex of abdomen by a distance equal to the pronotal 
length, their length equal to two and one-half times the greatest pronotal 
width, their width but slightly more than one-third their length; in form, 
shape of fields and venation the tegmina duplicate on a much larger scale 
those of L. maderae. Wings when in repose reaching to tegminal apices. 



GO 



I'lUHEEDIXOS OF THE ACADEMY OF 



| Vol. LXXXIX 



Ultimate abdominal tergite (supra-anal plate) broad, transversely sub- 
truncate, immediate margin weakly and irregularly crenulate, shallowly but 
decidedly V-emarginate mesad. Cerci tapering, apices acute, very briefly 
surpassing ultimate tergite. Ultimate sternite (subgenital plate) with form 
and details as in L. maderae. 

Limbs moderately robust, all the femora proportionately deeper and 
stockier than in L. maderae; tibiae of all limbs similarly more compressed 
and broader than in maderae; caudal tarsi moderately elongate, distinctly 
more so than in L. grandis and similar to those of maderae, caudal metatarsi 
approximately equal to two-fifths the total tarsal length, metatarsal depth 
contained nearly five times in that length, pulvillus extending virtually to 
the base (as in maderae). 

General color between buckthorn brown and dresden brown, the abdomen 
and limbs ranging from sanford's brown to chestnut, pronotal disk auburn to 
chestnut. Head pitch black with ocellar spots ochraceous-buff, clypeus and 
mandibles burnt sienna, antennae pitch brown. Pronotum weakly of the 
general color intermarginally between head and humeral angles, immediate 
margin pencilled with fuscous, in vicinity of caudal margin broadly washed 
transversely with fuscous, discal pattern but faintly indicated by slightly 
darker color. Tegmina along humeral trunk very broadly, and distad on 
anal vein finely, washed with fuscous, almost or quite entire distal half of 
discoidal field of tegmina broadly and conspicuously washed with the same 
color. Abdomen with distal extremity somewhat darker than remainder. 
Femora and tibiae with flexor and extensor surfaces, and tarsi washed with 
fuscous; spines chestnut, black tipped. 



9 . Banana. Belgian Congo. 

type 43 *- 12.2 19.3 49.3 18.6 

9 . Faradjc. Belgian Congo. 

paratype 56 13 20.2 55 19 

In addition to the type I have before me a female from Faradje, Uele 
District, Belgian Congo, taken January, 1913, by Land and Chapin, and 
belonging to the American Museum of Natural History. This individual, 
which differs in no essential features from the type, and also greatly extends 
the range of the species, I am indicating as a paratype. 

Leucophaea grandis (Saussure). 

1872. 1'lanchlora] grandis Saussure, Melang Orthopt., II, fasc. 4, p. 132, pi. 10, fig. 
46. [ 9 ; Sierra Leone.] 

Ivory Coast: Vicinity of Dimbokro; 43 in 1910; (Capt. Posth) ; one 
female; [Paris Mus.]. 

Gold Coast: Obuasi, Ashanti; March, 1916; (D. Rafferty) ; three males; 
[Carnegie Mus.]. 

42 Abdomen retracted. 

"Situated on the railroad into the interior, about 120 miles from the coast at 
Port Bouet. 



Mkasi hkmknts (in millimeters) 



bi ngl h !.< ngt h of 
nfbcxb pronotum 



( in atesl 
width of 
pronotum 



Length Greatest 
of width of 
tegmen tegmen 



Copyrighted material 



1937] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA 61 

* 

Cameroon's: Bitje, Ja River; one labelled June-July. 1909. dry season; 
(G. L. Bates) ; one male, two females, 44 one immature female. 

French Equatorial Africa: Middle Congo: Brazzaville; 1919; one im- 
mature female. 

Belgian Congo: Boma, Lower Congo District; (K. F. Achille) ; one 
male; [Mus. Belg. Congo). Lukula, Lower Congo District; April. 1930; 
(Dr. J. Stercke); two females, one immature male; |Mus. Belg. Congo]. 
Leopoldville, Lower Congo District; 1933; (A. Tinant); one immature fe- 
male; [Mus. Belg. Congo]. Kinshasa, Stanley Pool, Lower Congo District; 
April 11, 1929; (James P. Chapin) ; one male; |A.M.X.H.] Kwilu River, 
Kwango District ; 1929; (M"me. J. Tinant) ; one female; |Mus. Belg. Congo]. 
Equator District; (Verlaine) ; one female; [Mus. Belg. Congo]. Eala, 
Equator District; May 15, 1932; (H. J. Bredol; one female; | Mus. Belg. 
Congo]. Avakubi, Kibale-Ituri District; December o. 1909; I Congo Ex- 
pedition; Lang and Chapin) ; two immature females; [A.M.N.H.]. Ruindi, 
Kibale-Ituri District; July 20, 1931; (J. Wydaghl: one female; | Mus. 
Belg. Congo]. Camp six miles north of Kasenyi; Lake Albert, elevation 
2100 feet ; August 21, 1934; (George Vanderbilt Air. Exped.) ; one female, 
twenty immature individuals. Lake Bulero, Ruanda; July. 1927; (J. 
Leonard) ; one male; [Mus. Belg. Congo]. 

Uganda Protectorate: Kampala; (Ach. Baudit) ; one male, one imma- 
ture male; [Geneva Mus.]. Entebbe; October 10 and 29, 1928; (C. R. S. 
Pitman); two males, one female; [Hcbard Cln.]. Nimule to Murchison 
Falls; one male. 

Tanganyika Territory: Dar-es-Salaam ; November 6, 1920; (A. Love- 
ridge) ; two females; [M.C.Z.]. 

This large and striking species is now known to occur in a broad belt 
across central Africa, reaching from Sierra Leone (the type locality) to 
Dar-es-Salaam and Zanzibar. 45 Whether, as suggested by me in 1926, its 
occurrence at the last locality represents the recent extension of an otherwise 
West African species, remains to be determined. We have, however, no 
information on the occurrence of the species in East Africa except from 
point.- on the line of communication now linking the east coast with bake 
Tanganyika. The Uganda localities are readily explained by the West 
African influence there found strongly indicated. Except for the Upper 
Guinea records from Sierra Leone and the Ivory Coast and Gold Coast ones 
here given, " North Uganda " (Rehn, 1926) is the most northern region 
from which the species has been recorded. Kinchasa and Boma are the 
most southern localities from which it is known. 

44 One female has already been reported; Rehn, Arkiv for Zoologi, 18A, no. 18, p. 
16, (1926). 

^Sce Rehn, Arkiv for Zoologi, 18A, no. 18, pp. 16-17, (1926). 



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The twenty adult specimens now before me show an appreciable amount 
of size variation in both sexes, the extremes measuring (in millimeters) as 
follows: 









Greatest 


Length 


( ireatest 




Length 


Length of 


width of 


of 


width of 




of body 


pronotum 


pronotum 


tegrnen 


tegmen 




50.5 


13 


18.5 


53 


18.5 


<J , Bit je, Cameroon* 


46.5 


12 


17 


48.5 


17.5 


Z . Boma. Belgian Congo . . . 


41.5 4,1 


12 


18.5 


43.3 


17.2 




43.5 


12.2 


17.5 


52 


18 


55 


13.2 


19 


59.5 


20 



The Boma specimen stands apart from all the others seen in the shorter 
tegmina and wings. Apparently, however, this is purely individual, not 
approached by the male from Kinchasa, which geographically is more nearly 
comparable. The Boma specimen has been greatly discolored by grease, 
and efforts to restore its natural coloration have not been fully successful. 
In all the structural features of importance it is typical grandis. 

There is a very considerable degree of variation in the extent and depth 
of the dark brown pattern in this species. On the pronotum this is expressed 
by a thickening of the lyrate pattern lines and greater solidity of the larger 
maculations in the more intensively colored individuals. On the tegmina 
the usual partial pencilling of the anal vein ranges from almost entire ab- 
sence to heavily indicated on the distal two-thirds of the vein, while the 
multimaculate pattern of the distal three-fifths of the discoidal field fluctu- 
ates from a definite, yet very pale indication, to an opposite extreme in 
which this pattern is strongly indicated, deep and conspicuous, yet with its 
individual elements little more numerous than in the pale extreme. 

The Kasenyi female, recorded above, was taken in a field camp at light 
at night and kept alive in a bottle for some days, during which time it 
gave birth to twenty living young, which are listed with it. These offspring 
range in length from eight to ten millimeters, and in all well-developed 
styles are present. It is thus evident that Leucophaea, as Panchlora, bears 
living young, probably by the rupturing of a delicate membranous o<>theca. 
It is possible that this condition is more broadly developed in the Blattidae 
than generally supposed, and that a chitinous ootheea is not the rule in all 
of the subfamilies. 

Leucophaea capelloi (Bolivar). Plate g, figs. 29 and 30. 

1890. P[anchlora] capelloi Bolivar, Jornal de Sciencias Mathem. Phys. e Nat. 
Lisboa, (2), I, p. 78. 1$; Quango [=Cuango or Kwango River], northern 
Angola. 47 ] 

1908. Nauphoeta lurida Shelford, Deutsche Entom. Zeitschr., 1908, p. 126. t 9 ; 
Mpala, [Lakel Tanganyika [ , Moero-Tanganyika District, Belgian Congo].] 

46 Abdomen deflexed, actual body length somewhat greater. 

4 "See Rehn, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila.. LXXXV, p. 42, (1933), in discussion of 
Dcrocalymma silphoides, for comments on this locality as used by Capello and Ivens, 
whose material served as the basis of capelloi as well as D. silphoides. 



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(53 



Belgian Congo: Niangara, Uele District; November, 1910; (Congo Ex- 
pedition; Lang and Chapin) ; one male; [A.M.N.H.]. Dingila, Uele Dis- 
trict; June 20 (adult) and July 7, 1933; (H. J. Bredo and J. V. Leroy) ; one 
male, one immature female; [Mus. Belg. Congo]. Kafakumba, Lulua Dis- 
trict; April, 1933; (G. F. Overlaet) ; two males; [Mus. Belg. Congo]. 
Tshende-Mushyi River, Lulua District; February, 1932; (G. F. Overlaet); 
one male; [Mus. Belg. Congo]. Kapanga, Lulua District; 1931; (G. F. 
Overlaet); one immature male; [Mus. Belg. Congo]. Elizabethville, 
Katanga; one female; [Mus. Belg. Congo]. Luputa, Katanga; June 1930; 
(Ch. Seydel) ; one female; [Mus. Belg. Congo]. Kilometer 109 from Tenke 
toward Dilolo, Upper Luapula District, Katanga; April, 1932; (Dr. 
Ritschard) ; one female; [Mus. Belg. Congo]. 

Uganda Protectorate: No exact locality; 1909; (E. Brown); one 
female; [Hebard Cln.]. Mityana District; (C. H. Lankester) ; one female. 

The synonymy of lurida under capclloi is beyond question. The general 
build and color pattern of this species is unusually distinctive and unmistak- 
able. There is a superficial suggestion of Leucophaca thoracica Kirby in 
the contrast of pronotum and tegminal base color and maculations, but the 
pronotal shape and character, the tegminal texture and the areolation of the 
tegminal blackish pattern are quite different. 

In my opinion capelloi could not be placed in Xauphoeta without doing 
violence to the cohesiveness of that genus, which has a readily recognizable 
ensemble most difficult to define in words. It is clear, however, that Leuco- 
phaca and Nauphoeta are more closely related than would be assumed from 
the usual arrangement of these genera. 

The literature supplies no record of this species other than the two given 
in the above synonymy. These with the localities here presented show that 
the species is one of quite extensive distribution, which in large part encircles 
the Lower Guinea Forest District, and extends from Niangara in the 
Savanna region of the upper Uele, east to the north shore of Lake Victoria 
in Uganda, south to the western shore of Lake Tanganyika, and then west- 
ward across Katanga, Belgian Congo to northern Angola at the Kwango 
River. With but eleven exact localities to draw upon, a more detailed 
statement of the distribution is not possible. 

Notes on Panchlora and Provauphocta 
PANCHLORA Burmeister 

Four native species of Panchlora have been described from Africa and 
one presumably American form recorded as viridis Burmeister has been 
questionably reported from the Cameroons. Of the native species I have 
before me three, i. e. stolata Borg, vosseleri Shelford and stanlcyana Relm. 



64 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF 



[Vol. LXXXIX 



I have seen no material clearly referable to P. camerunensis Borg, 48 which 
was erected on the very dangerous basis of a single female. I say this 
advisedly, knowing from the experience acquired in handling large series of 
the American species of the genus, both in the field and in the laboratory, 
the variation there found within specific limits. Borg's camerunensis is 
stated to have an immaculate pronotum and the antennae are, apparently, 
unmarked with fuscous, while the distal portion of the tegmina is said to 
bear a number of blackish points. Aside from color there is nothing in the 
original description except size of any assistance in locating the species. 

Panchlora vosseleri Shelford. 

1908. Panchlora vosseleri Shelford, Jahrbiich. Nassauisch. Ver. Naturk. Wiesbaden, 
LXI, p. 38. [9 ; Amani, Tanganyika ("German East Africa").] 

Tanganyika Territory: Amani, Usambara Mountains; November 26, 
1926; (A. Loveridge) ; two males, one female; [M.C.Z. and A.N.S.P.]. 

Among the African species vosseleri can at once be recognized by the 
lateral black pencillings of the pronotum, which are still very definitely 
marked in these topotypic specimens which have been dried after alcoholic 
preservation. When compared with Stanley ana the male of vosseleri can at 
once be distinguished by the far longer, yet equally slender, styles of the 
ultimate sternite (subgenital plate), as well as the longer, narrower and 
more gradually tapering cerci of the same sex. In addition the caudal limbs, 
and particularly the tibiae and tarsi, are more slender and elongate in 
vosseleri. 

It is probably vosseleri is limited to the mountain forest area on the 
Usambara Mountains. As it is the sole truly East African member of an 
otherwise West African group, this is probably a relict condition which is 
mirrored in the distribution in the same territory of many other forms of 
life of West African affinity. 

Panchlora stanleyana Rehn. 

1931. Panchlora stanleyana Rehn, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., LXXXIII, p. 378, 
pi. 34, figs. 5-7. [ $ , 9 ; Bitje, Ja River, Cameroons (type locality) ; Aburi, 
Gold Coast; Mulange, Mityana and Entebbe. Uganda.] 

Sierra Leone: Bohol; May 16, 1925; (E. Hargreaves) ; one female; 
[B.M.N.H.]. 

Nigeria: Olokemeji, Ibadan; one female; [So. Afr. Mus.] : 1914; (J. C. 
Bridwell) ; one female; [U.S.N.M.]. 

Fernando Po: 1901; (L. Conradt) ; one female; [Paris Mus.]. 

French Equatorial Africa; Gaboon: one female; [Hebard Cln.]. 

Belgian Congo: Bumbuli, Lake Leopold II District; January, 1914; 
(Dr. J. Maes) ; one female; [Mus. Belg. Congo]. Bambesa, Uele District; 



"Bihang till K. Svenska Vet.-Akad. Handl., XXVIII, afd. IV, no. 10, p. 24, (1902) 
[ 9 ; Cameroons.] 



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NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA 



65 



June 16, 1933; (J. V. Leroy) ; one female; [Mus. Belg. Congo]. Stanley- 
ville; October 6, 1928; (A. Collart) ; one female; [Mus. Belg. Congo]. 

Uganda: Kampala; July 20, 1917; one female; [B.M.N.H.] . No exact 
locality, (R. Dummer) ; one female; [So. Afr. Mus.]. Najunga; July 5, 
1921 ; (C. H. Lankester) ; one male. 

These specimens have been compared with the original material. There 
is considerable size variation in the female sex at least, but the available 
series is too small to venture a statement whether this is individual or 
geographic. 

The present records considerably extend the known range of the species, 
carrying it westward to Sierra Leone, and southward almost to the Kasai 
River in the Belgian Congo. It thus is seen to cover in its distribution a 
large part of the West African Subregion. 

Panchlora stolata Borg. 

1902. Panchlora stolata Boir, Bihang till K. Svenska Vet.-Akad. Handl., XXVIII, 
afd. IV, no. 10, p. 23, taf. I, fig. 7. [ 9 ; Cameroons.] 

Nigeria: Calabar; (A. Good); March 15, 1921; two females; [Carneg. 
Mus.]. 

Fernando Po: 1901; (L. Conradt) ; one female; [Paris Mus.]. 

Cameroons: Efulen; October 11-November 8, 1922; (H. L. Weber) ; one 
male, one female; [Carneg. Mus.] . Lolodorf; February 1925. May 1, 1924; 
(A. I. Good) ; two males; [Carneg. Mus.]. 

French Equatorial Africa, Gaboon: Lambarene; 1911; (R. Ellen- 
berger) ; one male; [Paris Mus.]. 

French Equatorial Africa, Middle Congo: Nola; one male; [Paris 
Mus.] . 

Belgian Congo: Lumbi, Mayumbe, Lower Congo; June 9. 1925; (A. 
Collart); one male; [Mus. Belg. Congo]. Boma-Yanga. Lower Congo; 
October 14. 1912; (R. Verschueren) ; one female; [Mus. Belg. Congo]. 
Busira, Equator District ; June 26, 1906; (Waelbroeck) ; one female; [Mus. 
Belg. Congo]. Eala, Equator District; September, 1930; (D. P. Staner) ; 
one female; [Mus. Belg. Congo]. Upper Lopori, Lulonga District; May to 
June, 1927; (J. Ghesquiere) ; one male; [Mus. Belg. Congo]. Yambata, 
Bangala District; February-March, 1914; (De Giorgi) ; one female; [Mus. 
Belg. Congo]. Likimi, Bangala District; December 1927; (A. Collart); 
one male; [Mus. Belg. Congo]. Stanleyville; 1925; (Edg. Chardon) ; one 
female; [Mus. Belg. Congo]. Dingila, Uele District; January to March, 
1933; ( J. Urydagh) ; two males; [Mus. Belg. Congo]. Niapu, Uele District; 
January, 1914; (Lang and Chapin) ; one female; [A.M.N.H.]. Poko, Uele 
District; August, 1913; (Lang and Chapin); eight females; [A.M.N.H.]. 
Niangara, Uele District; November, 1910; (Lang and Chapin) ; two females; 
[A.M.N.H.]. Medje, Kibali-Ituri District, April and May, September 



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| Vol. LXXXIX 



20-24, 1910; (Lang and Chapin) ; two females; [A.M.N.H.]: April, 1914; 
(Dr. Christy): one female; [Mus. Belg. Congo]. Ipamu, Kasai District; 
August, 1922; (P. Vanderijst) ; one female; [Mus. Belg. Congo). Luebo, 
Kasai District; (D. W. Snyder); two females; [U.S.N.M.j. Luluabourg, 
Kasai District; one female; [Geneva Mus.]. Kamiama, Lomani District; 
1932; (R. Massart) ; one male, one female; [Mus. Belg. Congo]. 

Uganda Protectorate: Buamba Valley; July, 1921; (H. Hargreaves) ;. 
one female; [B.M.N.H.]. 

The above recorded series of this very sharply defined species shows the 
presence of considerable size variation, particularly in tegminal length. 
This fluctuation is apparently individual, the eight Poko females alone 
exhibiting a noteworthy range, as is also the case with two females from 
Calabar. The female from Fernando Po is small For thai sex, but the 
insular locality may to a degree be responsible for this, yet the minimum - 
sized female from the adjacent mainland of Old Calabar is, in most 
dimensions, even smaller. Again the male from the upper Lopori is the 
minimum seen for that sex, although other individuals from the adjoining 
districts of Equator and Bangala are of average size for the species. The 
following measurements (in millimeters) of these and others listed, graphic- 
ally present the size variability found. 





Length 


Length of 


Greatest width 


Length of 




of body 


pronotum 


of pronotum 


tegmen 


$ , Lolodorf, Cameroons 


12 


3.2 


4 


12.5 


S, Lolodorf, Cameroons 


11.5 


3.6 


4.4 


14 


S , Upper Lopori, Lulonga. 












10.4 


3.1 


3.86 


11.9 




15 


3.78 


5.87 


14.7 


9 , Calabar 


13.8 


4 


4.7 


14 


9, Calabar 


15.5 


II 


5.6 


17 


9 , Poko, Uele, Belgian Congo . . 


16 


4.5 


5.5 


15.8 


9 , Poko, Uele, Belgian Congo . . 


18 


5 


6 


19.7 


9, Medje, Kibali-Ituri. 












18.3 


4.4 


6.5 


21 


9, Medje, Kibali-Ituri. 












16.3 


5.3 


6 


20 



The pronotal form of both sexes of stolata is quite distinctive. 49 The 
interspace between the eyes varies very considerably in the female sex of 
stolata, ranging in the Belgian Congo series alone from subcontiguous (sepa- 
rated by .063 mm.) to separated by a distinct interspace (in width 
.168 mm.). 

In stolata the distal section of the discoidal field of the tegmina usually 
has an appreciable sprinkling of black atomaceous punctulations, apart from 
and much smaller than the typical black spots shown by Borg in his figure. 
While the antennae are usually uniformly pale, they sometimes are in part 

49 For a discussion of the structural features of the pronotum of this species, see- 
Rehn, Arkiv for Zoologi, 18A, no. 18, p. 17, (1926). 



i 



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67 



considerably darkened. In four individuals this infuscation extends from 
and includes article three to at least article nine, in another it is from article 
five, in eight from article eight, and in one it is from article ten. While 
starting abruptly this infuscation generally is progressively weakened distad. 

The range of stolata is now known to extend from Southern Nigeria 
(Calabar) across the Cameroons and the Belgian Congo to north of Lake 
Edward (Rehn, 1926) and Uganda (Buamba Valley), south to the Lower 
Congo, (Mayumbe and Boma-Yanga) and the Kasai (Luebo, Ipamu and 
Luluabourg) and the Lomami (Kaniama). On the island of Fernando Po 
it also occurs. It thus has much the same distribution as P. stanleyana, 
except that it is not known to range west of the Lower Guinea Forest Dis- 
trict and the contiguous portions of the flanking Ubangi-Uele and Southern 
Congo Savanna Districts."" While the future may show that stolata has a 
range equal to that of stanleyana, evidence of its presence in the Upper 
Guinea Forest and Savanna Districts is not at present available. 

PRONAUPHOETA Shelford 

1909. Pronauphocta Shelford, Deutsch. Entom. Zeitschr.. 1909. p. 020. 

Pronauphoeta viridula (Beauvois). 

1805. Malta viridula Beauvois. Ins. Rec. en Afriq. et Amer.. p. 182, Orth. pi. lb, 
tig. 3. rProbably 6 ; Kingdom of Oware [in present Nigeria].] 

Belgian Congo: Lisafa, Lulonga District; November, 1927; (Lt. 
Ghesquiere) ; one male; [Mus. Belg. Congo |. 

I have already discussed the synonymy and relationship of this species, 51 
and its relation to Gerstaecker's adusta and vitcllina. The present record 
is the first for the species from the northwestern Belgian Congo and connects 
the Ivory Coast, Gold Coast, Nigeria and Cameroons records discussed by 
me in 1933, with Giglio-Tos' record from Boko in the eastern Belgian Congo. 

The Lisafa male has been dried from alcohol and is completely decolored, 
as well as somewhat damaged, but comparison with Bingerville and Aburi 
individuals clearly establishes its identity. 

I 

«. 

On Species of the Genus Nauphoeta 

For the species of Nauphoeta we possess but a single serviceable key, 
that of Shelford published in 1908, 5 -' at which time he described six new 
species of the genus. The developments of the last quarter century and the 
evidence of the scries now before me, give to that work but a limited and 
relative usefulness, as in Shelford's mind there existed very decided uncer- 
tainty as to the limits of the genus, as well as those of the related genera 

50 See Chapin, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., LXV, p. 90, (1923), for the most 
modern map of the fauna! areas of the Ethiopian Region. 

siProc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., LXXXIV, pp. 458-459, (1933). 
Deutseh. Entom. Zeitschr., 1908, pp. 127-128, (1908). 



68 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [VOL. LXXXIX 



Leucophaea (= Rhyparobia of most authors) and Panchlora. Definite 
defects were his failure to properly place Gerstaecker's frenata, which I 
have recently been able to do from Gerstaecker's type material, 53 his rede- 
scription of true frenata as a new species (pulchra) , his confusion of frenata 
with fiexivitta of Walker, and his failure to recognize Panchlora brazzae of 
Bolivar as a Nauphoeta, when it was based on the commonest and most 
widely spread of the truly West African members of the genus. 

In 1909 Shelford 54 erected the genus Pronauphoeta, giving it a position 
intermediate between Nauphoeta and Panchlora and placing in it certain 
species which I have recently discussed quite fully, 55 largely from the evi- 
dence of the type material. In 1910, in attempting to draw a line between 
Panchlora and Nauphoeta Shelford 56 apparently overlooked his genus 
Pronauphoeta, and returned certain of the species, included in that genus 
when erected the previous year, to the genus Nauphoeta. The features 
given by him as diagnostic of Nauphoeta, in contradistinction to those of 
Panchlora, are but in part of value, although the two are natural and quite 
different assemblages, with Pronauphoeta occupying a position between 
them, as stated by Shelford when describing it. 

I have seen no Nauphoeta material which would be referable to the 
species described by Kirby as Rhyparobia pallescens? 7 but this is in all 
probability a Nauphoeta, and may be the same as either N. testacea Brunner 
or even N. invisa circumdata here described. Kirby's description, however, 
is so woefully superficial, stressing almost solely color features, it is im- 
possible to speak with certainty on this point. I have seen nothing having 
the " femora chocolate-colour or blackish, striped with yellowish white 
below ", as described by him. A critical examination of the type alone will 
determine whether these features have been unduly emphasized, and what 
the species' nearest relatives may be. 

The series now before me is probably the most representative lot of the 
genus Nauphoeta so far examined at any one time, and includes seventeen 
species and subspecies, of which seven are here described. Under other 
circumstances I would endeavor to present a dichotomous key to all of the 
species of the genus, but as in addition to the possibility above mentioned, 
I have not seen material of at least three of those described as new by 
Shelford and other authors (i. e. gestriana Saussure, minuta Shelford and 
bicolor Shelford), I should have to resort to compilation, a most unsatis- 
factory and often misleading method of key construction. Instead I shall 
limit myself to a few comments on the grouping of the species, from the 

- *8 Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., LXXXIV, p. 463, (1933). 
■ r >4Deutseh. Entom. Zeitschr., 1909, p. 620, (1909). 
w Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., LXXXIV, pp. 455-463. (1933). 
ssZool. Jahrb., Suppl. XI, heft 2, p. 108. 
m Ann and Mag. Nat. Hist., (7) XII, p. 377, (1903). 



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NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA 



69 



evidence of those before me, add the geographic and variational information 
on the previously known species as drawn from the series, and describe the 
new forms which have been recognized. 

The forms of the genus which I have examined fall naturally into three 
major species groups, — the Frenata Group, which embraces those having the 
ventral surface of the tegminal mediastine vein supplied on the eoastal side 
and in the marginal field with a series of strong, regular and spaced sub- 
pectinate rami, while the caudal femora have their ventro-caudal margin 
briefly but closely fimbriate; the Cinerea Group, with similar mediastine 
rami evident but much less marked, weaker, shorter and more irregular than 
in the Frenata Group, and no femoral fimbriation present ; and the Tcstacea 
Group, in which the tegminal mediastine vein is without rami on the coastal 
side, while the caudal femora have at most but a few scattered fimbriae on 
the ventro-caudal margin. 

The Frenata Group includes, in my conception of their linear arrange- 
ment, N. epilamproides Shelford, mombuttu new species, frenata Gerstaecker, 
batesi new species, elegans Shelford, occidentals (Fabricius), flexivitta 
(Walker) and procera new species. The Cinerea Group contains only the 
widely distributed cinerea (Olivier), while the Testacea Group comprises 
invisa new species, invisa circumdata new subspecies, silacea new species, 
testacea Brunner, sudanensis Werner, madecassa and heydeniana Saussure 
and idonea new species. 

All of the members of the Frenata Group are peculiar to the West African 
Subregion/' 8 and chiefly limited to the two districts of the Guinean Forest 
Province of that subregion, while of those of the Testacea Group, invisa, i. 
circumdata, silacea and testacea are similarly restricted to the West African 
Subregion, sudanensis occurs in the Sudanese Savanna and the Somali Arid 
Districts of the East and South African Subregion. while madecassa heyden- 
iana and idonea are Malagasy. Regarding the origin of the now eireum- 
tropical cinerea, it is difficult to speak with finality, but from the basis of 
distributional information available at this time, I feel its native home was 
East African as opposed to West African. This is in large part due to the 
paucity of information on its occurrence in West Africa, the complete lack 
of records of the species from most of the interior of Africa, and particularly 
that west of Uganda, and the rather numerous mainland East African 
records of its occurrence, these reaching from Egypt through the Sudan 
(here even in the huts of Shilluks) to eastern Tanganyika. The records 
from the Malagasy region, quite conceivably, may have been due to Arab 
vessels, which clearly furnished the medium for range extension of many 
adaptable insects before the day of the European in East African waters. 
The Portuguese may have been the means by which the species spread quite 

58 Using the faunal areas of Africa as mapped bv Chapin (Bull. Amer. Mus. Xat. 
Hist.. LXV, p. 90, (1932) ). 



I 



70 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [VOL. LXXXIX 

widely into the Xew World and the Orient, and from the latter subsequent 
movements into Polynesia and Australia logically followed. In South 
America the sole mainland records are Brazilian, or from a land settled by 
Portuguese, although elsewhere in the New World the species has been noted 
only in Spanish settled lands, certain of which (i. e. Mazatlan, Mexico and 
the Galapagos) were clearly reached from the westward. How much slave 
ships aided in the spread of Nauphoeta cinerca is less certain than in the 
case of Oxyhaloa buprestoides, which clearly owes its limited Xew World 
distribution (eastern Cuba) to the intermediary of slave ships. 59 

In connection with the present study I have examined 247 African 
specimens of the genus. 

Nauphoeta epilamproides Shelford. 

1908. Nauphoeta epilamproides Shelford, Dcutsch. Entom. Zeitschr., 1908, pp. 
123, 127, pi. II, fig. 7. [$, 9 ; Cameroons.l 

Camerooxs: Lolodorf; February 2 and March 3, 1924; (A. I. Good); 
two males, one immature male; [Carnegie Mus.]. Yaunde; May, 1923; 
one male; (Carnegie Mus.]. 

Belgian Congo: Lukolela, Lake Leopold II District; January 26, 1931; 
(James P. Chapin) ; one immature female; [A.M.X.H.]. 

While agreeing with the original description in all other respects, the 
above listed adult specimens have the coloration of the coxae and femora 
and the remainder of the limbs nearly uniform rufous, instead of the tibiae 
and tarsi being castaneous as described. The blackish lineation of the anal 
vein, while always marked, is more decided in the distal two-fifths than in 
the more proximal portion. 

In size the two Lolodorf males alone show a surprising range, which, 
however, is matched in other species of the genus. The dimensions of these 
specimens are as follows: length of body, 42 and 50 mm.; of pronotum, 10.8 
and 12.3; greatest width of pronotum, 16 and 18; length of tegmen, 35.5 and 
40.5; greatest width of tegmen, 15.5 and 16.5. 

The immature individuals are naturally referred with somewhat less 
certainty than the adults, but a check has been made of all available struc- 
tural features which could prove of assistance in placing them specifically. 
The limbs, as is the rule, are somewhat heavier than in adults, and the color- 
ation is much darker than in the adults, being a nearly uniform blackish 
maroon, paling to proofs brown on the limbs and the medio-proximal 
portion of the abdomen. The lateral sections of the distal margin of the 
ultimate evident tergite (supra-anal plate) are somewhat more sharply 
oblique subtruncate than in the adult males and round much more narrowly 
to the median emargination. 

These records are the first exact ones for the species, previously reported 
only from the Cameroons (without definite locality) and Spanish Guinea. 

"° Sec Rchn and Hebard, Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., LIV, pp. 290-291, (1927). 



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1937 J NATURAL 3CIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA 71 

Nauphoeta mombuttu, 00 new species. Plate g, figs. 31-33. 

A near relative of N. epilamproides Shelf ord, agreeing in general form, 
the distinctive tegminal structure, width of eye interspace and basic color 
features, but differing in the bivittate pronotum, the more solidly pencilled 
proximal portion of the humeral trunk of the tegmina, the dark banded 
abdominal sternitcs, as well as the generally darker tone of the tegmina and 
the very clear and definite, but irregularly distributed, buffy aspersions, 
which occur over the whole of the tegmina. 

Type. — 9 ; Medje, Kibali-Ituri District, Belgian Congo. July 17, 1910. 
(American Museum Congo Expedition; Lang and Chapin.) [American 
Museum of Natural History.] 

Size very large (for the genus) : form and surface as usual in Nauphoeta. 

Head with width across eyes but faintly less than depth of same, in out- 
line cordiform; interocular space equal to approximately one-fourth of width 
across eyes and three-fifths that between internal margins of the antennal 
scrobes; eyes little prominent, their outline but weakly marked off from the 
low arcuation of the occipital outline as seen in cephalic aspect; face sub- 
depressed; palpi with ultimate article very faintly longer than penultimate 
one, former compressed, subsecuriform, latter infundibuliform: antennae 
sub-equal to body in length. 

Pronotum in general outline trapezoid-ovatc, the point of greatest width 
at three-fifths the length, the latter equal to two-thirds the width: latero- 
cephalic and cephalic sections of margin arcuate between the lateral angles 
of greatest width, a very weak sinuosity of the margin dorso-laterad of the 
head breaking off a more strongly arcuate supra-cephalic section, lateral 
angles well rounded obtuse, brief caudo-lateral sections of the margin sub- 
arcuately convergent caudad, passing broadly into the weakly obtuse-angu- 
late caudal margin: surface with disk subdeplanate, obliquely and broadly 
rounding ventrad into the cephalad convergent, declivent lateral areas. 

Tegmina surpassing the apex of the abdomen by a distance equal to half 
the pronotal length, broad elliptico-lanceolatc, greatest width equal to two- 
fifths of the tegminal length, apex broadly rounded: costal margin evenly 
arcuate from base to broad apex: sutural margin sub-rect for a considerable 
part of its length, proximad briefly arcuate to the base and distad rather 
more broadly so to the tegminal apex: marginal field very broad, at broadest 
point (proximal fifth of tegminal length) nearly equal to one-half of pronotal 
length, dorsal surface longitudinally shallow concave, passing evenly into 
the slightly broader scapular field; anal field semi-ovate, broad, greatest 
width contained twice in the greatest length of field, the latter dimension 
equalling two-fifths of total tegminal length: regular costad directed rami 
of the heavy mediastine vein stout, numbering thirteen, 61 oblique, spaced, 
some bifurcate, hardly at all elevated on dorsum of tegmen but developed 
as strongly marked and elevated ribs on ventral surface of same; costal rami 
of discoidal vein crossing scapular field regular in disposition, slightly more 
longitudinal and less robust than the rami of the mediastine vein, twelve to 
thirteen in number, as evident from dorsal surface passing into the regular 

60 After the Mombuttu people of the northeastern Belgian Congo. 
01 In paratype eleven on each tegmen. 



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micro-areolate pattern of most of the tegmina, on venter much less conspic- 
uous and elevated than the strong mediastine rami; discoidal vein slightly 
sigmoid-sinuate; discoidal field with the sectors numerous and regular, 
slightly radiating, the intercalated false nervures generally three in number 
between each principal sector, connected by numerous, regular but not at 
all conspicuous cross-nervures, thus forming the very distinctive type of 
short-linear microareolation seen in this and numerous related species; anal 
veins arcuate, subangulate at its arcuation away from the humeral trunk 
and again briefly before it joins the sutural margin very slightly proximad 
of the basal third of the margin; axillary veins individually little evident 
in the general areolation of the anal field, which is similar to that of the 
discoidal. Wings equalling the tegmina in length. 

Ultimate evident tergite (supra-anal plate) relatively broad, lateral 
margins arcuate with the median emargination broad acute, its bounding 
angles rounded obtuse, the incision not penetrating deeper than one-eighth 
of the length of the plate, surface appreciably depressed within its margins, 
the lateral borders particularly upcurved. Ultimate sternite (subgenital 
plate) transverse trigonal in outline as seen from the venter, its greatest 
median length approximately twice the proximal width of the sternite; 
lateral portions of margin oblique convergent, regularly so except for broad 
but very shallow infracercal flexures, caudal angle of margin broadly 
rounded obtuse; surface of tergite in section transversely arcuate. 

Limbs moderately robust, femora all lacking spines on their ventral 
margins, tibiae with spines of extensor margins triseriately disposed: 
cephalic femora with ventro-cephalic margin having a regular series of 
fimbriae in distal half; median and caudal tibiae distinctively compressed; 
caudal tarsi with length of proximal article surpassing that of distal article 
by a distance equal to two-fifths of the same, pulvillus of proximal article 
extending proximad as a narrow strip very nearly to the ventral base of 
the article. 

General base color of head, venter, abdomen, limbs and pronotum rang- 
ing from ochraceous-buff to dull zinc orange, on the limbs sometimes (in 
type) becoming russet, and occasionally (in paratype) as pale as light 
ochraceous-buff on the head; base color of tegmina shading from clay color 
(type) or cinnamon-buff (paratype) proximad to cinnamon-brown (type) 
or bister (paratype). Head with a dark pattern, ranging from russet 
(paratype) to prouts brown (type), consisting of a broad interocular bar, 
with (paratype) or without (type) three fine lines continued upon the 
occiput, a narrower inter-antennal bar, ventrad of which the face may be 
lightly (paratype) or heavily (type) suffused with russet; palpi largely 
russet, paling proximad; eyes dresden brown mottled with bister; antennae 
mars brown. Pronotum with a pair of broad, convergent, lateral, inter- 
marginal bars of blackish fuscous, these meeting the caudal but narrowly 
failing to reach the cephalic margin, distinctly failing to meet cephalad 
(paratype) or there subcontinent (type). Tegmina with the humeral trunk 
distinctly pencilled with mummy brown, this narrowing distad and ceasing 
briefly proximad of the middle of the tegmen, anal vein completely but very 
delicately pencilled with the same; virtually the entire tegmina sprinkled 
with irregularly-sized, but always relatively small ochraceous-buff speckles, 
these almost absent from the anal field of the type but as conspicuous there 
as elsewhere in the paratype; normally covered portion of dextral tegmen 



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NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA 



73 



prouts' brown but with the usual ochraceous-buff speckles. Wings prouts' 
brown. Abdomen with the individual sternites broadly bordered caudad 
with deep fuscous, the ultimate sternite (subgenital plate) not margined but 
with a discal clouding of the same shade; cerci fuscous; ultimate evident 
tergite (supra-anal plate) with proximal half fuscous, the margin may 
(type) or may not (paratype) be narrowly bordered with the same, a pair 
of fine, closely-placed medio-longitudinal dark lines crossing the pale por- 
tion of the tergite. Tibial spines, much of the adjacent portion of the tibiae 
and tarsi very deep chestnut brown. 

Mkasuremexts (in millimeters) 

Greatest Length Greatest 

Length Length of width of of width of 

of body pronotum pronotum tegmen tegmen 

Medje, type 46 11.5 17 42.5 17.5 

Faradje, paratype 46.8 12 17 43 18.8 

In addition to the type I have before me a paratypic male taken at 
Faradje, Uele District, Belgian Congo, January, 1913, by the American 
Museum Congo Expedition (Lang and Chapin), and now in the collection 
of the Academy. The few noteworthy features of difference from the type 
have been brought out in the above description. 

Nauphoeta frenata Gerstaecker. 

1883. Nauph\octa~\ frenata Gerstaecker. Mitth. Xaturw. Ver. Neu-Vorpomm. und 
Riigen, Greifswald, XIV, p. 67. I 9 ; Limbareni (= Lambarene), Ogowe River, 
Gaboon. 1 

1906. Nauphoeta pulchra Shelford, Dentsch. Ent. Zeitschr.. 1908, pp. 126. 127. 

[ 9 ; between Lambarene and the sea. Lower Ogowe, Gaboon. 1 
1933. Nauphoeta frenata Rehn, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila.. LXXXIV, p. 463. 

[Notes from Gerstaecker's type, and establishment of synonymy.] 

Belgian Congo: Djamba, 62 Uele District; December 1924; (G. F. do 
Witte) ; one female; [Mus. Belg. Congo]. 

The present specimen is referred to frenata although it is much paler and 
less strongly marked than Gerstaecker's type, the Lambarene topotype, both 
of which I have already examined, or Shelford's type of palchra. 

The antennae are uniformly pale, there is no dark interocular bar, the 
tarsi are pale and the tibial spines brownish, while, the pronotal dark bars 
are greatly reduced in length and emphasis, not meeting cephalic or touching 
either the cephalic or caudal margins. These bars are so reduced in the 
Djamba individual they are merely well-pencilled, obliquely divergent sub- 
sigmoid, relatively narrow lines, their greatest diagonal length not exceeding 
one-half the medium length of the pronotum. The caudal margin of the 
pronotum is, however, distinctly pencilled with blackish between the points 
at which the lateral bars usually join this margin, while the distal palpal 
article shows no infuscation. The pencilling of the humeral trunk is quite 



02 Djamba is on the Rubi River about twenty-one miles in an air-line down-stream 
from Buta. Approximate position. 24° i& E., 2° 52' N, 



74 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF 



[Vol. LXXXIX 



distinct and reaches to the middle of the tegmen, as described by Gerstaecker, 
while that of the anal vein is similarly evident. 

Although Borg has recorded frenata from the Cameroons and Shelford 
credits it to Spanish Guinea, the latter author had previously confused 
jrenata with flexivitta, and one or both of these records may refer to the 
latter species. The present specimen definitely extends the range of frenata 
very materially to the eastward, and points to a broad area of specific dis- 
tribution within, at least, the Lower Guinea Forest Subprovince. 

Nauphoeta batesi, (i3 new species. Plate o, figs. 34 and 35. 

A near relative of both frenata Gerstaecker and elegans Shelford, agree- 
ing with both in the lateral dark bars of the pronotum and the blackish 
pencilling of the humeral trunk and the anal vein of the tegmina. From 
frenata it is slightly more divergent than from elegans, having a more atten- 
uate and not as stocky a form, and differing specifically in the larger size, 
more deplanate, more transverse and less vaulted pronotum, which also has 
the lateral angles less rounded, the dark lateral bars on the pronotum 
broader and less sharply outlined, not joined ccphalad, and the caudal 
margin of disk without a blackish pencilling, the interspace between the eyes 
narrower, the tegmina more elongate, and the limbs slightly more slender. 
From elegans, to which it is probably more nearly related, the present species 
can be separated by the smaller size, the proportionately larger pronotum, 
the distinctly broader, proportionately shorter and distad more broadly 
rounded tegmina, which also have the costal margin evenly arcuate, and not 
sinuate as in elegans, in the blackish pencilling of the humeral trunk reaching 
distad of the apex of the anal vein and to at least the middle of the tegmen 
(as is also found in frenata), in the lateral sections of the distal margin of 
the ultimate tergite of the female being oblique convergent to the median 
incision (as in frenata) instead of regularly arcuate as in elegans. 

In general appearance batesi stands directly between frenata and elegans, 
being less stocky and more deplanate than the former, with an identical 
tegminal pattern, and shorter, broader and less attenuate and " panchlorine " 
than the latter. 

Type. — $ ; Bitje, Ja River, Cameroons. (G. L. Bates.) [Academy of 
Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, Type no. 5540.] 

Size medium; general form, as seen from dorsum, elongate elliptical. 

Head in outline as seen in cephalic aspect broad cordiform, the greatest 
width across eyes subequal to depth of head, face subdeplanate mesad: 
least interocular width, which is ventrad of the occipital line, contained three 
and seven-tenth times in the greatest width across the eyes and but slightly 
more than one-half the width between the internal margins of the antennal 
scrobes; occipital line slightly more strongly arcuate than the even curvature 

03 Dedicated to Mr. George L. Bates, in recognition of his studies on the zoologv 
and zoogeography of West Africa. 



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NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA 



75 



of the eye outline as seen in cephalic aspect: palpi with ultimate article very 
faintly longer than the penultimate article, subsecuriform; penultimate 
article rather broadly infundibuliform. 

Pronotum in outline ovate-trapezoidal, greatest median length contained 
about one and half times in greatest width of same, the latter at two-thirds 
of the pronotal length: cephalad of the lateral angles the marginal outline 
of the pronotum is broadly and evenly arcuate, lateral angles rather 
narrowly rounded, brief latero-caudal sections of the margin shallowly arcu- 
ate and passing by a very weakly indicated juncture into the very broadly 
and shallowly obtuse-angulate caudal margin: surface of disk relatively 
deplanate, laterad roundly oblique declivent, this cephalad weakly embrac- 
ing the sides of the head. 

Tegmina elliptico-lanceolate, greatest width, which is at middle of 
length, equal to slightly less than two-fifths of the tegminal length: costal 
margin arcuate, more strongly so proximad and distad than in median three- 
fifths of margin; apex broadly rounded; sutural margin nearly straight, very 
faintly arcuate, more distinctly so proximad and distad, broadly passing into 
the apex: marginal field relatively broad, its width equal to one-third of the 
pronotal length, surface oblique, very shallowly concave longitudinally; 
scapular field at broadest point slightly wider than marginal field; anal 
field semiovatc, broad, greatest width contained two and one-fourth times in 
greatest length of same area: mediastine vein with its regular oblique rami 
little evident from dorsum, but well elevated and conspicuous on ventral 
surface, ten to twelve in number, several bifurcate; rami of discoidal vein 
crossing scapular field few and little evident in the general micro-areolation 
of the area, more longitudinal than the rami of the marginal field, not at all 
conspicuous on the ventral surface; discoidal vein slightly sigmoid; discoidal 
field with the sectors at least sixteen in number, slightly radiating, the gen- 
eral areolation very dense and of the type discussed under .V. mombuttu; 
anal vein, as in momlnittn but the angulate emphasis less definite, joining the 
sutural margin at its proximal third; axillary veins no more conspicuous 
than discoidal sectors, eleven evident, micro-areolation as in discoidal field. 
Winers equalling the tegmina in length. 

Ultimate evident tergite (supra-anal nlate) subtrapezoidal. with the 
lateral sections of the margin slightly caudad convergent, passing by verv 
broadly rounded caudo-latcral angles into two distal, strongly convergent, 
almost transverse suberect sections separated a median rectangulate emargi- 
nation: ultimate sternite relatively deplanate, broad lateral sections of the 
margin shallowly sinuate convergent and rounding to a narrow median 
truncate apex; cerci tapering, apices rather slender, briefly surpassing ulti- 
mate tergite. 

Limbs slender for the genus: femora with ventro-cephalic margin of 
cephalic and ventro-caudal margin of caudal pair closely fimbriate and 
ventro-caudal margin of median pair with a few scattered hairs, other 
margins without vesture, all unspined; median and caudal tibiae distinctly 
compressed; caudal tarsi with proximal article surpassing length of distal 
article by a distance equal to one-fourth the length of the former, pulvillus 
of proximal article extended proximad as a narrow strip. 

Base color of head, pronotum and tegmina ochraceous-buff, darkening to 
clay color on the limbs and abdomen, the coxae (particularly caudal) washed 
proximad with dresden brown, the abdominal sternites transversely bordered 



76 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [VOL. LXXXIX 

distad with the same, the limbs approaching ochraceous-tawny ; tibial spines 
russet, tipped with fuscous. Head broadly barred transversely between the 
eyes with prout's brown, a much narrower, less definite or complete band 
of the same between the antennal bases as well as three transversely disposed 
spots on the lower face; palpi becoming prout's brown distad; antennae 
russet to mars brown except for the two proximal articles which are largely 
pale; eyes blackish fuscous. Pronotum with a conspicuous pair of broad, 
caudad diverging almost solid bars of cinnamon-brown to mummy brown, 
which laterad border the disk, and extend from near the cephalic margin, 
which they narrowly fail to reach, to the caudal margin, which they broadly 
join immediately dorsad of the tegminal bases, the caudal margin between 
the bars narrowly pencilled on the cingulum of the same with the dark color 
of the bars; disk between the bars as well as the areas laterad of the same 
virtually immaculate. Tegmina with proximal half of humeral trunk and 
anal vein finely but sharply pencilled with fuscous; occasionally (paratype) 
the base color of the tegmina is finely nebulose with a darker wash, ap- 
proaching pale dresden brown. 

Mea.siremknt.s (in millimeters) 

Greatest Length Greatest 

Length Length of width of of width of 

of body pronotum pronotum tegmen tegmen 

9. Bitje, type , 34.6 8.6 12.8 31.5 12 

9 , Ganda Sundi, paratype 35 9.2 13.4 33 13.2 

In addition to the type I have before me a female, considered paratypic,. 
from Ganda Sundi, Mayumbe, Lower Congo District, Belgian Congo, taken 
by de Briey, and from the collection of the Museum of the Belgian Congo. 
This individual shows no features of noteworthy difference from the type 
except the few mentioned above in the color description and that of size 
indicated in the above measurements. The specimen is slightly less sharply 
contrasted in coloration, due to the pale base of the tegmina being less uni- 
form and more nebulose than in the type, but a similar range of tone is seen 
in a number of the species of the genus. 

Apparently batesi ranges from near the mouth of the Congo northward to 
the Southern Cameroons, while its eastward limit is unknown. 

Nauphoeta elegans Shelford. 

1908. Nauphoeta elegans Shelford, Deutseh. Entom. Zeitschr., 1908, pp. 124, 127. 
[ $ ; Cameroons.] 

Cameroons: Lolodorf; May 28, 1927, September, 1925 and 1926; (A. I. 
Good); two males, three females; [Carn. Mus.]. Batanga; March, 1914; 
(F. H. Hope) ; one female (lacks alar organs) ; [Carn. Mus.]. 

Belgian Congo: Ukaika (Forest); 64 December, 1910; (Grauer) ; one 
female; [Mus. Belg. Congo]. 

64 Ukaika is apparently a very small village within the forest at its eastern edge, 
fifty kilometers west of the old post of Beni on the Semliki River (see Sassi, Annalen 
K.-K. Naturh.-Hofmus. Wien, XXVI, p. 347, (1912) ). It does not appear on any map 
I have seen, and I am indebted to my friend Dr. James P. Chapin, for calling my 
attention to Sassi's indication of its position in his report on Dr. Grauer's bird 
collections. 



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This species is a much more slender and elongate type than these which 
have already been discussed, in its general form bearing more resemblance 
to testacea, which, however, belongs to another group of the genus. 

The internally notched character of the pronotal bars, mentioned by 
.Shelford, is found in all five individuals, while the blackish pencilling of the 
humeral trunk of the tegmina always stops at a point which is no more 
distad than the juncture of the anal vein with the sutural margin. The 
shape of the tegmina suggests Leucophaea or Pronauphoeta, but the char- 
acteristic herring-bone like costad ramification of the tegminal mediastine 
vein, found in the species of this group of the genus, is very regularly and 
strongly developed. 

Marked individual size variation occurs in the species, as the following 
measurements (in millimeters) show: 

Greatest Length Greatest 
Length Length of width of of width of 
of body pronotnm pronotuin tegmen tegmen 

6 , Lolodorf 40 9.5 14.5 42 13.2 

9, Lolodorf 42 5 9.2 13 42.5 11.9 

9 , Lolodorf 44 10 14.7 47 15 

9, Ukaika 38.5 9.2 13.7 42 — 

The only previous record, except that of the type, is of its occurrence 
in Spanish Guinea (Shelford). The Ukaika individual is fully typical and 
•carries the range of the species across the West African Forest Province to 
its eastern border. 

Nauphoeta flexivitta (Walker). Plate io, figs. 44 and 45. 

1868. Pcriplanela flexivitta Walker, Catal. Blatt. Brit. Mus., p. 133. I $ ; Congo.] 
1890. Panchlora brazzac Bolivar. Anal. Soc. Espan. Hist. Nat., XIX, p. 303. t 9 ; 

Region of the Congo.] 
1899. Nauphoeta discoirfalis Saussure, Abhandl. Senckenb. Naturf. Gesell., XXI, p. 

582. I 9 ; Boma Suna [— Sundal, (Belgian Congo.).] 

Fernando Po: 1901; (L. Conradt) ; two females; [Hebard Cln.]. 

Cameroon's: Batanga; March and April, 1914; (F. H. Hope) ; two males, 
•one female; [Cain. Mus.|. Lolodorf; March 29, 1920, (A. I. Good); one 
female; [Cam. Mus.]. Metet; 6 " May 31, Aug. 19, 1919. Nov. 6, 1918; 
(A. I. Good); one male, two females; [Carn. Mus.]. Ebolowa; (H. C. 
Wing); one male. Bitje, Ja River; April and May, 1909 (rainy season). 
June and July, 1909 (dry season) ; (G. L. Bates) ; eight males, twelve 
females, three immature males, three immature females. 

65 Tegmina curled so that exact width cannot be accurately measured. 

06 Dr. Kahl of the Carnegie Museum, has been kind enough to inform me that this 
locality, which I had been unable to locate on charts, is a large mission station two 
hundred miles east of Kribi, and a number of miles east of Sangelima (=Fulasi). This 
position would be in the general neighborhood of the Upper Ja River, on which Bitje 
is situated. 



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French Equatorial Africa (Gaboon): Lambarene, Ogowe River; 1911- 
1913; (R. Ellenberger ) ; two males, one female, [Paris Mus.]. No exact 
locality; one female; [Geneva Mus.]. 

French Equatorial Africa (Middle Congo): Brazzaville, 1909; (G. 
Benard); one male; [Paris Mus.]. Vicinity of Brazzaville; 1907; (E. 
Roubaud & A. Weiss), one immature female; [Paris Mus.]. Region of the 
Upper Ivindo, tributary of Ogowe River; 1906; (Dr. .1. Cavot and Capt. 
Cottes) ; one female; [Paris Mus.]. 

Belgian Congo: Moanda, Lower Congo; August 26, 1920; (Dr. H. 
Schouteden I ; one female; [Mus. Belg. Congo). Malela, Lower Congo; July 
5 and 8, 1915; (Lang and Chapin) ; two females; [A.M.N.H.J. Ganda 
Sundi, Mayumbe, Lower Congo; September 23 and 25, 1920; (Dr. H. 
Schouteden); one male, one female: (De Briey) ; one male; [Mus. Belg. 
Congo]. Kisantu, Lower Congo; (R. P. Van Wing) ; one male, one female, 
one immature female; [Mus. Belg. Congo]. Mangembo, Lower Congo; 
1931; (Dr. Zwolakowski) ; one female; [Mus. Belg. Congo]. Lukolela, left 
bank of Congo River. Lake Leopold II District; Jan. 21, 1931; (J. P. 
Chapin); one immature male; [A.M.N.H.]. Moma, Equator District; 
1928; (Molin) ; one female; [Mus. Belg. Congo]. Boende, Equator Dis- 
trict; March 4, 1920; (A. P. Hulstaert) ; one male; [Mus. Belg. Congo]. 
Yacoma, Ubangi District; one male; [Mus. Belg. Congo]. Yambata, 
Bangala District; February-March, 1914; (DeGiorgi) ; three males, one im- 
mature female; [Mus. Belg. Congo]. Sokoloko, Bangale District; 1929; 
(Mine. Babclou) ; one female; [Mus. Belg. Congo]. Barumbu, Aruwimi 
District; August, 1925; (Lt. J. Ghesquiere) ; two males; [Mus. Belg. Congo]. 
Panga, Aruwimi District; 1926; I Eng. Bock I ; one female; [Mus. Belg. 
Congo]. Bambesa, Uele District; September 16, 1932 and March 9, 1933; 
(J. Vrydagh) ; two females; [Mus. Belg. Congo]. Dungu, Uele District; 
1912; (M. Hutereau) ; one female: (DeGreeff); one female; [Mus. Belg. 
Congo]. Ekibondo's Village, between Niangara and Dungu, Uele District; 
September 27-October 3, 1934; (Vanderbilt African Exped. of 1934. J. A. G. 
Rehn) ; nine males, nine females, two immature females. Faradje, Uele 
District; January, 1913, March-April, 1911, November 1912; (Lang and 
Chapin) ; three males, two females; [A.M.N.H.] : June, 1919; (Blommaert) ; 
one male, one female; [Mus. Belg. Congo]. Dingila, Uele District; June 
20, 1933; (H. J. Bredo) ; one female; [Mus. Belg. Congo]. Stanleyville; 
August 1909; (Lang and Chapin); one male; [A.M.N.H.]. Bafwaboli, 
Stanleyville District; September 12, 1909; (Lang and Chapin) ; two males, 
four females; [A.M.N.H.]. Medje, Kibale-Ituri District; April 1, 1914; 
(Dr. Christy); one male; [Mus. Belg. Congo]. Leverville, Kwango Dis- 
trict; 1928; (Mme. J. Tinant); one male; [Mus. Belg. Congo]. Idiofa, 
Kasai District; 1923; (Lobart); one immature male; [Mus. Belg. Congo]. 



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Ilebo, Kasai District; (A. Ehcrny) ; one female; [Mus. Belg. Congo]. 
Lucbo; (D. W. Snyder); one male, three females, 12 immature individuals 
of both sexes; [U.S.N.M.]. Luluabourg; (P. Callewaert); two males, one 
female; [Mus. Belg. Congo]: two females; [Geneva Mus.]. Kapanga, 
Lulua District; November, 1932; (G. F. Overlaet) ; one female; [Mus. Belg. 
Congo]. Kabinda, Lomami District; (Dr. Schwetz) ; one female; [Mus. 
Belg. Congo]. Kisala, Tanganyika-Moero District; October 14, 1920; (Dr. 
H. Schouteden) ; two females; [Mus. Belg. Congo]. Elizabethville,. 
Katanga; July 13; one female. ''Region of the Lakes"; (Dr. Sagona); 
one female; [Mus. Belg. Congo] . Kissenyi, Ruanda District ; April 2, 1924 ; 
(Van Saceghem) ; one male; one female; [Mus. Belg. Congo]. Lake Bulero, 
Ruanda District; September 1927; (J. Leonard), one female; [Mus. Belg. 
Congo]. Huhengeri, Ruanda District, August, 1933; one male; [Mus. Belg. 
Congo]. 

Angola: N'Dalla Tando; Dec. 29, 1908; one female. 

The synonymy given above has been established only after a very care- 
fully study of the literature, supplemented by a comparison by Dr. Uvarov 
of material of the species as here understood, with the types of Walker's 
fiexivitta. As to the general warrant of the synonymy I would refer the 
interested student to the extent of the material on which the conclusions 
have been based, and the comments made below on the variability of the 
species. 

Dr. Uvarov's notes on the original material of fiexivitta are, in part, as 
follows: "The types are two females, very similar in all details, collected 
by Andrew Curror, R. X. Surgeon and presented to B[ritish] M[useum] by 
Dr. Richardson in 1843. They are labelled simply ' Congo ' and no further 
details are available as to locality, but it appears probable from the collec- 
tor's profession that they were taken on the coast of West Africa " [very 
probably the Congo estuary or the nearby kingdom of Congo in northern 
Angola]. " Pronotal pattern consists of two well-defined sublateral dark 
stripes as in your more narrowly marked specimens; the stripes join anter- 
iorly. . . . Proportions of palpal joints are: 10(?): 23: 21:24. Propor- 
tions of posterior tarsal joints (measured along upper edge as seen in lateral 
view): 47:10:10:5:32, (last joint not including pulvillus or claws). Sculp- 
ture of elytral subcostal veins on ventral side — no appreciable difference 
from your specimens. Abdominal pattern very light brownish, similar to 
that in your specimens." 

Dr. Uvarov has also called attention to the fact that the eyes in the 
types are more broadly separated than in the specimens of the same sex 
sent for comparison, but this feature shows some individual variation in 
the rather ample representation before me. Similarly he notes, and shows 
in several sketches, some difference in the outlines of the ultimate tergito 



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| Vol. LXXXIX 



and the ultimate sternitc. These apparent variations can be met in the 
series of the species before me, containing as it does material preserved in 
different ways. The chitin of these parts almost invariably contracts and 
twists in specimens dried from alcohol, thus producing different outlines 
from those seen in individuals normally dried without immersion. 

There is a fair amount of individual size variation in each sex, caused 
chiefly by fluctuations in the tegminal length. This is evident in females 
from a single locality, such as those from Fernando Po, Metet, Bitje, 
Bafwaboli, Ekibondo's Village, Dungu and Faradje, but especially in the 
case of the last-mentioned place, where the extremes show 27 and 30.5 mm. 
as the tegminal length in individuals of approximately the same body bulk. 

The most noteworthy size variation seen, however, is geographically 
correlated. This is the uniformly small size of the specimens from the Lake 
Kivu and Ruanda District, those from Lake Bulero, Ruhengeri, and 
Kissenyi, Ruanda and the " Region of the Lakes " being far smaller than 
the others of that sex listed above. 

The female labelled " Region of the Lakes " and that from Lake Bulero. 
Ruanda have body lengths of but 25 and 27 millimeters respectively, while 
the same dimension of the tegmen similarly shows 18 and 20. The Kissenyi 
female is slightly larger than that from Lake Bulero, but is still far smaller 
than the average female from the greater portion of the species' distribution. 
The Ruhengeri male is, however, by all odds the smallest individual of the 
species which I have seen, the body measuring but 20 millimeters in length 
and the tegmen 15.6, as against 29.5 and 25 respectively for an average- 
sued male from Ekibondo's Village. . This quite depauperate type of the 
species also has in both sexes a distinctly broader interocular area, while 
its general form is as a whole less attenuate, broader and the alar organs 
may or may not quite reach to the base of the ultimate tergite. The broader 
interocular area is clearly but a correlated part of the general broadening 
of the form in these individuals from the Ruanda area. 

I feel this depauperation, with its correlated structural differences, is 
merely an expression of peripheral attenuation, the species in this area hav- 
ing reached the most eastern point from which it is known, and a district 
in which its preferred forest habitat is greatly restricted and progressively 
giving way to a grassland environment. We do not know flexivitta from 
localities lacking at least fair areas of forest of the West African type, 
and, as with other forms of similar propensities, the restriction of this 
habitat as found in Ruanda could clearly be the cause of this depauperation. 
At this time I do not feel we have a geographic subspecies worthy of nom- 
inal recognition, as our evidence is still too scanty and points more to 
depauperation than progressive evolution. 



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The feature chiefly responsible for the synonymy given above is the 
extent to which the pattern of the pronotum varies. This ranges from one 
extreme in which the lateral, cephalad converging, dark bars are sharply 
and definitely outlined, generally but not invariably connected cephalad, 
and with the inclosed pale disk unmarked, the yellowish borders laterad of 
the dark bars also clear and unmarked. This extreme, which is not 
common, is found in the Moanda, Malela, Ganda Sundi, Barumbu, Lever- 
ville, Boende and Dingila representation, and closely approached by several 
from Ekibondo's Village. By the progressive development of a dark arab- 
esque or sublyriform pattern in the pale disk, and by the increasing em- 
phasis of a sublongitudinal dark line in the yellowish lateral borders, the 
bilineate type of pattern becomes less definite, until in the intensive extreme 
the whole pronotal disk is dark fuscous with a much restricted symmetrical 
pale pattern of commas and dots, while the pale lateral areas are almost 
completely bisected longitudinally by a dark fuscous bar. The intensive 
extreme of the present series is a female from Ganda Sandi, from which 
locality we have one of the most typical recessive individuals (a male). 
A female from Lolodorf and that labelled " Gaboon " very closely approach 
the Ganda Sundi extreme. The face pattern remains essentially the same 
through the whole series, the dark areas merely being a shade darker in 
the more intensive individuals. The greater part of the individuals before 
me represent conditions connecting the two extremes, and a series like that 
from Bitje has virtually all the intermediate steps in the passage from one 
to the other. 

Except for the references given above in the synonymy the literature is 
almost barren of information on the distribution of this West African Forest 
Province type. The single record not there included is one of its occurrence 
in " East Africa ", given by Shelford 07 on the basis of a specimen so 
labelled included with material taken by the Mecklenburg expedition. This 
is doubtless one of the Grauer specimens which were labelled in that fashion, 
and many of which were included in the same series of other orthopterous 
families. These specimens beyond question did not come from East Africa 
in the proper use of the name, but instead from some portion of the region 
of the Great Lakes. From the material now in hand it is evident flerivitta 
ranges from the Cameroons, and the related island of Fernando Po, eastward, 
to at least the extreme upper Uele basin, and the Lake Kivu region of 
Ruanda south to the lower reaches of the main Congo, the Kasai and into 
Katanga at least as far as Elisabethville. It also occurs in northern Angola 
and probably enters Uganda, but definitely seems to be absent from the 
Upper Guinea district, there being replaced by guineensis and testacea. 



°- Wi.ssen, Ergebn. Deutsch. Zent.-Afr.-Exp. 1907-1908, III, Zool. I, p. 503, (1912). 



82 



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Nauphoeta occidentalis (Fabricius). 

1793. [Blatta] occidentalis Fabricius, Entom. Syst., II, p. 7. ['' Americae Insulis" 

(probably Island of San Thome, West Africa). 08 ] 
1872. Nauphoeta guineensis Saussure, Mem. Soc. Phvs. Hist. Nat. Geneve, XXIII, 

p. 133, pi. X, fig. 47. [ $ ; Guinea.] 
1903. Rhyparobia rufipes Kirby, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., (7) XII, p. 377. [ $ ; 

Sierra Leone.] 

French Guinea: Nzo; 1910; (A. Chevalier); one immature female; 
[Paris Mus.]. 

Liberia: Mount Coffee; March, 1895; one male; | U.S.N.M.]. 

Ivory Coast: Vicinity of Dimbokro; 1911; (Capt. Posth) ; one immature 
female; [Paris Mus. J. 

Gold Coast: Aburi; 1912-1913; (W. H. Patterson); one female; [Brit. 
Mus. Nat. Hist. J. 

Dahomey (Middle): Plateau of Zaguamulo; "season of tempests and 
tornadoes", 1910; (P. Ducorps); one immature male; [Paris Mus. J. 

The synonymy of rufipes under occidentalis was established by Shelford 
in 1908 (vide infra) from an examination of Fabricius' type, and that of 
guineensis has been made evident by the specimens now before me. Fab- 
ricius' occidentalis was said by him to have the pronotum " atro, margine 
omni pallido punctisque duobus baseos fulvis," while rufipes, according to 
Kirby, has the " pronotum black, with a narrow pale yellow border running 
all round." Saussure's guineensis was described and figured as having a 
dark, completely pale bordered pronotum with a pale lyrate pattern on 
the disk. It is evident from both Fabricius' and Kirby's descriptions they 
refer to entities with the pronotal disk black, completely circled marginally 
with yellow, the black disk in one said to have in addition two pale fuscous 
basal puncta. Shelford's synonymy indicates that in his opinion this exists 
as variation within the species, and that the pronotum, aside from the 
margin, may be solidly black or provided with fulvous puncta. 

The present material, even though quite limited, fully supports Shelford's 
conclusions, and demonstrates to my satisfaction that the pale pronotal 
pattern may, in the opposite (recessive) extreme from that described by 
Kirby as rufipes, develop the complicated fulvous lyrate pattern of the 
disk which has been well figured by Saussure when describing guineensis. 
The specific identity of these color types seems unquestioned, particularly 
as other features of color pattern, which in numerous species are more 
fundamental and less responsive to variational tendencies, such as the face 
pattern and that of the venter of the abdomen, are the same in both types. 

The occiput, aside from narrow pale juxta-ocular margins, and the 
greater portion of the face ventrad to the clypeal suture always solidly 

68 See discussion by Shelford (Trans. Entom. Soc. London. 1907, p. 468, (1908) ), and 
Rehn and Hebard (Bull. Aracr. Mus. Nat. Hist., LIV, p. 255. (1927) ), as to the labelling, 
of the type and identity of the island from which it was secured. 



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mummy brown to fuscous, is separated by a transverse inter-ocellar bar of 
antimony yellow to clay-color, while the dark comma-like dashes present 
laterad in most of the abdominal sternites, each in a semi-elliptical area 
of antimony yellow to ochraceous-buff, are very definite specific features, 
found in both of the adults now before me, and stressed by both Saussure 
and Kirby. The pale juxta-ocular lateral borders to the dark occiput are 
hardly indicated in the intensive Mount Coffee male, but very distinct in 
the female from Aburi. 

The Aburi individual is very similar to that on which Saussure founded 
gnineensis, having a complicated lyrate pale pronotal pattern. The Mount 
Coffee male is in the extreme intensive condition, similar to the type of 
rufipes. 

Of the immature individuals two are in the instar preceding maturity, 
while that from Nzo is in the next younger one. The color pattern of the 
immature condition very closely resembles that of the same stage of N. 
flcxivitta, i. e. largely blackish fuscous, bordered with orange-ochraceous to 
zinc orange or golden yellow. In immatures of occidentalis the cephalic 
and caudal pale marginings of the pronotum are broader, particularly latero- 
caudad, while the head is basically blackish fuscous without more or less 
evident indications of a pale inter-ocellar cross band, as in flcxivitta. 

On the basis of available information the distribution of occidentalis is 
known to extend from Sierra Leone (type of rufipes) and Liberia eastward 
to the Gold Coast (Aburi, reported by Gerstaeckcr in 1883 and Rehn in 
1933), and very probably the island of San Thome, (type of occidentalis). 
The species seems to be limited almost entirely to the Upper Guinea Forest 
Subprovince, and there replace and be complementary to N. fiexivitta of the 
Lower Guinea Forest Subprovince. 

Nauphoeta procera, new species. Plate 9, figs. 36 and 37. 

A near relative of N. flcxivitta, but superficially much suggesting a very 
long winged individual of N. cinerea, from which, however, the strongly 
developed marginal rami of the mediastine vein of the tegmina will at once 
separate it. 

From flcxivitta the present species can at once be distinguished by the 
more elongate, narrower form, the broader intcrocular space, the propor- 
tionately smaller pronotum, which has a pattern suggesting cinerea, the 
proportionately more elongate and narrower tegmina, which in both sexes 
appreciably surpass the apex of the abdomen, by the fewer (six to seven) 
regularly spaced rami of the mediastine vein of the tegmina, and the prox- 
imally less robust cerci. 

Type. — 9; Obuasi, Gold Coast. March, 1916. (Dr. Rafferty.) 
[Academy of Natural Science of Philadelphia, Type no. 5545.] 



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Size medium (for genus) ; form relatively elongate and slender, tegmina 
and wings ample, in repose both appreciably surpassing apex of abdomen; 
texture of tegmina subcoriaceous. 

Head broad cordiform, greatest width across eyes subequal to depth of 
head, face distinctly deplanate, rather narrowly but evenly rounding dorsad 
to inter-ocular region and laterad to subtumid infra-antennal areas; occipital 
width between eyes equal to three-fifths that between internal margins of 
antennal scrobes, in cephalic view the occipital arcuation is seen to be dis- 
tinct from and not continuous with the broadly arcuate eye outline, the eyes 
hardly at all prominent: palpi with ultimate article equal in length to one 
and two-fifth times that of penultimate, in profile the former is elongate 
subreniform, the penultimate moderately infundibuliform, the antepenulti- 
mate article quite stout, straight except for a short proximal arcuation, its 
length subequal to that of ultimate: antennae but little shorter than body. 

Pronotum of the usual Nauphocta type, in outline subtrapczoidal, great- 
est width, which is at three-fifths the length, equal to faintly more than 
one and one-half times the length; cephalic margin truncato-arcuate, nearly 
as broad as head, rounding laterad into the slightly arcuate, strongly oblique 
divergent lateral margins which extend to the rather marked but obtuse 
lateral angles, these passing into short, sharply caudad converging and 
nearly straight caudo-lateral margins, these evenly blending into the broad, 
transverse, very weakly mesad produced caudal margin: in transverse 
section the disk is distinctly and broadly deplanate, declivent lateral areas 
proportionately narrow, cephalad more sharply deflexed and closely fitting 
about the sides of the head. 

Tegmina in repose surpassing apex of abdomen by a distance equal to 
slightly less than half the pronotal length, in shape elongate lanceolate, 
greatest width, which is at three-fifths of length, faintly greater than one- 
third of the tegminal length: costal margin lightly arcuate in proximal 
third, thence distad almost imperceptibly sigmoid to the distal fifth, from 
which point it broadly rounds into the semi-ovate apex; sutural margin 
nearly straight for most of its length, proximad briefly arcuate and distad 
passing by a broader arcuation than the costal to the apex: marginal field 
of moderate width, the latter contained two and one-half times in that of 
anal field, the broadest portion of the scapular field slightly wider; anal 
field in outline semi-ovate rather than subpyriform: prominent oblique rami 
of the mediastine vein six to seven in number, regularly spaced, those distad 
more longitudinal than the more proximal ones, evident but not elevated on 
dorsal surface, distinctly ribbed and elevated on ventral surface; scapular 
field crossed by eight to eleven sublongitudinal rami; major rami and inter- 
calated nervures of the discoidal field but slightly different in emphasis, 
three intercalated nervures between each true ramus, all closely connected 
by a large number of cross-nervures, producing a multitude of areolae, 
usually rectangulate distad but much smaller and more cribroso-areolate 
proximad; anal vein regular in its arcuation; areolation of anal field similar 
to that of proximal third of discoidal field but all longitudinal venational 
elements stouter and less clearly separable into axillary veins and inter- 
calated nervures, apparently ten being axillary veins. Wings in repose 
reaching to tegminal apex. 

Ultimate tergite (supra-anal plate) with production broadly arcuate, 
mesad its margin being rather broadly and shallowly obtuse-angulate emar- 
ginate, dorsal surface of tergite subconcave, free margin, as a whole very 



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briefly setulose: ultimate sternite (subgenital plate) quite broad, its median 
length less than a third the proximal width, margin areuate but slightly on 
each side ventrad of the cerei, its median fourth very weakly produced and 
shallowly emarginatc on median line, the margin there very slightly deflexed 
but in no way compressed: cerci surpassing ultimate tergite, regularly taper- 
ing, exposed proximal width equal to one-third of exposed length, subde- 
pressed, apex -lender, moderately setose. 

Femora with ventral margins unspined, caudal pair with ventro-caudal 
regularly and closely setulose, ventro-cephalic of cephalic femora in distal 
two-thirds similarly but more delicately supplied, the median femora on 
ventro-caudal margin with a very few spaced setae: cephalic femora rela- 
tively stout, distinctly compressed, dorsal and ventral margins equally arcu- 
ate; caudal femora, while larger proportionately, less robust than median, 
ventral margin, straighter than the moderately arcuate dorsal one: caudal 
tarsi with proximal article one and one-half times as long as distal. 

Allotype. — 9 ; Mount Coffee, Liberia. May, 1894. [United States 
National Museum. | 

The following features are solely those of noteworthy difference from the 
above description of the female sex (type) : 

Head with interocular width between eyes broader, equal to seven-tenths 
that between internal margins of antennal scrobes, in cephalic view the 
occipital outline is less distinctly separated from that of eyes. 

Pronotum as in male, but cephalic margin is more definitely low arcuate 
and the caudal margin is slightly more produced and as a whole very broadly 
and roundly obtuse-angulate. 

Tegmina in repose surpassing apex of abdomen by a distance nearly 
equal to the pronotal length. 

Ultimate tergite (supra-anal plate) with greatest proximal width slightly 
greater than twice median length, general outline, form and marginal con- 
dition as in female but dorsal surface with a definite but low medio-longi- 
tudinal carination: ultimate sternite (subgenital plate) small, greatest 
exposed median length equal to slightly more than half of greatest proximal 
width, stylar sinuses not large but distinctly and subsymmetrically incut 
mesad, the distal margin broadly arcuate between the divergent but briefly 
acute and subspinose angles which limit the sinuses, surface adjacent to the 
latter briefly impressed mcso-caudad. this condition progressively evanescent 
toward the middle line, styles styliform, apically acute, relatively long; 
cerci as in female. 

General base color ochraceous-buff, areally as pale as light ochraceous- 
buff, the head and pronotum marked with mummy brown, the tegmina in 
large part washed with saccardo's umber, this mottled in a nebulose fashion 
by areas of the pale base color; occasionally (Mount Coffee paratype) this 
suffusing wash has a mouse gray tone. Head rarely (Olokomeji paratype) 
with base color as dark as dull zinc orange, always with a broad dark inter- 
ocular bar, face with a transverse and medio-longitudinal pattern of bars 
roughly resembling the letter Y with the arms more depressed, this macu- 
lation ranging in strength and completeness from one with the transverse 
arms very heavily and broadly marked, to an opposite extreme in which but 
two faint spots in the position of these arms are the sole survivors of the 
maculation (type and Mt. Coffee paratype): eyes mars brown to bister; 



86 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [VOL. LXXXIX 

antennae russet to prout's brown, slightly paler at base. Pronotum with a 
sublyrate discal cloud pattern of russet which strongly suggests the simi- 
larly situated pattern seen in iV. cinerea, the exact outline of this area fluc- 
tuating somewhat, but it is always limited to the caudal three-fifths of the 
disk, broader caudad than cephalad, not reaching the caudal margin, divided 
more or less completely in caudal half and enclosing a pair of circular dots: 
lateral borders of disk sharply marked by a pair of mummy brown, caudad 
strongly diverging, weakly undulate bars, which originate caudad of the 
eyes, free from the cephalic margin and extend virtually to the caudo-lateral 
margins, the caudal margin between these bars not at all distinctly infuscate. 
Tegmina with the mottling described above involving all of their surface 
except the marginal and most of the scapular fields, which are quite solidly 
pale; pale clouding of discoidal field often due to a marked pencilling of 
longitudinal rami and cross-nervures with the pale color; dark pencilling of 
humeral trunk fine, less definite in the Olokcmeji paratype than in the 
others, reaching little, if at all, distad of the line of the apex of the anal 
field, anal vein with similar pencilling and also less definite in the Olokemeji 
individual. Wings with venation pencilled in buckthorn brown, anterior 
field appreciably infumate with the same. Abdomen with both surfaces 
washed more or less definitely with dresden brown, ultimate sternite in both 
sexes washed in part with cinnamon-brown, cereal apices similar. Tibial 
t spines tawny, russet tipped. 

Mkasikkments (iii millimeters) 

Greatest Length Greatest 
Length Length of width of of width of 

of body pronotum pronotum tegmen tegmen 

9, Obuasi, Gold Coast, type . . 26.3 6 9.2 23.5 8.2 
9, Mt. Coffee, Liberia. 

paratype 26.2 6.6 10.4 28.1 9.5 

9 , Olokomeji, Nigeria. 

paratype 29.4 6.7 9.4 28.6 8.8 

i . Mt. Coffee, Liberia. 

allotype 25 6.6 9.2 24 — 69 

In addition to the type and allotype I have before me a female taken 
at Mount Coffee, Liberia, April, 1897, by R. P. Currie, of the United States 
National Museum, and one of the same sex taken at Olokemeji, Ibadan, 
Nigeria, 1914, by J. C. Bridwell, and in the collection of the Academy. 

These specimens show some variation in size, which is evidenced in the 
above table of measurements, and also in certain details of the coloration, 
which have similarly been discussed. None of these differences, however, 
is of sufficient weight to cause any difficulty in the recognition of this very 
distinctive species, which superficially much resembles a larger, long-winged 
replica of cinerea. As pointed out above numerous important differences 
will be found to distinguish the species. 

Apparently proccra is a species of the Upper Guinea region ranging from 
Liberia to western Nigeria, and probably, from the localities, found in a 
variety of environments. 

69 Dried from alcohol and the tegmina are too strongly curled to measure their 
width accurately. 



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Nauphoeta cinerea (Olivier). 

1789. Blatla cinerea Olivier, Encycl. Method., Ins., IV, p. 314. [" He de France " 
(= Mauritius). ] 

Anglo-Egyptian Sudan: Singa, Sennaar District; 1907; (Ch. Alluaud) ; 
one male; [Paris Mus.]. 

Uganda: Entebbe, elev. 3800 feet; (C. R. S. Pitman); November 14, 
1928; one male; [Hebard Cln.]. 

Zanzibar: (C. Cooke); one male; [Mus. Comp. Zool.]. 

Tanganyika Territory: West Kilimanjaro; 1914; one male; [So. Afr. 
Mus.]. Morogoro; June 15; (A. Loveridge); one female; [Mus. Comp. 
Zool.]. Duthumi; November 14; (A. Loveridge); one male, one female; 
[Mus. Comp. Zool.]. Lindi; one male. "German East Africa"; one 
female. 

Transvaal: Barberton; January 13, 1924; three females; [Albany 
Mus.]. 

Natal: Durban; one female; [So. Afr. Mus.]. 

Mauritius: (Desjardins) ; one male, one female; [Paris Mus.]. 

While cinerea is a species of virtually circumtropical distribution, it is 
quite spotty in its occurrence, at least as far as available information is 
concerned, and there are but few records in the literature of its occurrence 
in West Africa. 

Under the generic discussion I have already stated my impression that 
N. cinerea is of East African origin, and also stressed the scarcity of records 
of its occurrence in Central Africa, particularly that portion west of Uganda. 
Shelf ord has recorded the species from Bibundi in the Cameroons, but this 
may have been a commercial introduction by way of the West Coast. At 
all events the information on the occurrence of the species in West and 
Central Africa points toward its penetration along the major water or land 
trade routes. 

Shelford's N. minuta, 70 while compared by him with cinerea, is a very 
different species, of far smaller size, relatively short tegmina and distinctive 
color features. 

Nauphoeta invisa, new species. Plate io, fig. 38. 

A short, stocky species, belonging to the group of the genus including 
testacea Brunner, sudanensis Werner, and silacea, here described, all of 
which in common lack the pectinate series of rami on the costal side of 
the tegminal mediastine vein. 

The species breaks into two geographic races, one of which is limited to 
the strictly forest Lower Guinea Subprovince of the West African Forest 
Province, while the other occurs in the Upper Guinea Subprovince of the 
same, and peripherally about the area of distribution of the typical form, 
into which it intcrgrades. 



70 Deutsch. Entom. Zoitschr., 1908, pp. 124. 127, (1908); [9 ; Cameroons]. 



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PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [VOL. LXXXIX 



From its nearest relative, testacea, the present species in both its races, 
can at once be separated by the more stocky, proportionately broader form, 
with the alar organs but little, if at all, surpassing the abdominal apex, the 
pronotum proportionately smaller, the tcgmina elongate elliptical rather 
than lanceolate, their marginal field very appreciably broader and their anal 
field less elongate, while the limbs are somewhat shorter and stouter. 

From its subspecies circumdata typical invisa differs in both sexes in 
the more compact form and shorter tcgmina, which latter do not markedly 
surpass the abdomen, in the apex of the tegmina being evenly rounded and 
in no way subangulate, in the tegminal anal vein being more broadly arcuate 
and the anal field in consequence less pyriform elongate than in circumdata, 
and in the tegminal humeral trunk being much less extensively (proximal 
two-fifths only), as well as less distinctly and broadly, lineate with fuscous. 
The two races are connected by intermediates which are discussed under 
N. i. circumdata. 

Type. — <5 ; Bitje, Ja River, Cameroons. April-June, 1910. (G. L. 
Bates.) [Academy of Natural Science- of Philadelphia, Type no. 5543. | 

Size medium (for genus); form stout, relatively broad, tegmina and 
wings but little surpassing apex of abdomen; surface of abdomen minutely 
etched with punctulations and vermiculate impressed lincations, pronotum 
subglabrous to the eye, but with a rather open pattern of very minute, 
wrinkled, impressed and irregular lincations. evident only under magnifica- 
tion and then quite shallowly engraved, tegmina with the same coriaceous 
surface texture found in most of the species of the genus. 

Head as seen in dorsal aspect evident cephalad of pronotum for its full 
width, although projecting but narrowly; seen in cephalic aspect slightly 
broader than deep (as 12 to 11), face roundly subdeplanate, occipital line in 
same view regularly and quite distinctly arcuate, the eye outlines slightly 
more strongly so. the curvature of the respective areas in consequence not 
quite continuous; least interspace between eyes, i. e. immediately dorsad of 
ocellar spots, very broad, but slightly less than thai between internal 
margins of antennal scrobes (as 6 to 6.5): palpi stout; ultimate article 
distinctly securiform, its dorsal line nearly straight oblique, its length one 
and one-half times that of the penultimate; latter crassately infundibuli- 
form, its length but slightly less than that of the relatively deep antepenul- 
timate article las 1.66 to 2), which latter has its dorsal line arcuate in 
proximal fourth, thence distad straight oblique to apex. 

Pronotum stout, transverse subelliptical, greatest length equal to one 
and one-fourth times the greatest width of the head (as 15 to 12), the great- 
est width of pronotum contained nearly one and one-half times in length 
of same, lateral angles obtuse but distinctly marked and not at all broadly 
rounded; cephalic margin broadly arcuate, its degree of curvature very 
similar to that of occipital line, passing laterad with almost no indication 
of angles into the diverging weakly arcuate lateral portions of the margin, 
these separated by the very definite and but slightly blunted lateral angles 
from the broadly arcuate caudal margin, which is not at all definitely 
divided into caudo-lateral and true caudal sections; surface of pronotum in 
transverse section vaulted, the lateral portions more arcuate than the disk. 



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Tegmina but narrowly surpassing the apex of the abdomen, this being 
by no more than one-third of pronotal length, general form of tegmen broad 
lanceolate, the greatest width, which is mesad, contained slightly less than 
two and one-half times in the tegminal length: costal margin arcuate 
throughout, more strongly so proximad and distad than in the median sec- 
tion; apex evenly rounded; sutural margin with axillary section faintly 
arcuate, thence to distal third virtually straight, distal third broadly arcuate 
to apex: marginal field very broad at widest point, but faintly less than half 
the width of anal field (as 4 to 9), the poorly defined extremity of the field 
not quite as far distad as the apex of anal field; scapular field slightly 
broader than marginal field, occupying faintly more than one-third of the 
total tegminal width las 6.8 to 19) ; anal field hardly at all pyriform. the 
greatest width equal to one-half the greatest length of the same: marginal 
field with surface impresso-cribrose, a venational pattern merely indicated 
by the intervening lands; costal veins of the scapular area numerous and 
closely tied to the intercalated venation, the whole producing a densely 
anastomosing, slightly radiating sculpture of the dorsal surface, ventral 
surface without elevation or unusual emphasis of the costal veins; discoidal 
field with the seventeen or so regular sectors sublongitudinal, faintly oblique, 
the intercalated nervures varying from one to three, in the latter case some- 
times irregular in trend, cross-nervures numerous and producing definite, 
very numerous and minute areolets; anal vein as a whole arcuate, more 
strongly so in proximal third and distal fifth than between, joining sutural 
margin at two-sevenths of its length from the base; axillary veins at least 
eighteen in number, closely placed, largely subparallel. Wings in repose 
reaching to tegminal apices. 

Ultimate tergite (supra-anal plate) with its produced portion trapezoidal 
in general outline, the lateral margins oblique caudad convergent, passing 
by narrowly rounded angles into the shallowly emarginate and subbilobate 
distal margin, the emargination of this whole margin very shallow and 
obtuse mesad: ultimate sternite (subgenital plate) slightly narrower than 
the inter-cercal width of the ultimate tergite, its distal margin strongly 
arcuate between the usual diverging, short and uncinate processes; styles 
quite small, simple, nearly straight: cerci short, not surpassing distal margin 
of ultimate tergite, stout, tapering, internal margin straight, external largely 
arcuate to apex, the arcuate portion weakly compressed carinate, cercus as 
a whole distinctly depressed, apices relatively acute. 

Limbs robust, distinctly compressed, ventral margins of all femora un- 
spined except for a distal one present on all the margins except the ventro- 
cephalic of the cephalic femora and the ventro-caudal of the caudal femora; 
pile fringe of ventro-cephalic margin of cephalic femora even and regular 
but very fine in texture. All tarsi robust, caudal pair with proximal article 
somewhat longer than distal one (as 3.5 to 2.5), its pulvillus extending 
virtually to base of article. 

Allotype. — 9 ; same date as type but without date of capture. [Acad- 
emy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia.] 

The following features are solely those noteworthy of difference from 
ones given in the description of the male (type). 

Head with occipital outline, as seen in cephalic aspect, regularly arcuate 
with the curvature of the eye outline; proportions of interspace between 
eyes as in male. 



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PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF 



[Vol. LXXXIX 



Pronotum as in male except that the lateral angles are slightly less 
pronounced. 

Tegmina not surpassing apex of abdomen, leaving the extremity of the 
ultimate tergite exposed; general outline of tegmen faintly more elongate 
and lanceolate than in male, but difference in proportions from that sex 
very slight. 

Ultimate tergite (supra-anal plate) with its general shape as in male, 
the emargination and bilobation of the distal margin being of the same 
character: ultimate sternite (subgenital plate) broad, with median portion 
of distal margin arcuately produced, laterad of this, infra-cercally, the 
margin is quite shallowly concavo-emarginate, this very gradually passing 
into the straight oblique more lateral sections extending to the lateral bases 
of the sternite, apex of sternite falling slightly short of apex of ultimate 
tergite; cerci slightly more slender than in male, external margin with a 
definite straight section proximad of the arcuate portion. 

General color of dorsal surface uniform ochraceous-buff, 71 tending some- 
what toward ochraceous-tawny on pronotum, the tegmina occasionally with 
cloudings of tawny-olive as an undertone; humeral trunk lined for approxi- 
mately the proximal fourth of tegmen with blackish fuscous, the distal two- 
fifths of this with the pencilling narrowly attenuate, while the more prox- 
imal section is slightly broader and more uniform in width, a more or less 
definite and relatively broad band of ochraceous-orange borders the dark 
pencilling on the costal side, covering much of the adjacent portion of the 
marginal field, yet not sharply defined and reaching distad only to the 
divergence of the mediastine vein; normally covered portion of right tegmen 
hair brown. Head uniformly of the general color; eyes hair brown to 
prout's brown; antennae ferruginous to hazel. Abdomen ventrad tawny to 
chestnut-brown, occasionally paling laterad to ochraceous-buff, (so in type), 
dorsal surface nearer buckthorn brown; cerci on dorsum of color of dorsum 
of abdomen, on venter washed to a variable degree, and usually on internal 
side, with fuscous, apex pale. Limbs with coxae of the general pale color, 
remainder of limbs solidly english red to morocco red, the spines of the same 
color proximad passing to blackish fuscous distad. 

Measurements (in millimeters) 



$ , Bitje, Cameroons, t ype . . . 
9, Bitje, Cameroons. allotype 
$ , Batanga, Cameroons, 

par a type 

9 , Avakubi, Belgian Congo. 

par at ype 







Greatest 


Length 


Greatest 


Length 


Length of 


width of 


of 


width of 


of body 


pronotum 


pronotum 


tegmen 


tegmen 


33.4 


0 


13.2 


26.7 


11.1 


40 


9.6 


14.1 


30 


12.6 


40 


11 


16 


33 


14.7 


37 


10.9 


15 


30 


13.5 



The above measurements given an index to the size range seen in the 
female sex, the only one represented by a series. There is almost no size 
difference noticeable in individuals of that sex from the same localities. 

71 Poorly preserved specimens are much darker and very dull, almost dresden brown 
in tone. It is evident that this is entirely due to poor preparation and subsequent 
dessication. 



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In addition to the type and allotype, I have before me two females taken 
at the type locality by Bates (one labelled "June 1909; dry season ") and 
in the collection of the Academy; a female taken at Batanga, Cameroons, 
April, 1914, by F. H. Hope, and from the Carnegie Museum; one female 
from Boende, Equator District, Belgian Congo, taken in November. 1925, 
by P. Brumage, and from the Museum of the Belgian Congo; a female 
from Basoko, Aruvvimi District, Belgian Congo, taken June 21, 1909, by 
Lang and Chapin and from the American Museum of Natural History; a 
female from Avakubi, Kibali-Ituri District, Belgian Congo, taken December 
5, 1909, by Lang and Chapin, also from that institution; three females from 
Medje, Kibali-Ituri District, Belgian Congo, two taken in April, 1914 by 
Dr. Christy and from the Museum of the Belgian Congo, and one taken 
August 9, 1910 by Lang and Chapin from the American Museum of Natural 
History; and a male and a female from Dingila, Uele District, Belgian 
Congo, one ( S ) taken October 3, 1932, by J. Drydagh, the other ( $ ) taken 
June 20, 1933, by H. J. Bredo, and from the Museum of the Belgian Congo. 
All of these specimens I am considering paratypes. 

These individuals show no color variation not discussed above and size 
has already been considered. The ratio of length of tegmina and wings to 
the abdominal apex shows a little variation, but this means very little, as 
the degree to which the abdomen has been retracted is necessarily important 
in this respect. One Bitje paratypic female has the apices of the alar organs 
reaching exactly to the apex of the ultimate tergite. The other paratypes 
all show some, although but little, extension of the tegmina and wings 
caudad of the abdomen, but this is exceedingly slight in the Batanga speci- 
men. The evidence points toward very slightly longer alar organs in the 
representatives of the species from the northeastern Belgian Congo, as 
would be expected from what we know concerning the distribution of N. 
invisa circumdata, here described. 

Nauphoeta invisa circumdata, new subspecies. Plate io, fig. 39. 

Above under typical invisa I have presented the differential features of 
this geographic race, which occupies an area surrounding that inhabited by 
the typical (nominate) form of the species extending westward across the 
Upper Guinea Subprovince as far as Sierra Leone. Typically circumdata 
is before me from Liberia, Sierra Leone, and Uganda and Katanga, Belgian 
Congo, but individuals discussed below from the upper Uele, Lake Tang- 
anyika and the Kasai are virtually intermediate between the two subspecies. 
Apparently the two intergrade in the area where is found the transition from 
true forest to the surrounding grass and bush savanna condition. In the 
Belgian Congo, at least, this seems to be the explanation. 

Type. — $; Royesville, Liberia. May 27, 1920. (O. W. Barrett.) 
[Hebard Collection, type no. 1285.] 



92 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [VOL. LXXXIX 

The following description is largely comparative with that of the female 
sex of the preceding typical (or nominate) form of invisa, and stresses solely 
those characters showing sufficient difference to be noted. 

Form more elongate, tegmina more elongate and slender. 

Tegmina briefly surpassing apex of abdomen, 7 - more elongate lanceolate, 
greatest median width contained approximately one and two-fifth times in 
tegminal length: costal margin less regularly arcuate distad, there the curva- 
ture being less and a tendency to be oblique subarcuate more definite ; apex 
definitely narrowed and rounded obtuse-angulate; sutural margin with arcu- 
ation to apex in distad third more gradually and less strongly curved: mar- 
ginal field proportionately slightly narrower, being slightly less than half 
as broad as anal field las 6 to 13), and more definitely evident distad, 
reaching in that direction as far as the apex of the anal field; scapular 
field actually broader than same sex of i. invisa and occupying distinctly 
more than one-third of total tegminal width; anal field very slightly longer 
than in i. invisa, thus having more of a subpyriform outline than in the 
typical subspecies; discoidal field with the differentiation of the sectors and 
the intercalated nervures very difficult, much more so than in t. invisa; anal 
vein with its curvature mesad slightly flatter, joining sutural margin more 
nearly at the proximal third than in i. invisa; differentiation of the auxiliary 
veins and intercalated nervures of the anal field less evident than in t. invisa. 

Coloration as in N. i. invisa, 73 the head, pronotum and tegmina identical 
except that the humeral trunk is more decidedly and more extensively lineate 
with blackish fuscous, reaching distad to slightly beyond the proximal third 
of the tegmen, the marking also being slightly broader and more conspicuous 
than in i. invisa. The limbs in the Sierra Leone individual have the femora 
madder brown, infuscate proximad and distad, the coxal extremities and the 
entire trochanters, tibiae and tarsi as well as spines, entirely blackish 
fuscous. In the Royesville type the limbs are uniform, between mahogany 
red and burnt sienna, the femora and tibiae narrowly margined distad with 
blackish fuscous, the tibial spines nearly uniformly of the same, which also 
clouds much of the tarsi. The Uganda specimens are similar in limb color- 
ation to the material of N. i. invisa, but the uniformity even extends to the 
tibial spines which show almost no infuscation at all. 

Measurements (in millimeters) 

Greatest Length Greatest 
Length Length of width of of width of 
of body pronotum pronotum tegmen tegmen 

9, Royesville, Liberia, type .. 42.5 11.3 15.7 36.2 13.9 

9 , Sierra Leone, paratype ... . 42"^ 10 13.5 32.4 13.3 

9 , Kampala, Uganda 34.6 10.5 14.9 30 12.2 

9 , Damba Island, Lake 

Victoria 39.2 10.5 14.6 30.7 12.9 

9 . Ibawa River, Katanga, 

Belg. Congo, paratype 44.8 10.4 145 32.5 12.9 

72 The abdomen has been extended somewhat in the type and the difference is less 
than would have been true in life. This is evidenced by the tegminal proportions. 

7:t The Sierra Leone paratype has been greatly discolored, and probably stained, in 
killing or drying, so its coloration, in part at least, has not been considered as repre- 
sentative or natural. 

74 Abdomen abnormally extended. 



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In addition to the type I have before me the following material, certain 
of the adults of which I consider paratypic: 

Sierra Leone; 1906; (E. Roullet); one female (paratype) ; [Paris 
Museum. | 

Mt. Coffee, Liberia; February and April (immature only), 1897; (R. P. 
Currie) ; one female (paratype), one immature male, one immature female; 
[U.S.N.M.J. 

Kampala, Uganda; (A. Baudet) ; one female. 

Damba Island. Lake Victoria. 30 miles E. of Entebbe, Uganda, clew 3700 
feet; Nov. 11. 1928; (C. R. S. Pitman); one female; [Hebard Cln.]. 

Ibawa River, Katanga, Belgian Congo; December 17, 1925; (F. G. 
Overlaet) ; one female (paratype! ; [Mus. Belg. Congo]. 

The Sierra Leone, Liberia and Katanga specimens are fully typical of the 
subspecies, except that the latter has the pencilling of the tegminal humeral 
trunk more delicate and not as broad as in those from more western Africa; 
the Kampala and Damba Island individuals, however, have the tegmina 
and wings slightly shorter than in the others. In the Kampala specimen 
the tegminal apex, the shape of the anal field and the emphasis and extent 
of the humeral trunk pencilling are as typical for i. circumdata, while the 
Damba Island representative shows approach to i. invisa in the slightly 
shorter anal field of the tegmina, although the tegminal apices are the typical 
acute condition of the present race. In the latter specimen the pencilling of 
the humeral trunk is of the extensive type characteristic of i. circumdata. 

Four other specimens before me are virtually intermediate between N. i. 
invisa and N. i. circumdata, these being one male each from Niangara, taken 
December, 1910 by Lang and Chapin, [A.M.N.H.] and Faradje, taken Janu- 
ary, 1913 by Lang and Chapin, [A.M.N.H.], Uele District, Belgian Congo; 
one female from Albertville, west shore of Lake Tankanyika, Belgian Congo, 
taken December, 1918 by R. Mayne, [Mus. Belg. Congo] ; one female 
from Luluabourg, Kasai District, Belgian Congo, taken by P. Callewaert, 
| Mus. Belg. Congo]; two females from Kapanga, Lulua District, Belgian 
Congo, taken October, 1934, by G. F. Overlaet, [Mus. Belg. Congo]. In 
the shape of the anal field of the tegmina and the emphasis and extent of 
the humeral pencilling they hold an intermediate position between the two 
subspecies. 

Nauphoeta silacea, new species. Plate io, figs. 40-42. 

A most interesting and distinctive species, related on one hand to N. 
invisa, described above, and on the other to N. tcstacea Brunner, but differ- 
ing from both in the distinctly smaller size, the less expanded head, the 
more strongly transverse pronotum, which also have a distinctive surface 
contour involving paired impressed arcuate lines, the less expanded and less 
■distinctly fossorial cephalic tibiae, the dull, instead of moderately shining, 



94 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [VOL. LXXXIX 

surface of the pronotum and tegmina; the straighter sutural margin of the 
tegmina and the more rufous tone to the ochraceous of the general coloration, 
as well as the reduction of the black pencilling of the humeral trunk to a 
very brief proximal touch. From invisa it also differs in the less robust 
character of all the limbs, and the trigonal instead of symmetrically trape- 
zoidal ultimate tergite (supra-anal plate) of the male. From testacea the 
present species can, in addition to the features given above, be separated by 
the less elongate form, the slightly broader marginal field of the tegmina, 
and also the broader tegmina as a whole. The general ensemble of this 
species is quite different from any other of the genus which I have seen and 
its true relationships are evident only after considerable comparison. It is 
in no way related to N. cinerea or Shelford's N. minuta, which would 
promptly be suggested by the small size of the present species. 

Type. — S ; M'Bamou, west of Brazzaville, Middle Congo, French Equa- 
torial Africa. 1903. (Montezer.) [Paris Museum. | 

Size small (for genus) ; form markedly depressed, in general elliptical as 
seen from dorsum; surface of pronotum and tegmina in general dull, seen at 
certain angles apparently with a definite " bloom," at others dully polished, 
ventral surface as a whole dully polished. 

Head, as .-ecu from dorsum, visible cephalad of pronotum for virtually 
its entire width, in cephalic aspect broad subcordiform, greatest breadth 
across eyes subequal to depth of head, occipital outline low arcuate, con- 
tinuous with the eye outlines, which latter, however, are more strongly 
arcuate laterad; least inter-ocular space very broad, equal to seven-eighths 
that between internal margins of antennal scrobes; face mesad roundly 
subdeplanate, passing evenly into the subtumid infra-antennal portions: 
eyes in lateral view reniform, regularly narrowing ventrad: palpi moderately 
slender, ultimate article straighter and less definitely securiform than in 
related species, its depth equal to two-sevenths of its length, the latter equal 
to one and seven-twentieth times the length of the penultimate article, which 
is approximately but not regularly infundibuliform, antepenultimate article 
subequal in length to ultimate, subcompressed, nearly straight, ventral 
margin straight, dorsal the same except for a brief proximal arcuation: 
antennae damaged and incomplete. 

Pronotum in general shape roughly transverse elliptical, with lateral 
angles marked but obtuse, greatest length contained one and one-half times 
in greatest width of same: cephalic margin of supra-cephalic hood markedly 
arcuate and passing laterad without appreciable intervening angulation into 
the similarly but less strongly arcuate, caudad divergent lateral parts of 
the cephalic margin, lateral angles marked but rounded obtuse, caudo-lateral 
sections of margin relatively short, in direction distinctly oblique conver- 
gent, areuato-subtruncate, passing broadly, without an angle, into the sub- 
transverse caudal margin which is made very weakly bisinuate by the low 
and but slightly produced median lobule, lateral and caudo-lateral margins 
rather coarsely cingulate, medio-cephalic margin non-cingulate, caudal 
section very finely and continuously rimmed: surface of pronotum with disk 
subdeplanate in caudal two-thirds, lateral areas broadly oblique declivent, 
supra-cephalic section of disk hooded rather closely about occipital base, 



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transversely subimpressed caudad to a point between paired, impressed 
arcuate chiefly transverse snbsnlciform lines placed at the latero-cephalic 
boundaries of the pronotal disk. 

Tegmina surpassing apex of abdomen by a distance equal to seven-tenths 
of the pronotal length, general shape lanceolate, the greatest width, which 
is mesad, contained two and two-third times in the greatest tegminal length: 
costal margin as a whole markedly arcuate with some little oblique flattening 
in distal third, passing rather abruptly to the broadly rounded rectangulate 
apex, which is joined by a brief but strong arcuation in the distal fourth 
of the sutural margin to the nearly straight remainder of the latter: marginal 
field relatively broad, its greatest width equal to half that of anal field, 
distad the marginal field does not reach quite as far as apex of anal field; 
scapular field with its width slightly greater than that of marginal field and 
slightly less than half that of the discoidal field (as 4.5 to 10) ; anal field 
moderately elongate, elliptico-subpyriform, its greatest length equal to twice 
its width: surface of marginal field cribrosely impresso-punctulate, no vena- 
tion indicated on either surface; costal veins of scapular field distinct, rather 
regularly disposed, somewhat more longitudinal and less oblique arcuate 
than usual, approximately fourteen in number, the more distal ones anas- 
tomosing to a degree proximad, in but slight relief on ventral surface; 
humeral trunk relatively straight distad of the not at all pronounced arcua- 
tion of the proximal fifth; discoidal sectors sublongitudinal, distinct, a single 
intercalated nervure between each, cross-veins very numerous, particularly 
toward the humeral trunk, distinctly oblique, due to their number the arm- 
lets as a whole are transverse or subquadrate, not at all longitudinal, sectors 
sixteen in number; anal vein arcuate, somewhat flattened mesad, reaching 
sutural margin at two-fifths of its length from the base; axillary veins 
thirteen in number, the intercalated nervures virtually as decided and the 
whole venation of the anal field relatively dense, the areolets little more 
than cribrosely impressed puncta. Wings in repose reaching to the teg- 
minal apices, their apices agreeing in contour with those of the tegmina. 

Ultimate tergite (supra-anal plate) with the margin of its median pro- 
duced section arcuately trigonal, sub-bilobate mesad by a relatively deep 
and narrow incision of the margin, laterad of which the separated sections 
are rather narrowly rounded although not at all produced caudad of the 
arcuate regularity of the general margin: ultimate sternite (subgenital 
plate ) of the type usual in this sex of the genus but not entirely symmetrical, 
the medio-distal section of the margin, as seen from venter, distinctly arcuate 
dextrad to the usual marginal unguiculate hook, while sinistrad it is 
straighter toward the corresponding one on that side, the embraced section 
of the immediate margin distinctly but narrowly cingulate, with approxi- 
mately the distal fourth of the sternite in the inter-stylar area quite sharply, 
but not at all angularly, flexed dorsad, its surface near each of the processes 
subexcavate, the latter relatively short and stout, distinctly unguiculate; 
styles as seen from venter moderately arcuate, in length each equal to 
approximately two-fifths the distance between their base, tapering, apices 
very narrowly rounded, ventral surface concavely excavate (in dry type): 
cerci moderately elongate, even lacking their immediate apices surpassing 
the apex of the ultimate tergite by about half the cereal length, tapering, 
greatest width probably not more than one-fourth of the full cereal length, 
internal margin virtually straight, external weakly arcuate in proximal half, 



96 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [VOL. LXXXIX 

nearly straight convergent distad, weakly but appreciably longitudinally 
cingulato-carinate on external margin. 

All femora moderately slender (for the genus), the median and caudal 
quite uniform in depth except for a brief narrowing distad; margins as in 
other species of the genus but pile fringe of ventro-cephalic margin of 
cephalic femora very short: cephalic tibiae slightly over two-thirds as long 
as cephalic femora, on internal face its distal half is uniform in width and 
subequal to one-fourth of the tibial length, these tibiae distinctly less 
fossorial in development than in the species' relatives; median and caudal 
tibiae appreciably compressed and (particularly the caudal) in large part 
with flexor and extensor margins subparallel: caudal tarsi with length of 
proximal article at least equal to that of the three succeeding articles, pul- 
villus of its ventral surface reaching almost to the base of the article. 

General color of dorsal surface clay color, quite appreciably washed with 
zinc orange on the pronotal disk, ventral surface and limbs between ochra- 
ceous-buff and cinnamon-buff. Head almosl uniform cinnamon-buff, 
antennal scrobes in greater part pencilled with mummy brown, proximal 
antennal article (all remaining) of head color, palpi slightly paler, of the 
. general ventral color; eyes cinnamon-brown to mummy brown. Pronotum 
unmarked except for a microscopic atomaceous sprinkling of tawny on the 
disk, and a paler bordering of the cephalic, lateral and latero-caudal margins. 
Tegmina uniform except for the exceedingly brief infuscation of the humeral 
trunk, this being mummy brown and in definite length less than half the 
width of the marginal field, distad the infuscation is not sharply defined but 
blends into the general tone. Tibial spines of the general limb colors, distad 
prout's brown. 

Length of body, 22 mm.; length of pronotum, 5.9; greatest width of 
pronotum, 9; length of tegmen, 20; greatest width of tegmen, 7.5. 

The type of this most distinctive species is unique. 

Nauphoeta testacea Brunner. 

1865. Mauphoeta] testacea Brunner, Nouv. Syst. Blatt., p. 284. [9; Island of 
S. Thome, West Coast of Africa (Gulf of Guinea). ] 

Liberia: Monrovia; March, 1895; one male; [U.S.X.M.]. Mount Coffee; 
February, 1894, one male; [U.S.N.M.]. 

Ivory Coast: Vicinity of Dimbokru; 1910; (Capt. Posth) ; two females; 
[Paris Mus.]. Between Sanru and Kuale, Land of the Toura, upper Sass- 
andra; 1910; (A. Chevalier); one female; [Paris Mus.]. Assinie; 1882; 
(Chaper) ; one female; [Paris Mus.]. 

Dahomey: no exact locality; 1916; (Grisel) ; one female; [Geneva Mus.]. 
Plateau of Zaguanado, [" Zagnanado "] Middle Dahomey "season of 
tempests and tornadoes 1910; (P. Ducorps) ; four females; (Paris Mus.]. 
Forest region of Hollis, Adja-Ouere, Illemon, Plateau of Zaguanado [" Zag- 
nanado"] and Ketou; 1910; (P. Ducorps); two females; [Paris Mus.[. 

French Equatorial Africa, Ubaxci-Shari: Krebedke (Fort Sibut), 
southern Dar Banda; 1904; (Mission Chari-Tchad, Dr. J. Decourse) ; one 
female; [Paris Mus. | 



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The above material shows no noteworthy difference from Brunner's 
original description of testacea, which can at once be separated from invisa 
and its subspecies circumdata by the more elongate, slender form, lanceo- 
late tegmina, and markedly narrower marginal field of the same. In addi- 
tion comparison shows a number of other, less readily evident differential 
features. 

The species is somewhat variable in size individually, but not sufficient 
to cause any difficulty in its recognition. 

The distribution of testacea is seen to extend from Liberia and the Ivory 
Coast eastward across Dahomey to at least the Ubangi-Shari territory at 
Fort Sibut. The latter locality is a typically gallery forest one (personal 
acquaintance in 1934), and probably the species is less an inhabitant of 
the extensive Guinea forest districts than it is of those in which the Guinean 
grassland and riverine forest alternate. The conditions under which it 
occurs on the island of Sao Thome, (San Thome) are not known. 

Nauphoeta sudanensis Werner. 

1907. Nauphoeta sudanensis Werner, Silzungsb. K.-k. Akad. Wissensch. Wien, 
Math.-Nat. Kl., CXVI, Heft II, Abt. 1, p. 176. [ $ , 9- ; Tewfikia and Mongalla, 
Anglo-Egyptian Sudan.] 

Gallaland: Sheikh Husein; October 1 and 6, 1894; (A. Donaldson 
Smith) ; one male, two females. 75 

These specimens fully agree with all the details of Werner's description 
of sudanensis, except that he states the ultimate sternite (subgenital plate) 
of the male is truncate, while in the male in hand it has the margin quite 
regularly arcuate between the laterad directed horn-like points found on 
this sternite. Possibly the medio-distal section of the margin in the original 
male of sudanensis has been bent dorsad, in which case the true shape 
would be masked and the distal margin of the plate appear truncate. 

From the present record the range of the species is seen to extend east- 
ward from the AVhite Nile to the southern portion of Abyssinia (Gallaland). 

Nauphoeta madecassa Saussure. 

1891. N[auphoeta~\ madecassa Saussure, Societas Entomologica, VI, p. 17. [$, 
$ ; Madagascar.] 

Madagascar: Tananarive; 1892; (Grandidier) ; one male; [Paris Mus.] : 
1914; (Waterlot) ; one female; [Paris Mus.]: one female; [Hebard Cln. ex 
Geneva Mus.]. Region of Ambositra; 1907; (J. Descoupentries) ; one 
female; [Paris Mus.]. Analamazotra, Great Eastern Forest; October 20 
and November 1930; (Olsoufieff) ; two males, six females; [Hebard Cln.]. 
Ampefy, Prov. Itasy, Central Plateau; February and March, 1930; (Olsou- 
fieff) ; one male, one female, one immature male; [Hebard Cln.]. Andra- 

75 These are the specimens recorded by me in 1901 as .V. gcstriana Saussure. See 
Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1901. p. 276, (1901). 



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[Vol. LXXXIX 



homana, South Madegascar; November, 1901; (Ch. Alluaud) ; one male; 
[Hebard Cln. ex Paris Mus.]. Region of Sakarami; 1905; (Maurice de 
Rothschild); one female; [Paris Mus.]. No exact locality; two males, six 
females, one immature female; [A.N.S.P. and Hebard Cln. J. 

This series shows there a very marked amount of individual size vari- 
ation in both sexes, the extremes (in millimeters) being as follows: 







Length 


Length of 


Greatest width 


Length of 






of body 


pronotum 


of pronotum 


tegmen 


<5, 




22 


5.8 


8 


14.3 


$, 




24.2 


6.7 


9 


16.8 


9. 


"Madagascar" 


24.2 


6.3 


8.2 


16.8 


9, 




33 


8 


10.5 


23 



The species is known only from Madagascar. 

Nauphoeta heydeniana Saussure. 

1891. Nauphoeta heydeniana Saussure, Societas Entomologica, VI, p. 17. [$; 
Madagascar.] 

Madagascar: Great Oriental Forest near Tananarive; one female; 
[Carnegie Mus.]. 

This species, subsequent to the original publication, was described at 
greater length and figured by Saussure and Zehntner. 76 

In the later discussion there is described a more uniformly pale type of 
the species which lacks the brownish escutcheon on the pronotal disk found 
in the typical form, and in consequence in it the whole pronotum is grayish 
fawn in color. In the typical form the pale lateral areas of the pronotum 
are distinctly contrasted with the brown picturate disk, producing a general 
appearance quite different from that of the uniformly colored phase. 

The specimen above recorded represents the type with the uniformly 
pale pronotum, lacking all trace of a discal pattern of brown. Its measure- 
ments (in millimeters) are as follows: Length of body, 27; length of 
pronotum, 8; greatest width of pronotum, 11; length of tegmen, 24; greatest 
width of tegmen, 10. 

Nauphoeta idonea, new species. Plate io, fig. 43. 

Closely related to N. heydeniana Saussure, having the same general 
build and shape but differing in its somewhat smaller size, in the marginal 
field of the tegmina being somewhat narrower, in the humeral trunk of 
the same being more evenly arcuate and not subsigmoid, in the cross-veins 
of the scapular field and adjacent section of the discoidal field of the tegmina 
virtually lacking the small strumose thickenings which are to be seen in 
heydeniana, in the pronotum being uniformly grayish ochraceous and not 
contrasted as in the typical form of heydeniana, in the antennae being 

"6 In Grandidier, Hist. Phys. Nat. et Polit. Madagascar, XXIII, Blattides et Man- 
tides, p. 83, pi. Ill, fig. 32. (1895). 



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entirely reddish instead of having the two proximal segments pitch black, 
and the limbs rufescent in their entirety, instead of in part at least pitch 
black. 

The general appearance and color of this species suggests a diminutive 
edition of N. invisa, described above. 

Type. — 6 ; Diego Suarez, Madagascar. 1907. (G. Benard.) [Paris 
Museum.] 

Size quite small (for genus) ; form short, robust, much resembling that 
of N. i. invisa, general outline elliptical ; surface much as N. i. invisa. 

Head as seen from dorsum with most of occiput visible cephalad of 
pronotum; in cephalic aspect very broad cordiform, its greatest width across 
the eyes subequal to the depth of head; occipital line, seen in same aspect, 
but moderately arcuate, slightly marked off from the more distinctly arcuate 
eye outlines, least inter-ocular space but slightly narrower than that between 
the internal margins of the antennal scrobes (as 3.5 to 3.8) ; face appreciably 
subdeplanate, rounding laterad into the subtumid infra-antennal areas: palpi 
moderately stout; ultimate article with its length slightly greater than that 
of the penultimate article (as 2.5 to 2.25), moderately securiform, its great- 
est depth contained three and one-eighth times in the article's length (as 
.8 to 2.5); penultimate article robust infundibuliform; antepenultimate 
article quite stout, deep, subcompressed, its length faintly greater than that 
of the ultimate (as 2.9 to 2.5). Antennae incomplete, proximal article 
relatively long, equal to length from infra-ocular portion of antennal scrobes 
to lateral base of clypeus. 

Pronotum with much the same general form as N. i. invisa, its greatest 
length contained approximately one and two-fifths times in its greatest 
width, general form trigonally subtrapezoidal, its greatest width at about 
the caudal third: cephalic margin of a very poorly defined but still evident 
supra-cephalic cucullate section moderately arcuate, broadly rounding 
laterad into the longer, caudad divergent, moderately arcuate lateral 
margins, which reach to the distinct though rounded rectangulate lateral 
angles; caudo-lateral margins passing almost without differentiation into 
the true caudal margin, the whole broadly arcuate except for very weak 
sinuations flanking the thereby slightly accentuated median section; cephalic 
margin very narrowly, lateral and caudal more broadly cingulate, the 
caudal in higher relief than the lateral: surface of pronotum with its contour 
as in N. i. invisa except for a very faint supra-cephalic constriction which 
produces a faint cucullation or " cowling " of that portion of the pronotum, 
this, however, less marked than in N. silacea and not accompanied by im- 
pressed sulciform lines as in that species; surface texture largely cribose 
impresso-punctulate, more or less slurred into linear, usually transverse 
groups, producing particularly cephalad and caudad on the pronotum areas 
of minute etched lines. 

Tegmina surpassing the abdominal apex by no more than one-fourth 
the pronotal length, broad lanceolate, width contained twice in its length, 
texture quite dense and subcoriaceous, surface in areas of close reticulation 
rather strongly cribrose impresso-punctate, elsewhere the areolation is dis- 
tinctly to moderately longitudinal: costal margin as a whole regularly 
arcuate, apex well rounded; sutural margin with its proximal three-fourths 
weaklv arcuate, almost straight, in distal fourth rather strongly arcuate to 



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apex; marginal field moderately broad, less so than in heydeniana or invisa, 
at its broadest point equal to slightly more than one-third the greatest width 
of the anal field, distad its definition is not clearly marked but it falls 
slightly short of apex of anal field; scapular field appreciably broader than 
marginal (as 3.5 to 2.5) ; anal field very broad and full, its greatest width 
contained but one and seven-tenth times in its greatest (diagonal) length: 
marginal field coarsely cribrose impresso-punctate; scapular field with the 
costal veins and intercalated nervures not sufficiently differentiated to permit 
their ready distinction, the whole field with its areolation very fine and 
involved; humeral trunk moderately arcuate, this more definite proximad, 
in no way sigmoid; discoidal sectors fifteen in number, really irregular but 
as a whole rather evenly placed, intercalated nervures distinct and num- 
erous, usually three to an interval, cross-veins in general oblique, only very 
weak intimations of strumose thickenings present on them in the area near 
the humeral trunk, and these nearly all in the scapular field; anal vein 
strongly arcuate except in its distal two-sevenths, where it is faintly sigmoid 
to its juncture with the sutural margin, which is at the proximal third of 
the latter; axillary veins not sharply distinguishable from the single inter- 
calated nervure between the axillaries, eleven of the latter recognizable. 
Wings in repose reaching to the tegminal apices, the alar apices agreeing with 
the latter in shape. 

Ultimate tergite (supra-anal plate) with its produced portion low 
arcuato-trigonal, shallowly V-emarginate mesad, this broader than deep, 
the resulting bilobations obtusely rounded: ultimate sternite (subgenital 
plate) of the same asymmetrical type as that of N. silacea described on a 
preceding page; styles similar to but slightly shorter than those of N. silacea: 
cerci relatively short and stocky, their greatest evident (proximal) width 
contained less than twice in their length, tapering, blunt acute, external 
margin low carinato-cingulate as in related species. 

Limbs relatively short, moderately robust; femora with all ventral 
margins lacking true distal spines except the ventro-caudal ones of the 
cephalic and median pairs, piliform series of ventro-caudal margin of 
cephalic femora full although weaker distad; median and caudal femora 
distinctly compressed, relatively deep, the dorsal margin of each moderately 
arcuate, ventral margins, particularly of caudal femora, faintly sigmoid in 
outline as seen from venter; median and caudal tibiae moderately com- 
pressed, seen from internal face former are subequal in width in distal half, 
latter in distal three-fifths: caudal tarsi short and stout, incomplete in type, 
but proximal article is seen to be subequal in length to that of the succeed- 
ing three articles combined, proximal article with the pulvillus extending 
almost to its base. 

Allotype. — 9 ; same data as type. [Paris Museum.] 

Differing from the above description of the male (type) in the following 
noteworthy features. 

Form similar to but size greater than in male. 
Head, pronotum and tegmina as in male (type). 

Ultimate tergite (supra-anal plate) moderately transverse, subtrape- 
zoidal, greatest median length contained two and one-third times in greatest 
proximal width, lateral margins arcuate convergent to the broadly rounded 
bilobate distal margin, the median subtrigonal emargination shallow and 



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broad: ultimate sternite (subgenital plate) broad subtrigonal, its median 
length equal to two and one-half times its proximal width, subcercal emar- 
ginations shallow and very broad but well marked. 
Limbs as in male. 

General color of dorsal surface clay color, darkening on the pronotal 
disk to tawny-olive, ventral surface in general bister, limbs proximad to 
and included trochanters dull orange rufous. Head with occiput of the 
dorsal color, remainder of head dorsad to occipital interspace quite deep 
bister, distal section of mandibles, labrum and ventral half of clypeus dull 
ochraceous-orange ; paipi of ventral color, eyes fuscous-black; antennae dull 
orange rufous. Pronotum with lateral areas nearer the general dorsal color 
than the appreciably darker disk, the two tones, however, passing imper- 
ceptibly into one another; cephalic margin narrowly bordered with light 
ochraceous-buff , caudal margin obscurely and irregularly beaded with 
tawny-olive and dull ochraceous-buff, faint intimations of a partial lyrate 
discal pattern traced in buckthorn brown. Tegmina with much of venation 
of discoidal field obscurely pencilled in pale snuff brown, the normally 
covered portion of dextral tegmen lightly washed with snuff brown, against 
which the venation is relieved in pale bister; humeral trunk distinctly lined 
with mummy brown to prout's brown in proximal fourth of tegmen, paling 
distad, the pencilling there dying out. Venter of abdomen with sternites 
each slightly darker in distal half, as a whole sprinkled with slightly elevated 
dots of clay color, lateral projecting borders of tergites as seen from venter 
lined with ochraceous-buff, ultimate sternite (subgenital plate) narrowly 
bordered mesad and cerci briefly tipped with buffy. Femora rather indefi- 
nitely clouded distad with fuscous, the tarsi marked laterad and distad with 
the same, tibial spines of the limb color proximad, becoming mummy brown 
distad. 

Measurements (in millimeters) 

Greatest Length Greatest 
Length Length of width of of width of 
of body pronotum pronotum tegmen tegmen 

$, type 19.5 6 8.5 16.1 8 

<5, paraty pe 1S.1 5.8 8 14 6.4 

9, allotype 24 6.9 9.S 19 9 

In addition to the type and allotype I have examined a female bearing 
the same data as the type, and a male and female labelled " Diego Suarez? " 
collected in 1903 by the Foreign Legion and from the Paris Museum. These 
specimens, which show no noteworthy differences from the type and allo- 
type, I am considering as paratypes. 

The Genera Stilpnoblatta and Isoniscus 
STILPNOBLATTA Saussure and Zehntner 
1895. Stilpnoblatta Saussure and Zehntner, Rev. Suisse de Zoologie, III, pp. 12, 44. 
Genotype (by monotypy). — Parahormetica bengalensis Saussure, 1869, 
from Bengal. 



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PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF 



[Vol. LXXXIX 



In 1908 Shelford described the first African species of this genus from 
the Belgian Congo, 77 following it with a second one in 1911. 78 Of neither 
of these species in the male sex known, and the diagnosis of the second, i. e. 
minuta, is most exceedingly brief and unsatisfactory. 

I have now before me a considerable series representing both sexes of 
the genotypic species S. bengalensis (Saussure), 79 from the Hebard Collec- 
tion, and the congeneric character of the African forms of the genus here 
discussed is evident. 

While I am as yet unacquainted with the previously described African 
species except from the literature, I have before me two closely related but 
undescribed forms from that continent, which appear to differ very con- 
siderably from those previously known, and in order to facilitate future 
work I have prepared a tentative key for the separation of the African 
species from the genotype and from one another. It is to be understood 
that my interpretations of the previously described African species have 
been drawn solely from the literature and may be subject to modification 
when material of these forms is available. 

It is now possible to say with certainty that Stilpnoblatta must be 
removed from the Perisphaerinae and placed in the Panchlorinae, in the 
general neighborhood of Pycnoscelus. This has largely been due to the 
recognition of the fully alate male sex. When the two genera are com- 
pared they are found to be quite closely related, the chief differences being 
in Stilpnoblatta the broader, more deplanate face with more sharply and 
narrowly rounded occipital angle, broader interocular space and the coarser, 
less glabrous tegminal venation of the male. In addition in the female the 
alar organs are greatly reduced, the tegmina lateral and lobate, the wings 
absent. 

In the absence of knowledge of the male in all of the African species, 
the following key deals solely with characters of the female sex: 

1. Size very small (body, 8 mm.; pronotum 2.8 X 3.9). Ultimate abdom- 

inal tergite (supra-anal plate) with distal margin entire, not emar- 

ginate or reflexed minutissima Shelford 

Size larger (body, 12-13.2 mm.; pronotum, 3-4 X 5-6.881. Ultimate 
abdominal tergite (supra-anal plate) with distal margin emarginate 
mesad or at least lightly reflexed 2 

2. Ultimate abdominal tergite (supra-anal plate) with a medio-longitudinal 

carina, its distal margin at most lightly reflexed. Tegmina extremely 
short (1.2 mm.), not distinctly surpassing distal metazonal bonier. 

minuta Shelford 

Stilpnoblatta minutissima Shelford, Mem. Soc. Entom. Belg., XXV, p. 235. [ 9 ; 
Umangi (? error for Ubangi), Belgian Congo.] 

78 Stilpnoblatta minuta Shelford, Wissensch, Ergebn., Deutschen Zent .-Afrika- 
Expedit. 1907-1908. III. Zool. I, Lief. 16, p. 504. [ 9 ; Kissenji, Lake Kivu.] 

79 P[arahormctica] benaalensis Saussure, Mel. Orthopt., I, fasc. 2, p. 104. [$; 
Bengal. 1 The species was verv poorlv figured hv Saussure and Zehntner. Rev. Suisse de 
Zoologie, III, pi. I, fig. 8. (1895). 



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1937] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA 103 

Ultimate abdominal tergite (supra-anal plate) lacking a medio-longi- 
tudinal carina, its distal margin with a distinct median emargination. 
Tegmina longer, distinctly surpassing distal metazonal border 3 

3. Head with occipital interspace between eyes very broad, exceeding half 

the greatest width of head across eyes. Exposed portion of tegmina 
not strongly transverse, usually with length and breadth subequal or 
slightly longer than proximal width. (Face not strongly deplanate.) 

bengalensis (Saussure) 

Head, with occipital interspace between eyes not exceeding half the 
greatest width of head across eyes. Exposed portion of tegmina 
strongly transverse, broader proximad than length distad from caudo- 
lateral angle of pronotum 4 

4. Head with face moderately deplanate, very narrowly rounded over 

facio-occipital angle into occiput, no definite carination to angle. 
Occipital interspace between eyes narrower, not exceeding two-fifths 

of width of head nugax, new species 

Head with face more sharply deplanate, cut off from occiput by a definite 
interocular subcarinate ridge at facio-fastigial angle. Occipital inter- 
space between eyes broader, subequal to one-half of head width. 

planiceps, new species 

Stilpnoblatta nugax, new species. Plate io, figs. 52-54. 

The more evident diagnostic features are given in the above key. From 
minutissima the larger size and emarginate ultimate tergite are differential, 
the non-carinate character of the latter and the longer tegmina from minuta, 
while the much flatter face and very distinctly sharper occipital angle and 
lesser ocular space will at once distinguish planiceps. The genotype S. 
bengalensis can at once be distinguished by the greater interocular space 
and tegminal proportions. 

Type. — 9 ; Forest region of Hollis, Adja-Ouere and Ilimon, 80 Plateau 
of Zaguanado and Ketou, Dahomey. February, 1910. (P. Ducorps.) 
[Paris Museum.] 

General outline ovate, dorsum moderately convex, onisciform, its surface 
moderately polished. 

Head almost entirely hidden under pronotum, occipital region but 
narrowly visible from dorsum: seen in facial aspect general outline is cordi- 
form, with length and breadth subequal, occipital line but slightly arcuate, 
eyes not at all prominent, not breaking general outline of head ; face apprec- 
iably deplanate, narrowly passing into occiput without a definite angula- 
tion; occipital interspace between eyes equal to two-fifths of greatest width 
of head, occiput in longitudinal section moderately arcuate; eyes narrow. 

Pronotum strongly transverse, greatest median length contained approxi- 
mately one and three-fifth times in greatest width across caudo-lateral 
angles; seen from dorsum lateral and cephalic margins broadly and regu- 
larly arcuate except for a supra-cephalic flattening, which section seen in 
cephalic aspect is moderately arcuate dorsad, caudal margin gently arcuate, 
slightly sigmoid laterad, caudo-lateral angles subproduced rectangulate. 
lateral and cephalic margins very narrowly cingulate. Mesonotum with 

, . — . » — — - • r 

S0 IIIemon on the French labels. The spelling used above is that of English atlases. 



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104 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [VOL. LXXXIX 

normally exposed median portion of caudal margin straight. Metanotum 
with caudal margin broadly concave, caudo-lateral angles slightly acute, 
lateral margins moderately convex. 

Tegmina in greatest costal length almost equal to that of the pronotum, 
apex much surpassing distal margin of mesonotum, greatest proximal width 
appreciably greater than length distad from caudo-lateral angle of 
pronotum, lobiform; lateral margin arcuate, cingulate, apex narrowly 
rounded, distal margin strongly oblique sub-sigmoid from the very short 
sutural section into which the distal passes, interspace between tegmina sub- 
equal to width of a single tegmen; texture subcorneous, venation little evi- 
dent, a rudimentary humeral trunk and anal vein indicated with traces of 
radiating costal veins and subparallel axillary veins. 

Abdomen broad, caudo-lateral angles of all tergites moderately acute- 
produced, the lateral sections slightly upcurved; ultimate tergite (supra-anal 
plate) transverse subrectangulate, greatest length half of proximal width, 
lateral margins sigmoid, broadly rounding into the bilobate distal margin 
which is distinctly but shallowly emarginate mesad with a sharply impressed 
medio-longitudinal sulcus in distal fourth of dorsal surface, which as a 
whole is faintly concave distad of a broadly triangular but weakly defined 
proximal area; cerci very short and broad, depressed, subtrigonal, not reach- 
ing to distal margin of ultimate tergite, apex blunt acute. Ultimate sternite 
(subgenital plate) broad, transverse, distal margin emarginate ventrad of 
cerci, arcuate mesad. 

Limbs very robust, particularly the median and caudal which have the 
femora moderately arcuate, longitudinally, strongly compressed and pro- 
portionately very deep, the tibiae, and particularly the caudal, strongly 
compressed; ventral margins of median and caudal femora unspined except 
for distal; caudal tarsi with proximal article subequal in length to remaining 
ones combined. 

General color above blackish fuscous, venter and limbs cinnamon-brown, 
sometimes (type) becoming ochraceous-tawny on the coxae and femora. 
Pronotum with or without (type) elongate trigonal marginal areas of pale 
buff on the supra-ocular portion of the cephalic margin, the caudal margin 
bearing a series of small dull olive-buff blotches, four (in type) or more 
in number, sometimes fewer by fusion, irregular in shape and variable in 
size, often containing enclosed punctuations of the general color, the more 
lateral ones larger than the others and occupying the caudo-lateral angles. 
Caudo-lateral angles of the abdominal tergites similarly maculate but these 
areas more regularly subquadrate, more sharply defined and not punctate, 
those on the second tergite usually (in type) the larger, ultimate tergite with 
a pair of pale areas distad and apices of cerci similarly colored. Head with 
face mars brown I type) to mummy brown, occiput ochraceous-buff, with or 
without (type) four closely-placed parallel longitudinal fuscous lines: eyes 
black; antennae tawny (type) to fuscous. 

Length of body, 13.2 mm.; length of pronotum, 3.78; greatest width of 
pronotum, 6.72; length of tegmen caudad of pronotum, 2.52; proximal width 
of tegmen, 3.36; greatest width of abdomen, 8.5. 

In addition to the type I have before me an adult female from the Upper 
Uele, Belgian Congo (June, 1925; L. Ghesquiere), belonging to the Museum 
of the Belgian Congo, and three immature individuals, one male and two 



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females, in the instar preceding maturity, bearing the same data as the type, 
except that two lack the month of capture, and in the collection of the Paris 
Museum and the Academy. The Upper Uele specimen fully agrees with 
the type in all essential features, showing only certain color differences set 
forth in the above description, and is considered a paratype. The immature 
individuals are slightly lighter in color than the adults, showing more clear 
pitch brown along the segmental margins, while the face is more blackish 
in one than in the others. The dorsal surface, particularly of the abdomen, 
meso- and metanota in the immature individuals is distinctly micro-tuber- 
culate, a condition not indicated in the adult females. The immature male 
shows very evident rudiments of both tegmina and wings. 

It is seen from the material now in hand that the species is broadly dis- 
tributed along the northern edge of the Forest Province. 

Stilpnoblatta planiceps/ 1 new species. Plate 10, figs. 55 and 56. 

The principal features which distinguish planiceps from nugax have been 
given above in the key to the species. In addition all the tibiae, but parti- 
cularly the median and caudal, are somewhat more strongly compressed and 
in consequence more lamellate expanded transversely than in nugax. 

Type. — 9 ; Carnot, Upper Sanga River, Middle Congo, French Equa- 
torial Africa. August, 1908. (Dr. J. Kerandel.) [Paris Museum.] 

As S. planiceps is in most features quite similar to 5. nugax the present 
description is very largely comparative with the preceding one of the latter. 

Size, form and surface as in nugax. 

Head in shape and proportions, and extent of occipital exposure as seen 
in dorsal aspect as in nugax: face strongly deplanate, abruptly passing into 
the longitudinally arcuate occiput by a sharp subcarinate transverse inter- 
ocular ridge, which markedly cuts off the face from the occipital region and 
accentuates the flattening of the face; occipital interspace between eyes 
broad, equal to virtually one-half of head width; eyes as in nugax. 

Pronotum, mesonotum and metanotum as' in nugax. 

Tegmina somewhat shorter than in nugax, their greatest marginal length 
equal to two-thirds that of pronotum, apex well surpassing distal margin of 
mesonotum, greatest proximal width one and one-half times the tegminal 
length distad from caudo-lateral angle of pronotum, general form other- 
wise much as in S. nugax, texture more corneous and venation indications 
less evident on the costal side of the humeral trunk than in S. nugax; 
interspace between tegmina equal to five-sixths the proximal width of a 
single tegmen. 

Abdomen in general features essentially as in 8. nugax, the caudo-lateral 
angles of all tergitcs somewhat broader and less decidedly acute; ultimate 
tergite (supra-anal plate) as in nugax, but median emargination slightly 
more marked and that area lacking any mcdio-longitudinal sulcus; cerci 
similar to but slightly sharper at apex than in nugax; ultimate sternite ( sub- 
genital plate) as in nugax but subcercal emarginations subobsoletc and 
medio-distal portion of margin shallowly emarginate. 



81 In allusion to the strongly deplanate face. 



» 



106 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [VOL. LXXXIX 

Limbs as in nugax but tibiae, and particularly the median and caudal, 
more strongly compressed and in consequence with their outlines broader. 

Coloration as in 8. nugax, the median sections of the mcsonotum and 
metanotum each having in addition a pair of irregular but balanced 
vermiculatc markings of olive-buff, as well as indications of marginal bead- 
ing of the same color on certain of the abdominal tergites. Pronotum with 
pale triangles on the cephalic margin well developed, while the caudal 
margin of the same lacks lateral olive-buff areas but possesses a median 
balanced series of usually connected pale vermiculations. Venter cinnamon 
brown, paling to ochraceous-tawny on the coxae, face largely pitch brown, 
occiput ochraceous-buff with four subobsolete longitudinal lines of buck- 
thorn brown. 

Length of body, 12 mm.; length of pronotum, 4.03; greatest width of 
pronotum, 6.88; length of tegmen caudad of pronotum, 2.1; proximal width 
of tegmen, 3.27; greatest width of abdomen, 8.5. 

The type is unique. The type locality is situated close to the northern 
edge of the Forest Province, where there is a distinct interdigitation of 
forest and savanna elements. The author is familiar with conditions at 
that point, having passed through Carnot in October, 1934. 

ISONISCUS Borg 

1902. Isonicus Borg, Bihang K. Svenska Vet.-Akad. Handl., XXVIII, Afd. IV, no. 
10, p. 27. 

Shelford 82 removed this genus from the Panchlorinae, where it had been 
tentatively placed by Borg, to the Perisphaerinae. I have not seen the 
second species of the genus, /. scaber, described by Shelford at that time, 83 
which however, judging from the description, is very distinct from sjostedti. 

Isoniscus sjostedti Borg. 

1902. Isoni.scm .yd.stcdtt Borg. Bihang K. Svenska Vet.-Akad. Handl.. XXVIII. 
afd. IV, no. 10, p. 28, pi. II, fig. 3. [ 9 ; Cameroon*.] 

Liberia: Mount Coffee; March, 1895 and 1897; (in part R. P. Currie) ; 
eight females (different instars) ; [U.S.N.M. and A.N.S.P.]. Clay Ashland; 
1895; (Mrs. Sharp) ; two females, two small immature females; f U.S.N.M.], 
Ghanga; September; (J. Bequaert) ; one female. Cape Palmas; (Nasmyth) ; 
one female; f U.S.N.M.l. No exact locality; 1914; two small immature 
females; [U.S.N.M.]. 

Whether this very bizzare blattid will prove to be the apterous female of 
an already known species of another genus, based on an alate male, remains 
to be determined. The specimens before me agree fully in character and 
size (except for the immature ones) with Borg's description. 

The entire information we have as to its habits is that its original 
collector (Sjostedt) found it under decaying wood. 

82 Mem. Soc. Espan. Hist. Nat., I, p. 481, (1909). 
s:i Idem. [ $ ; Spanish Guinea.] 



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107 



PERISPHAERINAE 

The Genus Agis and the West African Species of Pseudoglomeris 

The subfamily Perisphaerinae is represented in South and East Africa 
by a highly diversified and in many cases exceptionally specialized group 
of genera, but in the Lower Guinea Forest District and its general vicinity 
the subfamily is a much less conspicuous and varied element in the blattid 
fauna. Of the relatively few species of the group known to me from the 
Cameroons, Gaboon, French Congo and Belgian Congo, five belong to the 
recently characterized genus Agis 81 and two to the West African subgenus 
Fanoblatta sr> of the otherwise Oriental genus Pseudoglomeris. Both of 
these entities have as their types species described in 1883 by Gerstaecker, 
and recently having had these types before me, it seems advisable to put 
together all the information regarding the genera contained in the extensive 
African blattid series now in my hands for study. 

AGIS Rehn 

1933. Agis Rehn, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., LXXXIV, p. 464. 

Genotype (by original designation). — Derocalymma (Cyrtotria) scabri- 
collis Gerstaecker. 

The characters of the genus and its relationship to Cyrtotria were fully 
discussed in the original generic description. 

In distribution Agis is known only from the West African region between 
the Cameroons and the mouth of the Congo, extending inland, as at present 
known, only along the Congo as far as Brazzaville. 

As the female sex is known of but two species the following key has been 
based entirely on the males. 

Key to Species (Males) 

1. Occipital interspace between eyes not equal to half that between ocellar 

spots. Rim-like caudal margin of pronotum bearing decided crenato- 
serrations. (Occiput without indication of a transverse subangu- 

lation.) 2 

Occipital interspace between eyes equal to or exceeding half that between 
ocellar spots. Rim-like caudal margin of pronotum with at most 
minute crenulato-serrulations. (Anal field of tegmina with at least in- 
dications of distinct or with well developed intercalated nervures.) . .3 

2. Pronotum proportionately broader, greatest width nearly subequal to 

length, lateral gutters of pronotum not broadly excavate, cephalad not 
crossing or subordinating median carina: major asperities of pronotal 
disk smaller but more numerous and closely placed; lateral bands of 
pronotum narrower cephalad, caudal margin of disk with crenato- 
dentations marked and clearly cut scabricollis (Gerstaecker ) 

8 « Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., LXXXIV, p. 464, (1933). 
"■■Idem, LXXXIV. p. 469. (1933). 



108 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [VOL. LXXXIX 

Pronotum proportionately longer, greatest width appreciably less than 
length; lateral gutters of pronotum much more broadly excavate, 
cephalad crossing and subordinating median carina; major asperities 
of pronotal disk larger, fewer and more widely spaced; lateral bands 
of pronotum broader cephalad; caudal margin of disk with crenato- 
dentations lower and blunter duchaillui, new species 

3. Pronotum proportionately longer, narrower, latero-cephalic portions of 

disk broadly concavo-excavate, in transverse section distinctly tectate 
across median carina; all asperities of pronotal disk coarser; in profile 
dorsal line of disk is straight except briefly caudad. Face as a whole 
concave transversely, this extending well dorsad between eyes and not 
localized to interocellar region; occiput without a transversely disposed 

subangulation at dorso-internal angles of eyes fictor, new species 

Pronotum proportionately shorter and broader, latero-cephalic portions 
of disk not broadly concavo-excavate, this area much less tectate 
across median carina; all asperities of pronotal disk finer and denser; 
in profile dorsal line of disk is low, but distinctly and regularly, 
arcuate. Face with impressed area virtually limited to a transverse 
interocellar section; occiput with a moderate but definite and distinct 
transverse subangulation at dorso-internal angles of eyes 4 

4. Size larger (body, 12 mm.: pronotum, 3.78). Head broad, greatest 

breadth across eyes faintly greater than depth of head; interspace 
between eyes not greater than four-fifths that between internal margins 
of ocellar spots. Lateral gutters of pronotum broadening cephalad, 
internal face of lateral bands broader, more cucullate dorso-cephalad; 
asperities of surface of pronotal disk coarser; dorsal margin of lateral 
bands of pronotum sinuate in profile. Intercalated veins of tegmina 
always much less evident than basic venation. Limbs proportionately 

more elongate peltatus, new species 

Size smaller (body, 10.5 mm.; pronotum, 3.36). Head not as broad 
proportionately, greatest breadth across eyes and depth of head sub- 
equal; interspace between eyes very nearly equal to that between 
internal margins of ocellar spots. Lateral gutters of pronotum not 
broadening cephalad, internal face of lateral bands narrower, less 
cucullate dorso-cephalad; asperities of surface of pronotal disk finer 
and denser; dorsal margin of lateral bands of pronotum straight in 
profile except very briefly cephalad. Intercalated veins of tegmina as 
a whole nearly as evident as basic venation. Limbs proportionately 
shorter and more robust pusillus, new species 

Agis scabricoliis (Gerstaecker). 

1883. Deroc[alymma] (Cyrtotria) scabricoliis Gerstaecker, Mitth. Naturw. Ver. 

von Xeu-Vorpomm. u. Riigen, Greifswald, XIV, p. 74. f <$ ; Dongila, Gaboon.] 
1908. Cyrtotria scabricoliis Shelford, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., (8), I, p. 174, pi. 

X, figs. 18 ( $ ) and 24 ( 9 ). (In part?) [Examined type and reported female 

from Cameroons. 86 1 

1933. Agis scabricoliis Rehn, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., LXXXIV, p. 465, pi. 
XXXII, figs. 14-16. [ Rodescription and figures of type.] 

Of this species I have seen only the male type, belonging to the Zoological 
Museum of the University of Greifswald. Shelford has figured this speci- 

86 For consideration of this female see accompanying discussion. 



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NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA 



109 



men, 87 but his illustration is so sketchy and incorrect no subsequent worker 
could with certainty determine the species from it. This is said with full 
knowledge of Gerstaecker's type, which, fortunately. I have been able to 
figure with greater care, in addition to presenting a full redeseription of it. 83 

I feel quite certain that the Cameroons female considered to be that sex 
of scabricollis by Shelford 89 does not belong to this species, but probably 
represents the female sex of A. duchaillui described on a succeeding page. 
In addition to any geographic reasons for this suggestion, there is the size 
correlation of this specimen, which indicates duchaillui, the character and 
distribution of the discal tubercles, the arcuation of the dorsal line of the 
pronotum when seen in profile and the general shape of the lateral bands 
of the same, all of which are nearer what we find in the male of duchaillui 
than in that of scabricollis. These comparisons, of course, have been drawn 
from Shelford's figure of the female, which may be no more reliable than 
that given by him of the male. 

If we eliminate the female specimen recorded by Shelford from con- 
sideration in connection with scabricollis, our knowledge of the latter's 
distribution is solely the locality of the type, which was taken at Dongila 
on the Gaboon River, not far from Libreville. 

Agis duchaillui, 90 new species. Plate io, fig. 48; pi. 11, figs. 57 and 58. 

? 1908. Cyrtotria scabricollis Shelford, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., (8), I, p. 174. 
pi. X, fig. 24. [Female only; Cameroons.'] (Probably not scabricollis 
Gerstaecker.) 

The features which are given in the key for the differentiation of this 
species from scabricollis, its nearest ally both morphologically and geo- 
graphically, will serve to distinguish it with little difficulty. The longer, 
narrower, rather more scoop-like pronotum, with its more ample gutters, 
more pronounced cephalic rim and more crassly tuberculate surface will at 
once indicate the species. Unfortunately the unique male type, which was 
damaged at some time in the past, has been glued securely on a narrow 
card, so that features of the ventral surface are almost entirely hidden and 
can be used in a description to but a minor degree, as the condition of the 
specimen makes its removal hazardous. 

Type. — $ ; San Benito River, Spanish Guinea. 1885. (Guiral.) [Paris 
Museum.] 

Size relatively large for the genus; general form much resembling that of 
scabricollis. 

87 Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., (8), I, pi. X, fig. 18, (1908). 

88 Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., LXXXIV, pp. 465-468, pi. 32, figs. 15-16, (1933). 

89 Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., (8), I, p. 174, pi. X, fig. 24. 

90 In memory of Paul B. Duchaillu, pioneer naturalist in the Gaboon and Muni 
River regions. 



110 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [VOL. LXXXIX 



Head cordiform, greatest width across eyes but slightly less than greatest 
depth of head (as 48 to 53), eyes moderately prominent, sub-bullate; occi- 
pital interspace between eyes narrow, less than one-third that between the 
ventral points of ocellar spots (as 4 to 14); occipital area well rounded 
longitudinally, without any indication of a transverse angulation; face 
between ocellar spots and antennal scrobes shallowly concave transversely, 
this tendency obsolete on lower face, across face at level of lower border of 
ocellar spots is situated a transverse shallow impression, surface of face and 
occiput irregularly impressed, cribroso-punctate, less distinct ventrad on 
face; antennae incomplete in type. 

Pronotum elongate semi-elliptical in outline as seen in dorsal aspect, the 
greatest caudal breadth slightly less than the greatest length of the pro- 
notum (as 47 to 53), in the same view the lateral margins gently then more 
decidedly converge arcuately to the definitely narrow but well rounded 
cephalic extremity; caudal margin of pronotum in general moderately 
convex arcuate, the margin itself sublamellate and bearing approximately 
eight low undulate crenulations, on the internal side the marginal flange is 
set off by a distinct transverse subsulcate impression, which is partially 
interrupted by the median ridge; lateral gutters broadly indicated, well 
excavated, cephalad virtually joining although narrowly crossed by the 
median carina, caudad the gutters regularly narrow, are not deeply incised 
and show four glandular f oveae ; surface of disk of pronotum, as well as the 
vicinity of the caudal transverse impression, thickly but irregularly, sharply 
and deeply impressed cribroso-punctate, beneath which there is a fairly 
regular pattern of relatively sharp pustulose nodes; median carina definite 
but weak, rather finely cut cephalad on disk, subobsolete mesad and low, 
substrumose caudad: lateral bands broad as seen in profile, at cephalic third 
slightly deeper than at caudal sixth; dorsal margin of bands entire, ventral 
margin distinctly but not coarsely serratulate; surface of bands distinctly 
shagreenous; typical carinae as in scabricollis. 

Tegmina and wings when in repose surpassing the apex of the abdomen 
by two-thirds of the length of the pronotum. Tegmina with greatest width 
(at distal fourth) contained about three and nine-twentieth times in the 
greatest tegminal length: costal margin in large part shallowly concave from 
the very brief proximal arcuation to the distal third, whence the margin is 
regularly arcuate to the rather narrowly rounded apex: marginal field as in 
scabricollis; anal field as in scabricollis: discoidal sectors and anal vein as 
in scabricollis ; axillary veins seven to eight in number, rarely bifurcate, 
evenly concentric, without intercalated nervures, cross veins numerous and 
moderately regular. 

Abdomen with features as already described for scabricollis but sinistral 
style damaged and lacking. 

Caudal limbs with tarsi incomplete and proportions not ascertainable. 

General color of dorsal and ventral surfaces russet, paling to hazel distad 
on the tegmina, lateral bands of promotum darkening to mars brown along 
ventral margins; limbs and cerci buckthorn brown. 

Length of body, 15.2 mm.; length of pronotum, 4.45; greatest (caudal) 
width of pronotum, 3.94; length of tegmen, 13.3; greatest width of tegmen 
at distal fourth, 3.86. 



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1937] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA 111 

I have seen only the type of this species. As stated above under A. 
scabricollis it is quite probable the female individual referred to the latter 
species by Shelford in 1908, instead represents duchaillui. If this is the 
case the present insect occurs in both Spanish Guinea and the Cameroons. 

Agis fictor.oi new species. Plate 10. fig. 49; pi. 11, figs. 59 and 60. 

The greatly elongate pronotum with its exceptionally scoop-like char- 
acter, and the expansion of the lateral glitters cephalad so that the latero- 
cephalic portions of the disk are markedly concave, giving to the pronotum 
a more spatulatc appearance than is seen in any of the other forms of the 
genus, will at once serve to distinguish this very distinct species. In addi- 
tion the male of fictor is unique in having the dorsal line of the pronotal 
disk almost entirely straight as seen in profile, the males of the other forms 
having this regularly arcuate to varying degrees. 

T ype. — $ ; Congo da Lemba," 2 District of Lower Congo, Belgian Congo. 
February to March, 1913. (R. Mayne.) [Museum of the Belgian Congo.] 

Size medium for the genus; general form more slender and proportion- 
ately more elongate than in scabricollis and duchaillui. 

Head cordiform, greatest width across eyes subequal to depth of head, 
eyes moderately prominent, sub-bullate but more evenly rotundate than in 
duchaillui; occipital interspace between eyes equal to five-eighths that 
between the internal borders of the ocellar spots, the broad occiput plane 
transversely, not at all concave, and lacking any indication of a transverse 
carinatc ridge; face ventrad of occiput largely concave transversely, this 
marked between the ocellar spots, that portion immediately dorsad of the 
clypeus transversely impressed, 03 surface of occiput hardly at all punctu- 
late, that of concave portion of face sparsely but distinctly impresso- 
punctate; antennae damaged in type, remaining articles moniliform, short, 
particularly those for some distance distal of the third from the base. 

Pronotum as seen in dorsal aspect with outline very elongate semi- 
elliptical, the greatest caudal breadth slightly less than seven-eighths of the 
greatest pronotal length (as 42 to 50), lateral margins approximately 
subparallcl in caudal two-fifths of pronotum, thence cephalad obliquely 
arcuate-convergent to the quite narrow but rounded cephalic extremity; 
caudal margin of pronotum transversely low arcuate, appreciably sub- 
lamellate, marginally with only the most minute spaced crenulato-serru- 
lations, intermarginal transverse sulcation as distinctly but more finely 
impressed than in duchaillui, similarly but more delicately interrupted by 
the median carina; lateral gutters of dorsal surface caudad much more 
narrowly and finely indicated than in duchaillui, cephalad broadly ampliate 
toward the median line by the concavity of the surface of the tectate two- 
fifths of pronotal disk, glandular foveae at least eight in number, four placed 
caudad in the narrow portion of the gutters, the others more cephalad where 

01 I.e. a feigner, in allusion to the covered head. 

92 About fourteen miles north-east by east of Matadi. 

93 As the type has been dried from alcohol, this emphasis may be due to desiccation. 



112 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF 



[Vol. LXXXIX 



the gutters have widened, and where they are partially covered and some- 
what hidden by a diagonally placed series of small lappet-like nodules: 
surface of disk of pronotum very largely covered with a dense but irregularly 
placed pattern of impresso-punctations as found in duchaillui, this also 
involving the caudal transverse sulcation and the caudal margin, while 
cephalad on the disk, where in transverse section the form within the lateral 
gutters is distinctly tectate, the impressed punctations give way to a regu- 
larly placed pattern of recurved shagreenous teeth, those laterad of the 
median area directed caudo-laterad, those in the median section pointing 
directly caudad; beneath the pattern of impresso-punctations is a sparser 
pattern of pustulose nodes much as found in duchaillui, but these are smaller, 
fewer and virtually absent from the more doplanate median section of the 
disk; median carina obsolete between a marked development cephalad and 
a moderate indication caudad, the cephalic section being the culminating 
ridge of an appreciably tectate area which is concavely declivent on either 
side and which has its surface distinctly shagreenous denticulate: in lateral 
view the dorsal outline of the pronotum is seen to be nearly straight with the 
cephalic margin gently upcurved in a lip-like fashion: lateral bands of 
pronotum seen in profile very broad when compared with those of duchaillui, 
greatest depth mesad, thence evenly narrowing cephalad by the regular 
dorsal trend of the ventral margin of the band, caudad of greatest depth the 
bands narrow but faintly, until very briefly before the caudal margin of the 
disk the ventral border of the bands sharply curves dorsad and joins the 
former margin; dorsal margin of bands very weakly sigmoid, virtually 
entire, ventral margin entire cephalad, in caudal three-fifths serratulate as 
in duchaillui; surface of bands impressed cribroso-punctulate, becoming 
subshagreenous cephalad, while medio-longitudinally can be seen indica* 
tions of several low substrumose nodes; in ventral aspect the pronotum is 
seen to have the lateral sections more compressed than in duchaillui, which 
throws into a more vertical position that area between the ventral margins 
of the lateral bands of the pronotum and the typical carinae, the tooth at 
the apex of the latter being much more slender and delicate than in 
duchaillui. 

Tegmina and wings when in repose surpassing the apex of the abdomen 
by nearly the length of the pronotum. Tegmina narrower than in duchaillui, 
with the greatest width (at distal third) contained three and four-tenth 
times in the greatest tegminal length: costal margin as in duchaillui, apex 
slightly more narrowly rounded than in latter: marginal field proportion- 
ately narrower than in duchaillui; anal field narrower and more sharply 
acute than in duchaillui: anal vein more evenly and less sharply arcuate 
distad, joining the sutural margin at a more acute angle than in duchaillui: 
axillary veins six in number, with indications of intercalated longitudinal 
false nervures between at least the more proximal portions of the axillary 
veins. 

Abdomen with ultimate tergite (supra-anal plate) proportioned as in 
scabricollis, strongly transverse rectangulatc, surface of medio-proximal 
section transversely ovate subexcavate: cerci much as in scabricollis but 
twice as long as median length of ultimate tergite: ultimate sternite (sub- 



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1937 J NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA 113 

genital plate) as in scabricollis: 94 styles as in scabricollis except that the 
dextral is one and one-half times the length of the sinistral. 98 

Caudal tarsi with proportions of the metatarsus to whole tarsus as in 
scabricollis, i.e. two-fifths of the total tarsal length. 

General color of dorsal surface mars brown, progressively paling distad 
on the tcgmina to dresden brown. Head dark, liver brown; antennae dresden 
brown, paling proximad; palpi ochraceous-tawny. Ventral surface prout's 
brown, ultimate sternite with a base color of pale ochraceous-orange, clouded 
with pale prout's brown; dorsal surface of metanotum and abdomen 
ochraceous-buff, intertegminal area of mesonotum of the dorsal color. Limbs 
ochraceous-tawny. 

Length of body, 12.4 mm.; length of pronotum, 4.2; greatest (caudal) 
width of pronotum, 3.52; length of tegmen. 12.2; greatest width of tegmen 
(at distal third), 3.52. 

In addition to the type I have before me a paratypic male bearing the 
same data as the type, except that no month is specified for 1913. This 
individual shows no noteworthy difference from the above description and 
is of the same size as the type. 

Agis peltatus, 96 new species. Plate io, figs. 46 and 47; pi. 11, figs. 61 and 62. 

The broad head, great interocular space, appreciable angulation of the 
occiput and pronotal form show that peltatus is nearest to pusillus, described 
on a succeeding page, but its greater size, more typical lateral gutters and 
coarser sculpture of the pronotal disk, as well as the sinuation of the dorsal 
border of the lateral bands of the pronotum, and the less uniform, continuous 
or pronounced character of the intercalated tegminal venation will serve to 
indicate this species. 

Type. — 6 ; Mayumbe, 97 District of Lower Congo, Belgian Congo. 
(Deleval.) [Museum of the Belgian Congo.] 

Size medium for the genus; general form more nearly as in scabricollis, 
less slender than in fictor. 

Head broad cordiform, greatest width across eyes slightly more than 
greatest depth of head, the eyes full and evenly rounded when seen in 
cephalic aspect, somewhat bullate ventro-laterad but not at all so dorso- 
lateral!, where the eye outline passes evenly into the straight transverse line 
of the occipital interspace, which is broad, equal to approximately two-thirds 
the width of the interspace between the internal margins of the ocellar spots 

94 The type has the margin of this sternite somewhat abnormal in that the 
characteristic dextral recurved spine-like tooth is lacking. The paratype is perfectly 
normal in this respect, and shows that the condition of this margin in detail is as in 
the related species. 

95 The injury which created the abnormality of the dextral portion cf the distal 
margin of the ultimate sternite, above mentioned, also involved the dextral cercus and 
dextral style. The latter is thus no longer than the sinistral, its distal section being 
aborted, as is clear from an examination of the paratype. 

06 I.e. armed with the pelta, a light shield. 

97 A local term applied to that portion of the District of Lower Congo (Bas Congo) 
west of the Crystal Mountains, north of the Congo River, adjacent to the Portuguese 
colony of Cabinda. 



114 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [VOL. LXXXIX 



(as 11 to 17), the occipital surface not at all concave but subdeclivent 
ventro-cephalad and dorsad, near the caudal margins of the eyes, bearing a 
weak but distinct transverse subangulation ; surface of face with an area 
between the ocellar spots, much more limited in extent than in A. fictor, 
shallowly concave, the surface of the whole face and less markedly that of 
the occiput irregularly impressed cribroso-punctulate, transverse impression 
immediately dorsad of clypeus less marked than in fictor; antennae in- 
complete in type. 

Pronotum in general form and proportions much as in scabricollis, 
except that the whole is slightly more elongate, the greatest (caudal) width 
being contained in the greatest length one and one-ninth times (as 39 to 45) ; 
outline of lateral and cephalic margins as seen from dorsum as already 
described and figured by me for scabricollis; 98 caudal margin of pronotum 
with arcuation as in species already discussed, lamellation and crenulation 
of the border as in A. fictor, transverse intra-marginal impression as definite 
but less broadly impressed than in fictor, less broken by the median carina; 
lateral gutters of the dorsal surface very narrowly but deeply indicated 
caudad, cephalad broadening as they do in fictor but slightly less strongly 
so and with their definition from the discal surface more clearly indicated, 
glandular foveae on each side ten to eleven in number, five placed in the 
narrow caudal section of the gutters, the others cephalad where they are 
shielded dorsad by a series of node-like tubercles: surface of disk as a whole 
more evenly inflated than in either duchaillui or fictor, in this respect more 
nearly like scabricollis, the cephalic portion of the disk but weakly tectate, 
surface sculpture with the same elements found in fictor, the shagreenous 
points of the cephalic portion of the disk more thickly and less regularly 
placed and accompanied latero-cephalad on the disk by low but distinct 
nodose tubercles, which are distinct from the usual pattern of sparser, more 
pronounced larger nodes, which in this species are at least as numerous as in 
the species already treated and are individually smaller, sharper and more 
asperous; median carina quite sharply indicated cephalad and with surface 
there having shagreenous denticles, caudad appreciably but less sharply and 
definitely indicated, obsolete in the central section of the disk: in lateral 
view the pronotum shows a dorsal line very similar to that of scabricollis 
but less domed and more evenly declivent cephalad: lateral bands of pro- 
notum when seen in profile essentially as in scabricollis, their greatest depth 
faintly caudad of their middle, thence caudad they regularly narrow by the 
faint caudad declivence of the dorsal margin of the bands, ventral margin 
serratulate as in other species, the surface of the bands thickly covered with 
caudad-recurved shagreenous denticles, which cephalad are roughly linear 
in disposition; in ventral aspect the pronotum is much as in fictor except 
that the area between the ventral margin of the bands and the typical 
sulcus is slightly broader. 

Tegmina surpassing apex of abdomen by a distance subequal to pronotal 
length, greatest width at distal third contained three and sixth-tenth times 
in greatest length of same, apex narrowly rounded; proximal section of 
marginal field proportionately broader than in A. fictor, adjacent section 
of humeral trunk more sharply sigmoid than in latter species; anal vein with 
curvature as in A. fictor, reaching sutural margin at two-fifths the length of 



»sProc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., LXXXIV, p. 466, pi. 32, fig. 15, (1933). 



1937 J 



NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA 



115 



the latter from it* base; anal field with six principal axillary veins, of which 
the more sutural one is less decided and less complete than the others, inter- 
calated nervures of the field evident but incomplete and not continuous, 
broken by the more decided transverse rami which impart a quadrate or 
rectangulate character to the areolation of the field, the intercalated nervures 
usually mere short medio-longitudinal carinulae in the areolae, often con- 
nected laterad by irregular rami. Wings in repose very faintly surpassing 
tegmina, with apex having the same degree of arcuation as that area of 
tegmina. 

Abdomen with ultimate tergite (supra-anal plate) transverse, the 
greatest median length slightly less than one-third proximal width, distal 
margin broadly arcuate, more deplanate mesad, surface of tergite distad of 
a transverse arcuate line subimpressed ; ultimate sternite (subgenital plate) 
essentially as in A. duchaillui but arcuation of median portion of distal 
margin slightly lower and more flattened and both stylar diastems smaller 
and slightly less extensive, styles simple and styliform, the dextral but 
faintly longer and more robust than the sinistral, the length of the former 
nearly equal to one-third the distance between the bases of the two styles; 
cerci as in A. scabricollis 99 but having only eight evident segments. 

Caudal tarsi with proportions of metatarsus to whole as in scabricollis, 
i.e. two-fifths of the total length. 

General color of pronotum, tegmina and wings prout's brown with a 
chestnut-brown tinge to the pronotum. Both surfaces of abdomen mummy 
brown, with a narrow lateral bordering of ochraceous-tawny, the terminal 
tergite and sternite distad bordered with ochraceous-buff. Head, except for 
the ochraceous buccal region and palpi and the fuscous eyes, entirely deep 
chestnut-brown; antennae incomplete, remaining portion ochraceous-buff 
washed with fuscous; limbs ochraceous-buff. 

Length of body, 12 mm.; length of pronotum, 3.78; greatest (caudal) 
width of pronotum, 3.27; length of tegmen, 11.7; greatest width of tegmen 
at distal third, 3.19. 

Allotype. — $ ; " Kuni," 100 Mayumbe, District of Lower Congo, Belgian 
Congo. May 23, 1925. (A. Collart.) [Museum of the Belgian Congo. 1 

Size medium; from subcylindrical, flattened ventrad, apterous; surface 
at least weakly impresso-punctulate (on abdomen). 

Head subelongate cordiform in outline, breadth across eyes equal to 
seven-ninths of the depth of head ; outline of eyes and occiput evenly arcuate 
when seen in cephalic aspect, occipital interspace between eyes equal to 
one-third greatest width of head, and two-thirds that between antennal 
scrobes, a very blunt and weak but evident transverse subangulation present 
in this area, separating the occiput from the face; interantennal portion of 
face with a shallowly impressed area, arcuately limited ventrad and dorsad 
passing indefinitely into the level of the face, the entire head surface 

98 See Rehn, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila, LXXXIV, p. 467, (1933). 

100 I am convinced that this name, which is printed in long-hand on the label, is a 
transcription error for Kizu, a well-known locality in the Mayumbe region. I am 
entirely unable to find a M Kuni " in the Mayumbe, even in the very detailed Belgian 
1924 chart of the Leopoldville quadrant, which is particularly valuable for Mayumbe 
localities. 



116 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [VOL. LXXXIX 



distinctly and cribrosely impresso-punctate. Antennae incomplete but at 
least as long as pronotum, third article three-fifths the length of the 
proximal one. 

Pronotum of the cucullate type found in the males of the genus but 
stouter, with the rim of the lateral bands flatter and more shovel-like, their 
internal surfaces less ascending and more deplanate, the lateral gutters more 
broadly opened, the discal boss of the pronotum higher, fuller, more domed, 
the caudal margin of the pronotum lacking an intramarginal transverse 
sulcation: median length of pronotum but faintly more than greatest width, 
lateral margins in dorsal view almost parallel and straight in caudal half, 
cephalad semicircularly rounded ; in lateral view the dorsal line of the pro- 
notal disk is regularly and arcuately ascending from the intermarginal 
impression to a slightly more deplanate caudal section of the disk; caudal 
margin of pronotum slightly concave, beaded with low, spaced tubercles: 
lateral gutters deeply impressed mesad and caudad, their much less decided 
cephalic continuations meeting at an obtuse angle in the supra-cephalic 
intramarginal impression, broader than in the male, glandular foveolae 
numerous, their openings less evident than in male sex, less definitely 
shielded dorsad by node-like tubercles; surface of disk almost completely 
cribrose impresso-punctate, with less numerous spaced asperous tubercles, 
which are virtually absent from the flatter meso-caudal portion of the disk, 
median cannula very weak, subobsolete: lateral bands of pronotum rel- 
atively broad, of more even width than in male; dorsal margin nearly 
straight except toward caudal point, ventral margin evenly arcuate, caudal 
angle moderately produced caudad of general caudal margin of pronotum, 
acute; dorsal margin entire, ventral margin serrato-denticulate, lateral 
surface of bands finely shagreenous; typical sulcus of venter with the caudal 
tooth very distinct and definitely produced. Mesonotum caudad but very 
faintly broader than pronotum at caudal margin, its caudal margin largely 
transverse truncate, the caudo-lateral angles very slightly subfalcate pro- 
duced caudad, lateral margins of mesonotum moderately arcuate, narrowly 
cingulate, very weakly low serrulate; surface of mesonotum shagreenous 
laterad, more impresso-punctate mesad with a distinct but low medio-longi- 
tudinal cannula, moderately timid humerally and meso-proximad with a 
transverse truncate groove, which separates the greater portion of the tergite 
from a meso-cephalic more inflated section of the same. Metanotum slightly 
shorter than mesonotum, caudal margin in general concave, caudo-lateral 
angles and lateral margins much as in mesonotum, but the former are 
blunter and the latter more sharply arcuate cephalad; general texture of 
surface as in mesonotum but median cannula finer, almost no humeral 
tumidity and no cephalic transverse groove indicated. 

Abdomen subelliptical in outline, its greatest median width about a 
fourth greater than caudal pronotal width, subdeplanate, apex in dorsal vein 
broadly rounded, dorsal surface finely shagreenous laterad, passing to finely 
impresso-punctulate mesad, ventral surface lightly polished, rather openly 
impresso-punctulate: ultimate tergite (supra-anal plate) transverse, sub- 
trapezoidal, the distal margin moderately broad arcuate, passing evenly into 
the oblique faintly sigmoid lateral margins, greatest median length slightly 
less than half greatest proximal width, surface subconcave, subshagreenous, 
more densely so toward the margin: cerci broad, deplanate, apex acute, 



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1937] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA 117 

length slightly less than half that of ultimate tergite, not distinctly seg- 
mented: ultimate sternite (subgenital plate) large, its median length con- 
tained two and two-fifth times in the greatest proximal width of the sternite, 
distal margin broad arcuate, faintly sinuate ventrad of the cerci. 

Limbs very short, the femora quite stout: cephalic femora with vcntro- 
cephalic margin having a definite serrulate cannula in the position of the 
spine series of many blattids, distal spine short and stout; cephalic tibiae 
with length equal to two-thirds that of femora: median limbs lacking: 
caudal femora subcompressed, caudal tibiae faintly longer than femora, 
straight, compressed: caudal tarsi with proximal article but faintly longer 
than one-third of total tarsal length, arolium large. 

General color fuscous brown, tinged with chestnut-brown in the pronotal 
gutter and on the caudal margins of all the thoracic and abdominal seg- 
ments; head, coxae and limbs hay's russet, paling to dull zinc orange on 
cephalic tibiae and all tarsi; antennae buckthorn brown, paling proximad 
to zinc orange; palpi dull ochraceous; eyes fuscous. 

Length of body, 14.5 mm.; length of pronotum, 4.53; caudal width of 
pronotum, 4.36; greatest width of abdomen, 6.46; length of caudal femur, 2.1. 

When the above female is compared with the only known specimen of 
that sex of the genus, described, figured and referred to Gerstaecker's scabri- 
collis by Shelford 101 we note numerous differences. As I have already 
stated on a preceding page I feel the specimen so reported does not represent 
scabricollis but instead belongs to A. duchaillui described in the present 
study. The exactness of Shclford's figure is open to question, as that of the 
unique male type of Gerstaecker's species presented on the same plate, 102 
is completely erroneous in most of its details, as my own examination and 
redescription and the very carefully made figure of the pronotum of that 
specimen, presented in my study of that author's type, 10 ' will show. How- 
ever, regardless of what the previously known female may eventually prove 
to be, when the present specimen is'compared with Shelford's description 
and figure it is seen to have the pronotum in outline cephalad distinctly more 
broadly arcuate and not at all acute, while the distribution of the tubercles 
on the same is quite different, the lateral bands of more even width and 
nowhere proportionately as broad as figured, and the caudal production of 
the same less decided. 

Agis pusillus, new species. Plate n, figs. 63 and 64. 

The small size of this species will at once serve to identify it. In addition 
the other diagnostic features given in the key to the forms of the genus 
will show the distinctive character of pusillus, which is in no way closely 
related to any other species except pcltatus. 

101 Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., (8), I, p. 174, pi. X, fig. 24, (1908). [ 9 ; Cameroons.l 

102 Idem, fig. 18. 

loaProc. Acad. Xat. Sci. Phila.. LXXXIV, pp. 465-468. pi. 32. figs. 14-16, (1933). 



118 



n;ocKi:i)iX(.s of thk academy of [Vol. LWXIX 



Type. — 6 ; Vicinity of Brazzaville, Middle Congo, French Equatorial 
Africa. 1907. (E. Roubaud and A. Weiss.) [Paris Museum.] 

Size smallest of the known species of the genus; general form as in other 
members of the genus. 

Head cordiform, relatively broad but less so than in A. peltatas, the 
greatest depth slightly greater than greatest width across eyes (as 6 to 5.6), 
latter slightly less tumid than in peltatus, occipital interspace between same 
faintly more than one-third of greatest head width (as 2 to 5.6) and very 
faintly less than that between ocellar spots; transverse subangulation of 
occiput quite distinct, the outline of this area faintly arcuate when seen in 
cephalic aspect; face with a defined transverse interocellar impressed area, 
which is indefinitely obtuse-angulate in shape, surface of head as a whole, 
except for the subglabrous occiput, regularly and evenly, but not very 
closely, impresso-punctate; antennae subequal in length to half of body. 

Pronotum in general dorsal view much resembling that of ,4. scabricollis 104 
but with greatest length very faintly longer than greatest caudal width (as 
11.5 to 10.3), also much resembling that of A. peltatus but faintly broader, 
arcuation of cephalic section of margin exactly as figured for A. scabricollis; 
lateral gutters relatively narrow throughout, their cephalic half much less 
widened than in .4. peltatus, the internal face of the lateral bands much less 
scoop-like than in that species, glandular foveolae eight in number, the more 
cephalic ones more closely placed and smaller than the others, the foveolar 
apertures more exposed and less shielded than in .4. pcltatus; caudal margin 
of pronotum with arcuation slightly more pronounced than in peltatus, 
virtually lacking the beading found in the other species of the genus, inter- 
marginal transverse sulcus much as in peltatus but divided in two very 
definitely by a medio-longitudinal carina; surface of dorsum of pronotum 
thickly and sharply shagreenous with a median carination well developed 
cephalad and caudad and subobsolete in the interval, the pronotal disk with 
a relatively indefinite but balanced sublyrate pattern of glabrous areas; in 
profile the dorsal line of the pronotal disk evenly and relatively low arcuate: 
lateral bands as seen in lateral aspect, relatively broad, their greatest width 
equal to one-fifth the length of the band as seen in lateral aspect; dorsal line 
of band nearly straight, ventral line nearly straight oblique in cephalic half, 
passing by a rounded obtusc-angulation into a horizontal straighl section of 
the margin which caudad passes by a quarter-circle arcuation into the 
caudal margin of the pronotal disk, the dorso-caudal angle of the bands 
being slightly acute, and, as in all the other known males of the genus, not 
at all produced; surface of lateral bands closely shagreenous. 

Tegmina narrow, the greatest width at distal third contained slightly 
less than three and a half times in the tegminal length (as 5.5 to 19) : 
margins as a whole as in .4. peltatus: marginal field with the widened 
proximal portion somewhat more regularly attenuate distad than in peltatus, 
anal field more acute than in latter, the arcuation of the anal vein as a 
whole quite even, joining the sutural margin at a decidedly acute angle: 
venation as a whole more firmly and regularly marked than in peltatus, less 
undulate, more closely placed, intercalated nervures quite marked, almost 

'°*See figure of tvpe of scabricollis, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., LXXXIV, pi. 32, 
fig. 15. (1933). 



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1937] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA 119 

as well emphasized as the main nervures, broken only by the cross nervures, 
particularly evident in the anal field between the six axillary veins, ven- 
ational areolets as a whole distinctly and quite sharply rectangulate. much 
less irregular than in A. peltatus. Wings reaching to the tegminal apices 
when in repose. 

Abdomen with ultimate tergite (supra-anal plate) essentially as in 
peltatus but very slightly more transverse; cerci shorter and stockier than in 
peltatus, the length about twice the greatest median length of ultimate 
tergite ( supra-anal plate) ; ultimate sternite (subgenital plate) as in 
peltatus, the dextral style slightly longer than sinistral. 

Limbs shorter and stouter than in peltatus; caudal tarsi with metatarsus 
equal to slightly less than two-fifths of total tarsal length (as 16 is to 43). 

General color of pronotum russet, obscurely mottled with prout's brown 
on lateral bands and disk, tegmina slightly darkened to chestnut-brown; 
head chestnut-brown, eyes mottled dresden brown and fuscous, palpi 
ochraceous-orange, antennae pale fuscous with approximately three proximal 
articles ochraceous-orange; coxae and abdomen mummy brown, the 
abdominal tergites bordered laterad by narrow subtrigonal areas of dull 
mars yellow, cerci light ochraceous-buff, ultimate sternite narrowly bordered 
with ochraceous-buff, styles same, limbs ochraceous-orange. 

Length of body, 10.5 mm.; length of pronotum, 3.36; greatest width of 
same, 3.02; length of tegmen, 10.4; greatest width of tegmen at distal 
third, 3.27. 

The type is unique. 

PSEUDOGLOMERIS Brunner 
Subgenus FAXOBLATTA Rehn 

1933. Fanoblalta Rehn. Proc. Acad. Xat. Sci. Phila., LXXXIV. p. 469, pi. XXXII, 
figs. 17-21. 

Genotype (by original designation). — Perisphaeria ( Mclanosilpha) 
oniscina Gerstaecker. 

At the time the original description of the subgenus was presented I 
discussed at some length its relationship to restricted Psewloglomeris, of 
the Oriental Region. The male sex of Pseud oglomeris (Fanoblatta) oniscinus 
was described by Shelford in 1908, but is unknown to me. 

Key to Species {Females only) 

1. Surface of entire dorsum with micro-punctulae closer, more evident and 
as a whole individually deeper. Lateral section of caudal margin of 
pronotum more distinctly concave and the caudo-lateral angles in 
consequence more falcate than the same margin or angle of mesonotum 

or metanotum oniscinus (Gerstaecker) 

Surface of dorsum with micro-punctulae more spaced, less evident and as 
a whole individually shallower. Lateral section of caudal margin of 
pronotum no more concave and the caudo-lateral angles no more 
falcate than the same margin or angle of mesonotum or metanotum. 

tolypeutes, new species 



105 The type has had the abdomen detached and in repairing it the same has 
been replaced in an inverted position. 



120 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [VOL. LXXXIX 

Pseudoglomeris (Fanoblatta) oniscinus (Gerstaecker). Plate 10, fig. 50. 

1S83. Pcrisph[aeria] (Melanosilpha) oniscina Gerstaecker, Mitth. Naturw. Ver. 
Neu-Vorpomm. u. Rugen, Greifswald, XIV, p. 75. [ 2 and immature in- 
dividuals, Abo and Bonjongo, Cameroons.] 

1908. Pseudoglomeris oniscina Shelford, Deutsch. Ent. Zeitschr., 1908, p. 130. 
[ $ ; Cameroons.] 

1933. Pseudoglomeris (Fanoblatta) oniscina Rehn, Proe. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 
LXXXIV, p. 470, pi. XXXII, figs. 17-21. [Redescription and figures of type.] 

Iii addition to the Gerstaecker material discussed by me recently, I have 
before me the following: 

French Congo: N'kogo, Ogowe, Gaboon; 1902 and 1903; (Boysson,) ; 
three females; [Paris Museum and A.N.S.P.]. Ogowe River; two females, 
one immature female; [Carnegie Museum and A.N.S.P.]. 

I have no further comments to make on this species, which was discussed 
at considerable length in my Gerstaecker type study, other than to point to 
the extension of range made by the additional material examined. 

Pseudoglomeris (Fanoblatta) tolypeutes, 100 new species. Plate 10, fig. 51. 

This species is a close relative of oniscinus and without material of both 
species for comparison its recognition conceivable may cause hesitation. 
However, in tolypeutes the less pronounced sculpture and the distinctly less 
strongly concave lateral sections of the caudal margin of the pronotum, with 
the correlated less falcate caudo-lateral productions of the pronotum, should 
remove doubt as to the identity of material of this species. The use of the 
accompanying figures should assist in determining females. There is every 
probability that when both male sexes are known, we shall find other and 
more decided differential features for the two species. 

Type. — 9 ; Ipamu, 107 Kasai District, Belgian Congo. 1922. (P. Van- 
derijst.) f Museum of the Belgian Congo.] 

As the two species are very similar in the great majority of their features, 
the following description is comparative with the detailed one which I have 
already presented of Gerstaecker's type of oniscinus.™ 3 

Size as in P. oniscinus; general form and outline similar; surface with 
micro-punctulae less numerous, less densely placed and more shallowly 
impressed, abdominal lateral foveae of both dorsal and ventral surfaces as 
in oniscinus. 

Head as in oniscinus; antennae nearly complete, the portion remaining 
equal to slightly more than half the body length. 

Pronotum with general character as in oniscinus, but greatest (caudal) 
width equal to two and one-fifth times its greatest length; caudo-lateral 
angles less falcate in their general outline and production, the caudal margin 
of the pronotum in its median five-eighths nearly straight transverse, not 

100 In allusion to its analogy to that genus of armadillos. 

107 On south bank of Kasai River about 75 kilometers westward of Basongo. 
Approximate position 4° 6' S., 19° 36' E. 

iosp r0 c. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila.. LXXXIV, pp. 470-171. (1933). 



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NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA 



121 



arcuate when seen in dorsal view, the caudal margin of the caudo-lateral 
productions thence laterad moderately oblique and very faintly concave, 
the angle of the production while still acute appreciably less so than in 
oniscinus. Mesonotum and metanotum with caudo-lateral angles appreci- 
ably less acute-produced than in oniscinus, their caudal margins laterad less 
sharply concave. 

Abdomen as in P. oniscinus except for sculptural difference in the sparser 
and shallower micro-punctulae, particularly of the dorsal surface; ultimate 
tergite (supra-anal plate) with its surface, aside from the micro-punctulae, 
slightly less impressed laterad than in oniscinus. 

Limbs as in P. oniscinus. 

General color uniform pitch black; antennae, buccal region, palpi, cerci 
and tarsi ochraceous-buff to orange-ochraceous; limbs otherwise mahogany 
red; eyes black. 

Length of body, 13 109 mm.; length of pronotum, 3.27; greatest (caudal) 
width of pronotum, 7.89; greatest width of abdomen, 8.06. 

The type is unique. 

Explanation of Plates 8-11 

Plate 8 

Fig. 1. — Xamablatta bitainiata (Stal). Dorsal view of male. Gemsbok Pan, 

Bechuanaland Protectorate. (X3.) 
Fig. 2. — Xamablatta bilacniata (Stal). Dorsal view of apex of abdomen of male. 

Gemsbok Pun, Bechuanaland Protectorate. (Greatly enlarged.) 
Fig. 3. — Namablatta bilacniata (Stal). Ventral view of apex of abdomen of male. 

Gemsbok Pan, Bechuanaland Protectorate. (Greatly enlarged.) 
Fig. 4. — Namablatta bitacnkita (Stal). Cephalic femur of male to show armament 

of ventro-cephalic margin. Gemsbok Pan, Bechuanaland Protectorate. (Greatly 

enlarged.) 

Fig. 5. — Namablatta bilacniata (Stal). Dorsal view of female (allotype). Namu- 

toni District, Southwest Africa. (X 3.) 
Fig. 6. — Euandroblatta matabclc new species. Dorsal outline of female (type). 

Bulawayo, Southern Rhodesia. (X4.) 
Fig. 7. — Euandroblatta curta (Walker). Dorsal view of apex of abdomen of male. 

Libreville, Gaboon. (X-5.) 
Fig. 8. — Euandroblatta curta (Walker). Ventral view of styles and margin of 

ultimate sternite (subgenital plate) of male. Libreville, Gaboon. (Greatly 

enlarged.) 

Fig. 9. — Euandroblatta curta (Walker). Left tegmen of female. Lambareno, 
Gaboon. (X3.) 

Fig. 10. — Euandroblatta curta (Walker). Dorsal view of ultimate tergite (supra- 
anal plate) of female. Lambarene, Gaboon. (Greatly enlarged.) 

Fig. 11. — Euandroblatta kabaka, new species. Dorsal view of ultimate tergite 
(supraanal plate) of male (type). Mityana, Uganda. (Greatly enlarged.) 

Fig. 12. — Euandroblatta kabaka, new species. Left tegmen of female (allotype). 
Buamba Forest, Uganda Protectorate. (X 3.) 

Fig. 13. Euandroblatta kabaka, new species. Dorsal view of ultimate tergite 

(supra-anal plate) of female (allotype). Buamba Forest, Uganda Protectorate. 
(Greatly enlarged.) 

Fig. 14. — Euandroblatta selousi, new species. Dorsal view of apex of abdomen of 
male (paratype). Lulanguru, Tanganyika Territory. (X5.) 

Fig. 15. — Euandroblat ta selousi, new species. Ventral view of ultimate sternite 
(subgenital plate) of male (paratype). Lulanguru, Tanganyika Territory. 
(Greatly enlarged.) 

109 The body is slightly curled, so that a straight line measurement would be a 
millimeter or so greater. 



122 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [VOL. LXXXTX 

Fig. 1G. — Euandroblatta clavigera, new species. Dorsal view of apex of abdomen 
of male (type). Kilometer 311 from Kindu, Belgian Congo. (X5) 

Fig. 17. — Euandroblatta clavigera, new species. Ventral view of ultimate sternite 
(subgenital plate) of male (type). Kilometer 311 from Kindu, Belgian Congo. 
(Greatly enlarged.) 

Fig. 18. — Euandroblatta clavigera. new species. Outline of left style showing arma- 
ment of dorsal surface. Male (type). Kilometer 311 from Kindu, Belgian 
Congo. (Greatly enlarged.) 

Fig. 19. — Euandroblatta marshalli. new species. Dorsal view of apex of abdomen of 
male (type). Salisbury, Southern Rhodesia. (X5.) 

Fig. 20. — Euandroblatta marshalli, new species. Ventral view of ultimate sternite 
(subgenital plate) of male (type). Salisbury. Southern Rhodesia. (Greatly 
enlarged.) 

Fig. 21. — Euandroblatta marshalli, new species. Outline of left style showing arma- 
ment of dorsal surface. Male (type). Salisbury, Southern Rhodesia. (Greatly 
enlarged.) 

Fig. 22. — Euandroblatta marshalli, new species. Dorsal view of ultimate tergite 
(supra-anal plate) of female (allotype). Salisbury, Southern Rhodesia. (Greatly 
enlarged.) 

Plate 9 

Fig. 23. — Lcucophaea congicus, new species. Left tegmen of female (type). Faradje, 
Uele, Belgian Congo. (Natural size.) 

Fig. 24. — Lcucophaea congicus, new species Pronotum of female (type). Faradje, 
Uele, Belgian Congo. (Natural size.) 

Fig. 25. — Lcucophaea congicus, new species. Outline of ultimate tergite (supra- 
anal plate) of female (type). Faradje, Uele. Belgian Congo. (Greatly 
enlarged.) 

Fig. 26. — Leucophaea puerilis, new species. Left tegmen of male (type). Lam- 

barene. < >go\ve. ( Gaboon. ( X B6-) 
Fig. 27. — Lcucophaea puerilis, new species. Caudal limb of male (type). Lam- 

barene, Ogowe, Gaboon. (X 3*4.) 
Fig. 28— Lcucophaea maderae (Fabricius). Left tegmen of male. Bitje, Cameroons. 

(X 

Fig. 29.— Lcucophaea capclloi (Bolivar). Dorsal view of female. Mitvana, Uganda. 

(X1H.) 

Fig. 30. — Lcucophaea capelloi (Bolivar). Caudal limb of female. Mityana, Uganda. 
(X 1%) 

Fig. 31. — Nauphoeta mombuttu, new species. Dorsal view of female (type). Medje. 

Kibali-Ituri, Belgian Congo. (Natural size.) 
• Fig. 32. — Nauphoeta mombuttu. new species. Interocular space of female (type). 

Medje, Kibali-Ituri. Belgian Congo. (Greatly enlarged.) 
Fig. 33. — Nauphoeta mombuttu, new species. Ventral surface of tegmen showing 

elevated mediastinal rami. Female (type). Medje, Kibali-Ituri, Belgian 

Congo. (Greatly enlarged.) 
Fig. 34.— Nauphoeta batesi, new species. Left tegmen of female (type). Bitje, 

Cameroons. (X U/j.) 
Fig. 35. — Nauphoeta batesi, new species. Outline of ultimate tergite (supra-anal 

plate) of female (type). Bitje, Cameroons. (Greatly enlarged.) 
Fig. 36. — Nauphoeta proccra, new species. Dorsal view of female (type). Obuashi, 

Gold Coast. (X 1V 2 .) 
Fig. 37. — Nauphoeta procera, new species. Ventral surface of tegmen showing 

elevated mediastinal rami. Female (type). Obuashi, Gold Coast. (Greatly 

enlarged.) 

Plate 10 

Fig. 38. — Nauphoeta invisa, new species. Dorsal view of male (type.) Bitje, 

Cameroons. (X IV2.) 
Fig. 39. — Nauphoeta invisa circumdata, new subspecies. Left tegmen of female 

(type). Rovesville, Liberia (X IV2.) 
Fig. 40.— Nauphoeta silacca. new species. Dorsal view of male (type). Brazzaville, 

Middle Congo, French Equatorial Africa. (X2.) 



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1937] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA 123 

Fig. 41. — Nauphoeta silacea, new species. Outline of ultimate tergite (supra-anal 
plate) of male (type). Brazzaville, Middle Congo. French Equatorial Africa. 
(Greatly enlarged.) 

Fig. 42. — Nauphoeta silacea, new species. Outline of cephalic limb of male (type). 

Brazzaville, Middle Congo, French Equatorial Africa. (Greatly enlarged.) 
Fig. 43. — Nauphoeta idonea, new species. Dorsal view of male (type). Diego 

Suarez, Madagascar. (X2.) 
Fig. 44. — Nauphoeta flcxivitta (Walker). Pronotum of male, showing recessive ex- 
treme of pattern. Leverville, Belgian Congo. (X 2.) 
Fig. 45. — Nauphoeta flexivitta (Walker). Pronotum of male, showing intensive ex- 
treme of pattern. Kisantu, Belgian Congo. (X 2.) 
Fig. 46. — Agis peltatus, new species. Dorsal view of pronotum of female (allotype). 

Mayumbe, Belgian Congo. (X4.) 
Fig. 47. — Agis peltatus, new species. Lateral view of pronotum of female (allotype). 

Mayumbe, Belgian Congo. (X 4.) 
Fig. 48. — Agis duchaillui, new species. Cephalic view of head of male (type). San 

Benito River, Spanish Guinea. (Greatly enlarged.) 
Fig. 49. — Agis fictor, new species. Cephalic view of head of male (type). Congo 

da Lemba, Lower Congo District, Belgian Congo. (Greatly enlarged.) 
Fig. 50. — Pseud oglomeris (Fanoblatta) onwcinus (Gerstaecker). Portion of dorsum 

of thoracic segments of female. N'Kogo, Ogowe, Gaboon. (X3.) 
Fig. 51. — Pseudoglomeris (Fanoblatta) tolypeutes, new species. Portion of dorsum 

of thoracic segments of female. Ipamu, Kasai, Belgian Congo. (X3.) 
Fig. 52. — Stilpnobiatta nugax, new species. Dorsal outline of female (type). Forest 

region of Hollis. Adja-Ouere and Ilimon, Dahomey. (X3.) 
Fig. 53. — Stilpnobiatta nugax, new species. Cephalic view of head of female (type). 

Forest region of Hollis, Adja-Ouere and Ilimon, Dahomey. (Greatly enlarged.) 
Fig. 54. — Stilpnobiatta nugax, new species. Lateral outline of angle of occiput of 

female (type). Forest region of Hollis, Adja-Ouere and Ilimon, Dahomey. 

(Greatly enlarged.) 

Fig. 55. — Stilpnobiatta planiccps, new species. Cephalic view of head of female 
(type). Carnot, Middle Congo, French Equatorial Africa. (Greatly enlarged.) 

Fig. 56. — Stilpnobiatta planiceps, new species. Lateral outline of angle of occiput 
of female (type). Carnot, Middle Congo, French Equatorial Africa. (Greatly 
enlarged.) 

Plate 11 

Fig. 57. — Agis duchaillui, new species. Dorsal view of pronotum of male (type). 

San Benito River, Spanish Guinea. (X7%.) 
Fig. 58. — Agis duchaillui, new species. Lateral view of pronotum of male (type). 

San Benito River, Spanish Guinea. (X 7%.) 
Fig. 59. — Agis fictor, new species. Dorsal view of pronotum of male (type). Congo 

da Lemba, Belgian Congo. (X7V 2 .) 
Fig. 60. — Agis fictor, new species. Lateral view of pronotum of male (type). Congo 

da Lemba, Belgian Congo. (X 7M> ) 
Fig. 61. — Agis peltatus, new species. Dorsal view of pronotum of male (type). 

Mayumbe, Belgian Congo. (X 6.) 
Fig. 62. — Agis peltatus, new species. Lateral view of pronotum of male (type). 

Mayumbe. Belgian Congo. (X6.) 
Fig. 63. — Agis pusillus, new species. Dorsal view of pronotum of male (type). 

Brazzaville, Middle Congo, French Equatorial Africa. (X 7Mj.) 
Fig. 64. — Agis pusillus, new species. Lateral view of pronotum of male (type). 

Brazzaville, Middle Congo, French Equatorial Africa. (X7 1 /£.) 



ZOOLOGICAL RESULTS OF THE THIRD DE SCHAUENSEE SIAMESE 
EXPEDITION. PART VIII, — FISHES OBTAINED IN 1936 



by Henry W. Fowler 

The collection of fishes reported upon in the present paper was obtained 
in Siam in 1936, and is the most extensive of the several received by the 
Academy from Mr. Rodolphe M. de Schauensee. 1 It comprises over 8200 
specimens representing 351 species of which more than sixty (marked by 
an asterisk) were not included in his previous collections, not to mention the 
fifty-three which appear to be new to science together with twelve new 
genera or subgenera. All of the new forms are figured as well as selected 
series of certain species which exhibit interesting color variations. 

It is hoped that the descriptions, figures and notes here presented will 
furnish a satisfactory basis upon which to build further studies. The 
Academy is again grateful to Mr. de Schauensee for this elaborate gift to 
its museum. 

Distribution of Fresh -Water Species 

Krempf and Chevey 1935 have discussed the geological aspects in the 
relationship between the Continental Shelf of Indo-China and the East 
Indies. They have also supplemented their work with a tabulation of 
Indo-China fresh-water fishes and their extralimital distribution. In view 
of recent work carried on in Siam the common origin of its fish fauna with 
the East Indies is still more revealed, and may best be gathered from the 
list given below. Though many of these species are incompletely studied, 
or not satisfactorily compared, they clearly emphasize a very close affiliation 
of Siam with the East Indian fauna. 

1 My previous reports are as follows: 

Zoological Results of the Third DeSchauensee Siamese Expedition, Part I, Fishes: 
Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., vol. 86, 1934 (April 30), pp. 67 to 163, figures 1 to 129, 
pi. 12; Part V, Additional Fishes, op. cit., vol. 86, 1934 (June 25), pp. 335 to 352, 
figures 1 to 13; Part VI, Fishes obtained in 1934, op. cit.. vol. 87, 1935 (June 24), pp. 
89 to 163. figures 1 to 132; Part VII, Fishes obtained in 1935. op. cit., vol. 87. 1935 
(January 14, 1936), pp. 509 to 513, figures 1 to 7. 

In part VI, p. 103, figure 27 is soiled with a small black spot on the adipose fin and 
the back, and figure 28 with a black spot on the first dorsal. 

In part VII, p. 509 for " Laun We " and " Loi Weve " read Loi Mwe, and for 
"Mong Lon " read Mong Lin; p. 510 for " Ching Sen" read Chieng Sen, and for 
"Ming Pek" read Meng Pek; p. 513 for " Meng Lin" read Mong Lin. and for 
" Loisande " read Lo, Mwe. 

(125) 



126 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OK 



LVol. LXXXIX 



Notopterus notopterus 

" chitala 

Anodontostoma chacunda . . . 

Nematalosa nasus 

Corica soborna 

Monopterus albus 

Synbranchus bengalemu 

Muraena australis 

Clarias batrachus 

" meladerma 

teysmanni 

Saccobranchus fossilis 

Wallago attu 

Ompok bimacidatus 

Pangasius pangasius 

Bagarius bagarius 

Glyptothorax dorsalu 

Tachysurus caelatus 

gagora 

maculatus 

" sagor 

thalassinus 

" venosus 

Osteogeneiosus militaris 

Batrachocephalus mino 

Mystus cavasius 

" gidio 

tengara 

" vittatus 

Amblyceps mangois 

Homaloptera modesta 

Nemacheilus beavani 

" multifasciatus . 
Acanthopsis choirorhynchos . 

Botia berdmorei 

Laubuca laubuca 

Rasbora argyrotaenia 

" rasbora 

Esomus altus 

" danrica 

Danio aequipinnatus 

" albolincata 

" malabarica 

Dangila berdmorei 

" burmanicc 

Catla catla 

Labeobarbus stracheyi 

Cyclocheilichthys apogon . . . 
Lissochilus dukai 



Siam East Indies Burma India China 



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1937] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA 127 





Siam 


East Indies 


Burma 


India 


Chin 




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" guttatus 


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Zenarchopterus amblyurus . . 


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" ectuntio .... 


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Mugil dussumieri 


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Rhynchobdella aculeata .... 


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" armatus .... 


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Anabas testudineus 


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Trichopodus trichopterus .... 


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" gymnocephalus . . . 


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Bostrichthys sinensis 


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128 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [VOL. LXXXIX 



Siamese-East Indian Species 



Scleropages formosus 

Lycothrissa crocodilus 

Coilia macrognathox 

Clarias macroccphalus, nieuhofii 

Wallago mio stoma 

Belodontichlhys dinema 

Kryptopterus apogon, bicirrhis, crypto- 

pterus, hexapterus, limpok, micronema 
Hemisilurus scleronema 
Silurichihys phaiosoma 
Silurodes hypophthalmus 
Pangasius macronema, micronema, nasutus, 

polyuranodon 
Glyplothorax major, platypogonoides 
Tachysurus argyropleuron, leiotetocepha- 

lus, macronotacanthus, mclanochir, 

stormii, truncatus 
Ketengus typus 
H emipimelodus borneensis 
Mystus micracanthus, nemurus, nigriceps, 

planiceps, wolffii, loyckii 
Bagroides macracanthus, mucroptertis, 

melapterus 
Leiocassis poecilopterus 
Akysis macronema 
Homaloptera zollingeri 
Nemacheihis lasciatus 
Acanthophthahnus anguillaris, kuhli 
Botia hymenophysa 
Lepidocephalus hasselti 
Oxygaster oxygastroides 
Macrochirichthys macrochirus 
Rasbora einthovenii, heteromorpha, lateri- 

striata, trihneata 



Luciosoma seiujerum 

Leptobarbus hoeveni, melanotaenia 

M ystacoleucas marginatus 

Dangila kuhlii, sumalrana 

Thynnichthys thynnoides 

Osteochilus borneensis, hasseltii, schle- 

gelii. vittata, waandersii 
Osteochilus melanopleura 
Hampala macrolepidota 
Labeobarbus douronensis, sow, tambro- 

ides 

C yclocheilich I hys armatus, cnoplus, hete- 

ronema, repasson 
Lissochilus sumatranus 
Barbus bantamensis, binotatus, bramo- 

ides, brevis, bulu, javanicus, latere- 

striga, orphoides, schwanefeldii, 

sumatranus 
Balantiocheilus melanopterus 
Barbichthys laevis 
Morulius chrysophekadion 
Epalzcorhynchiis kalopterus 
Crossocheilus oblongus 
Dermogenys pusillus 
Channa melasoma 
Helostoma temminckii 
Trichopodus leeri 
Betta taeniala 
Acanthoperca wolffi 
Ambassis buruensis, gymnocephalus 
Datnioides microlepis 



Description of Species 

ORECTOLOBIDAE 

Hemiscyllium griseum (Miiller and Henle). 
One, 168 mm., Rayong. 

GALEORHINIDAE 

Scoliodon walbeehmi (Bleeker). 
One, 223 mm., Bangkok. 

DASYATIDAE 

Dasyatis imbricatus (Schneider). 

One, disk length 57 mm., disk width 67 mm., tail 93 mm., Paknam. 

ELOPIDAE 

Megalops cyprinoides (Broussonet) .* 
One, 180 mm., Bangkok. 



Copyrighted material 



NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA 




1. Harengula dispilonotits. 2. OpislJtopterns indieus. 
3. TlirissocJcs kammnlcnsis. 4. Plotosus anquillaris. 
5 to 7. ClariniluruH kemralemis. 



130 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [VOL. LXXXIX 

NOTOPTEFJDAE 

Notopterus notopterus (Pallas). 

Fourteen, 80 to 175 mm., Bangkok; one, 88 mm., Paknam; nine, 84 to 
116 mm., Tachin. 

CHIROCENTRIDAE 

Chirocentrus dorab (Forskal).* 

One, 253 mm.. Paknam. Depth 7. 

Chirocentrus hypselosoma Bleeker.* 

Depth 6} to 6§; head 4J to 5, width 3£ to 4. Snout 3j to 3i in head 
from snout tip; eye 4£ to 5; 1J to 1$ in snout, greater than interorbital; 
maxillary reaches I to \ in eye, expansion 1$, length 2£ to 2^ in total head 
length; lower teeth greatly longer than upper, and all diminishing greatly 
posteriorly in jaws; interorbital 5.1 to 6£ in head from snout tip. Gill rakers 
3 + 17, slender, 1$ in eye; gill filaments £ of gill rakers. 

Scales all fallen, even pockets but little defined. Broad branch of 
venules, radiating down from behind eye, covers cheek. 

D. ii, 13 or ii, 14, first branched ray 3h ? in total head length; A. in, 30, 
i, first branched ray 3j ? ; caudal equals head, lower lobe slightly longer; 
least depth of caudal peduncle 3 to 3i in total head length; pectoral 1^ to 
l'i, rays ii, 12; ventral rays i, 5, fin 5* to 6 in total head length. 

Back and upper surface of head gray, darker along upper ridge. Sides 
and lower surfaces pale, evidently silvery white in life. Iris gray, evidently 
pale in life. Inconspicuous black dots scattered on lower part of tail above 
base of anal. Fins all rather conspicuously or contrasted pale, very light 
brownish or whitish, only hind border of caudal slightly gray. End of 
mandible dark gray and lower border sprinkled with dark dots. Area of 
adipose eyelids on head pale. 

Three, 154 to 158 mm., Tachin. 

DUSSUMIERIIDAE 

Dussumieria acuta Valenciennes. 

Four, 112 to 137 mm., Paknam; five, 50 to 75 mm., Tachin. 

CLUPEIDAE 

Kowala thoricata Valenciennes. 

One, 81 mm., Bangkok; 98 examples, 69 to 93 mm., Tachin. 

Sardinella jussieu ( Lacerx-de ) .* 

Six, 138 to 144 mm., Bangkok; five, 88 to 107 mm., Paknam; five, 98 to 
123 mm., Rayong; one, 132 mm.. Tachin. Gill-rakers 30 -f 50. 

Sardinella melanura (Cuvier).* 

Three, 138 to 143 mm., Bangkok. Lower gill rakers 48. Black tip to 
each caudal lobe distinct but not greatly contrasted. 



Copyrighied material 



1937] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA 131 

Harengula brachysoma (Bleeker). 

Two, 138 to 143 mm., Bangkok; two, 125 to 130 ram, Paknam; two, 118 
to 132 mm., Tachin. 

Harengula dispilonotus Bleeker. Figure i. 

Four, 85 to 103 mm., Rayong. 
Corica laciniata Fowler. 

One, 58 mm., Bangkok; three, 40 to 60 mm., Paknam; 73 specimens, 55 
to 66 mm., Tachin. Scales 30 + 3. 

Clupeoides exilis Fowler. 

Twenty-two, 54 to 70 mm., Bangkok; eight,. 45 to 60 mm., Tachin. All 
with caudal pale yellowish, with dark gray border and sometimes end of 
each lobe rather broadly blackish. 

Ilisha indica (Swainson). 

Twenty, 68 to 130 mm., Tachin. Depth 2* to 3i. A. rays m, 32 to in, 
36. In the younger stages usually more deeply bodied. 

Opisthopterus indicus (Swainson). Figure 2 (Paknam). 
One, 170 mm., Bangkok; two, 80 to 96 mm., Paknam. 

ENGRAULIDAE 

Anchoviella commersonii (Lacepede).* 

One. 58 mm., Bangkok; two, 56 to 68 mm., Paknam; 77 specimens, 55 to 
88 mm.. Tachin. Gill rakers 24 + 25. Scutes between paired fins 6. 
Scales 33 + 3 in lateral series. A. n, 17 or 18. 

Anchoviella indica (Van Hasselt).* 

One, 107 mm., Bangkok; two, 122 to 129 mm., Paknam. 
Thrissocles kammalensis (Bleeker).* Figure 3. 

Depth 3* to 3'i; head 3h to 3^, width 3 to 3/,. Snout 4 to 4 J in head, 
as seen from above end narrowly compressed; eye 4$ to 5, l-n T to 1J in snout, 
ljt to li in interorbital ; maxillary reaches nearly to, or quite to hind edge 
of gill opening, length 1,\ to 1?, in total length of head; teeth very fine, 
minute; interorbital 4 r i to 4f,, elevated convexly; top of head with median 
keel forward to end of snout, quite cavernous. Gill rakers 27 + 30, finely 
lanceolate, * of eye; gill filaments ^ of gill rakers. 

Scales 25 to 30 4- 4 or 5 in lateral series, 10 or 11 transversely above anal 
origin; 15 or 16 predorsal. Pectoral and ventral each with long axillary 
scale. Caudal base scaly, without alar scales. Anal base with row of 
rather large scales. Abdominal scutes 15 + 8 to 10. Scales rather firmly 
adherent, with reticulate lines, of which 4 to 6 principal ones more or less 
radiate from center of scale basally; apically reticulations smaller and more 
numerous. 



132 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [VOL. LXXXIX 

D. I— ii, 10, 1, third simple ray 1^ to H in head; A. n or in, 28, i to 30, i, 
first branched ray 1* to 2; caudal equals head, deeply forked; least depth 
of caudal peduncle 2.^ to 3; pectoral If to 1£, rays i, 10; ventral rays I, 6, 
fin 2% to 2§ in head. 

Largely pale to whitish, with more or less silvery sheen. Back slightly 
darker, with dark dots. A saddle-like dark gray blotch on front of predorsal 
or above hind part of head, triangular as seen in profile. Iris whitish. Fins 
all pale, more or less whitish, end of dorsal and most of upper caudal lobe 
terminally more or less dark gray. Some dark dots along caudal rays 
basally. 

Three, 60 to 78 mm., Paknam. 

Thrissocles hamiltonii (Gray). 

One, 180 mm., Tachin. 

Thrissocles mystax (Schneider). 

One, 52 nun., Paknam; three, 109 to 138 mm., Tachin. Maxillary nearly 
reaches ventral. A. it, 32, i, to II, 35, I. 

Thrissocles setirostris (Broussonet).* 
Two, 51 to 109 mm., Paknam. 

Lycothrissa crocodilus (Bleeker). 
One, 77 mm., Tachin. 

Setipinna taty (Valenciennes). 

Two. 143 to 167 mm., Bangkok. 

Setipinna melanochir (Bleeker).* 

Depth 3$; head 5 J, width 2J. Snout 6 in head; eye 41, greater than 
snout, 1J in interorbital; maxillary reaches hind edge of preopercle, expan- 
sion li in eye, length 1£ in head; interorbital 4i, convex, with median ridge 
to occiput. Branchiostegal membrane forms short, free fold across isthmus. 
Gill rakers 8 -4- 10, equal eye; gill filaments % of gill rakers. 

Scales 42 + 3 in lateral series, 15 transversely between dorsal and anal 
origins; 21 predorsal. Scales very caducous. Abdominal scutes 10 + 9. 

D. I— II, 9, i, first branched ray equals head; A. n, 45, i, first branched ray 
1|; caudal 4 in rest of fish, deeply forked; least depth of caudal peduncle 
2^ in head; pectoral 1, rays i, 13; ventral rays i, 5, fin 2] in head. 

Back and upper surface of head dark brown, sides and below pale to 
whitish, with bright silvery white reflections. Iris silvery white, jaws whitish. 
Dorsal and caudal pale brownish with grayish terminally. Anal and 
ventral? whitish, pectorals black. 

One, 135 mm., Tachin. 

Coilia macrognathos Bleeker. 

Three, 145 to 173 mm., Bangkok; 28 specimens, 73 to 209 mm., Tachin. 
In small specimens the maxillary reaches only to the pectoral origin, but in 
the largest well beyond. Abdominal scutes 13 4- 23. A. 77. Pectoral 
filaments 6. 



Copyrighted material 



1937] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA 133 

SYNODONTIDAE 

Saurida tumbil (Bloch).* 

One, 200 mm., Paknam. Scales 53 + 5 in lateral line; 5 above. D. n, 
9, i. Pectoral 2 in head. 

PL0T0SIDAE 

Plotosus anguillaris (Bloch).* Figure 4. 

Kijiht , 103 to 145 mm., Paknam. Nasal barbels reach middle of eye. 

CLARIIDAE 

Clarias batrachus Linnaeus. 

Four, 72 to 124 mm., Me Poon; one, 103 mm., Pitsanulok. The last 
specimen much paler than the others, or quite light brown. 

SILURIDAE 

Wallago attu (Schneider). 
One, 175 mm., Tachin. 

CLARISILURUS, new genus 

Body elongate, greatly compressed, less so forward, greatly so posteriorly. 
Head small, broadly depressed. Snout short, broad, obtuse, muzzle shallow. 
Eye small, well advanced in head, lateral, margins free all around. Mouth 
terminal, broad, gape very short or barely reaches j- to eye. Barbels 8, well 
developed, all greatly longer than head. Teeth minute, in jaws and on 
vomer. Top of head broadly convex, with frontal and occipital fontanels 
well developed. Gill-opening deep, membranes cleft half way to isthmus, 
each side forming broad Hap over broad bony thorax, or conceals about half 
its anterior area. Humeral extension short curved ledge. Gill rakers 
numerous, lanceolate, close set. Skin smooth. Top of head and bony 
thorax rugose striate, not covered with skin. Lateral line distinct, complete. 
Single small dorsal fin, inserted behind ventrals. No adipose fin. Caudal 
small, rounded. Anal with long base, much greater than rest of fish, free 
from caudal. Pectoral small, low, with strong spine nearly long as fin. 
Ventral usually well behind end of pectoral, little smaller. Type Clarisilunis 
kemratensis, new species. 

A genus defined only as superficially suggestive of Clarias in its head 
depressed and with somewhat similar fontanels, the body greatly com- 
pressed, and the small dorsal advanced. 

{Clarias 4- Silurus, the type genus.) 

Clarisilurus kemratensis, new species. Figures 5 ( head ahove), 6 (lateral view), 
7 (thorax). 

Depth 5.1 to (ii ; head 6* to 7, width 1 J. to slightly greater than head 
length. Snout 3| to 3£ in head; eye 6i to 7], li to 2 in snout, 4 to 4?,- in 
interorbital; mouth width 2% to 31 in head", jaws about even, or lower 
scarcely extended; nasal barbels reach £ to, or to dorsal origin, maxillary 



134 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF 



[Vol. LXXXIX 



pair reaches bases of fifth to eleventh anal rays, outer mental pair reaches 
vent or to base of eighth anal ray, inner mental pair reaches ventral fin 
origin or about base of fifth anal ray; teeth minutely and evenly villiform 
in jaws, as rather broad band in each; similar band on each side of vomer, 
narrower than bands of upper jaws, parallel; interorbital If to 1£ in head, 
broadly convex; frontal fontanel H times eye, invades most of interorbital 
space; occipital fontanel long as eye, largely in short triangular occipital 
extension. Gill rakers 6 4- 24, slender, equal gill filaments or 1$ in eye. 

Skin smooth, firm. Lateral line axial, as narrow ill defined canal on 
trunk and small, wide set pores on tail. Anal papilla sometimes well de- 
veloped, conic, little less than eye. 

D. i, 5, first ray scarcely spinous, very flexible like branched rays, fin 
length 1 to 1* in head; A. 75 to 84, fin height medially 1| to If; caudal 
length 7 to 8 in rest of fish; caudal peduncle depth 2 J to 34 in head; pectoral 
1^ to If, rays I, 8, spine long as fin, with 10 or 11 antrorse serrae along outer 
edge, 12 or 13 along inner edge, in small specimens fin reaches 1| to ventral, 
half way in larger; ventral rays i, 5, fin l| to 1^ in head. 

Dark gray brown generally, paler or light gray on under surface of head 
and belly. Iris gray. Two narrow, pale gray longitudinal bands, parallel 
on side of body, one above and other below lateral line, fading out behind. 
Fins and barbels blackish brown, especially in smaller specimens. 

A.N.S.P., No. 67, 880. Kemrat. Length 210 mm. Type. Also Nos. 
67,881 to 67,883, same data, paratypes. Length 143 to 160 mm. 

An interesting siluroid with dark gray coloration, contrasted with two 
narrow pale bands longitudinally on each side of the body. 

(Named for Kemrat, the type locality.) 

Belodontichthys dinema (Bleeker). 
Two, 260 to 268 mm., Bangkok. 

Ompok bimaculatus (Bloch). Figures 8 (upper and vomerine teeth), g (Kemrat). 

Depth 4± to 4f ; head 44 to 4\, width If to 1^. Snout 3f to 3^ in head 
from snout tip; eye 5i to 6^, 1| to 2\ in snout, 3 to 4} in interorbital; 
maxillary not quite reaching eye, length 3 to 44 in head from snout tip; 
mouth width 1*. to 1£, mandible well protruded; teeth in jaws in broad 
bands of 4 or 5 series in irregular transverse count, depressible and larger 
inside; vomer with narrow small, slender, short band each side, much smaller 
than jaw teeth; long maxillary barbel reaches ventral or little beyond, and 
small mental barbel jv of eye; interorbital \l to 2, convex. Gill rakers 2 -4- 9, 
lanceolate, H in gill filaments, equal eye. 

Skin smooth. Lateral line complete, axial, conspicuous. Anal papilla 
moderate, conic. 

D. 4, fin \'i to li in total head length; A. 58 to 61, last ray adnate by 
membrane with caudal, fin height 1£ to 2£; caudal If to If, emarginate; 
pectoral 1± to 1J, spine entire, firm, terminally flexible, rays I, 12; ventral 
i, 7, fin 24 to 3 in total head length. 

Brown, scarcely paler below. Iris grayish. Barbels pale brownish. 
Some examples with irregular darker brownish areas or blotches on head and 
body. Dark gray rounded blotch at front of lateral line (above air-bladder). 



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8,9. Ompok bimaculotus. 10 to 12. Kryptopterus deignani. 

13 to 15. Kryptopterus micronema. 16 to 19. Nemasiluroides furcatus. 
20 to 23. Pangasius acquilabialis. 



136 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [VOL. LXXXIX 

Diffuse dark gray blotch at caudal base and dark line transversely on caudal 
subbasally. Vertical fins grayish terminally, especially anal and caudal. 
Paired fins pale. 

One, 193 mm., Pitsanulok; two, 127 to 130 mm., Bangkok; one, 187 mm.,. 
Kemrat. 

Kryptopterus bicirrhis (Valenciennes). 

Twenty, 78 to 108 mm., Bangkok. Maxillary barbel extends ^ in 
pectoral. Pectoral spine long as head and fin longer. In all pectoral with, 
dusky dots and especially with blackish blotch at its lower margin. 

Kryptopterus cryptopterus (Bleeker).* 

One, 98 mm., Paknam. No mandibular barbels, but in all other ways 
in agreement. 

Seventeen, 65 to 137 mm., Bangkok. Maxillary barbel reaches £ in 
pectoral. Mandibular barbel always distinct, though rudimentary. Pectoral 
spine usually little longer than head, and fin much more so. All pale, the 
pectoral always without any black on its lower half. 

Kryptopterus deignani, new species. Figures io (upper and vomerine teeth), u, 12 
(head above). 

Depth oj; head -U, width V}. Snout 2 in head from snout tip; eye 5f, 
1^ in snout, 2* in interorbital; maxillary not quite reaching opposite front of 
eye, length 3i in head from snout tip; mouth width ly%, mandible well pro- 
truded; maxillary barbel reaches hind edge of eye; minute mandibular 
barbel ^ of eye; teeth conic, slender, outer little smaller and 4 or 5 irregu- 
larly in transverse series, in jaws, similar narrower parallel band on vomer 
with smaller teeth, in about 3 transverse series; interorbital 2 in head, 
broadly convex; occipital fontanel long, narrow, reaches occipital extension 
beyond eye. Gill rakers 6 -f- 12, finely or slenderly lanceolate, ^ of eye; gill 
filaments f of gill rakers. 

Skin smooth. Lateral line complete, axial, distinct. 

A. 81, fin height 2}, in total head, last ray joined basally to caudal by 
membrane; caudal 11, lower lobe little shorter, fin well forked; depth of 
caudal peduncle 5; pectoral 1£, spine slender, entire, pungent, rays I, 14 , 
ventral 1, 8, fin 3 in total head; anal papilla small, short point. 

Pale grayish or brownish, scarcely lighter below. On upper surface of 
head and along edge of back minute dark dots. Iris grayish. Fins pale to 
more or less whitish, terminally grayish on anal posteriorly and dark gray 
on ends of caudal lobes. Paired fins uniformly pale. 

A.N.S.P., No. 67,884. Me Poon, Siam. Length 143 mm. Type. 

Only known from the type, differing from Micronema typus Bleeker, as 
shown by his figure, in larger or wider bands of teeth, besides a smaller eye. 
Bleeker mentions six specimens 137 to 326 mm. long, with the A. 86 to 93. 
-1/. deignani shows but 81 anal rays. 

(For Mr. H. E. Deignan, an earnest student of Siamese ornithology, now 
of Chieng Mai.) 



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137 



Kryptopterus micronema (Blceker). Figures 13 (upper and vomerine teeth), 14. 15 
(head above). 

Depth 5 to 5|; head 41 to 4h, width H to 2i. Snout 21 to 31 in head 
from snout tip; eye 6 to 7, 2\ to 2§ in snout, 2^ to 4 in interorbital; maxillary 
reaches before but not to eye, length 3 J to 31 in head from snout tip; mouth 
width If to If, broadly flattened mandible well protruding; maxillary barbel 
reaches front eye edge or to hind eye edge; minute mandibular barbel 1 
of eye; teeth slender, conic, pointed, forming broad bands in jaws of 5 
irregular series, and much narrower inner parallel band of smaller teeth; 
interorbital 1J to 2, broadly convex; occipital fontanel narrow, extends well 
in occipital extension. Gill rakers 4 -f- ] 3, finely lanceolate, 1 of gill 
filaments or 1^ in eye. 

Skin smooth. Lateral line complete, axial, distinct. 

A. 76 to 79, fin height 23 to 3 in total head length; caudal H to 1$, deeply 
forked, pointed lobes equal; depth of caudal peduncle 41 to 7; pectoral 1^ 
to If, rays I, 14, spine slender, pungent, entire; ventral rays 1. 10, fin 21 to 
2f in total head length; anal papilla small conic point. 

Light or pale brown or gray, scarcely paler on under surface of head and 
belly. Upper surface of head and back sprinkled with brown to dark brown 
or gray dots. Iris gray, evidently whitish in life. Fins pale to whitish, 
inner fork of caudal dark gray to blackish, and anal fin on terminal part 
of fin posteriorly same. Pectoral with dark to blackish dots. Young often 
more contrasted with more numerous and extensive areas of dark dots. 

Eight, 105 to 188 mm., Bangkok. 

Agrees in having the anal united with the caudal by a basal membrane, 
and differs from A', deignani in the greatly smaller eye. 

Kryptopterus hexapterus (Bleeker). 

Two, 123 to 132 mm., Bangkok. Maxillary barbel reaches § in pectoral, 
and mandibular barbel reaches pectoral origin. No dorsal. Pectoral fin 
i greater than head, spine 11 in total head length. 

PANGASIIDAE 

NEMASILUROIDES, new genus 

Body elongate, slender, strongly compressed, deepest about origin of 
first dorsal fin and but slightly tapering posteriorly. Head small, depressed 
forward. Muzzle broadly depressed or flattened both above and below. 
Eye advanced, lateral, moderate, with free lids. Mouth terminal, broad. 
Barbels as nasal, maxillary, inner and outer mental pairs, all very long and 
reaching back well behind head. Teeth minute, in narrow bands in jaws 
and on vomer, none of palatines. Long well developed frontal-occipital 
fontanel. Gill rakers slender, lanceolate. Gill membranes deeply cleft 
forward far as front of eye. Skin smooth, top of head striate. Humeral 
extension moderate. Dorsal advanced, begins little behind end of humeral 
extension, its basal plate forming continuous bony bridge forward to occi- 
pital extension; fin nearly long as head, and with slender spine. Adipose 
fin small, much nearer caudal than dorsal and over last fourth of anal. 
Anal long and low, nearly half length of fish without caudal. Caudal deeply 
forked, lobes sharply or slenderly pointed. Caudal peduncle compressed. 



138 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [VOL. LXXXIX 

constricted, and rather long. Pectoral small, low, with strong compressed 
spine. Ventral small, its origin close behind base of first dorsal. Type 
Nemasiluroidcs furcatus, new species. 

Related to Psewleutropius Bleeker, which is here restricted to its geno- 
type Eutropius brachypopterus Bleeker, in the smaller anal fin with but 28 
rays, shorter barbels, large eye and less sharply forked caudal fin. With 
Nemasiluroidcs I also include Pseudcutropius moolcnburghae Weber and 
Beaufort, with only 40 anal rays, also shown to have shorter dorsal and 
pectoral fins. 

(Srjfxa thread -\-SHuroidcs; with reference to the long, prominent barbels.) 

Nemasiluroides furcatus, new species. Figures 16 (upper and vomerine teeth), 17 
(lateral view), 18 (head above), 19 (right pectoral spine). 

Depth 5 to 5 J; head 4 to 4i, width H to 1*. Snout 3£ to 3^ in head; 
eye 5!] to 6, 2 to 24 in snout, 24 to 3J in interorbital ; maxillary reaches \ to 
2 to eye, length 4] to 4jf in head; mouth width 2'i to 3, jaws even; nasal 
barbel reaches bases of twentieth to twenty-fifth anal ray, maxillary barbel 
to tenth to fifteenth anal ray base, outer mental to anal origin or to fifth 
anal ray base, inner mental barbel to anal origin or to tenth anal ray base; 
teeth minutely villiform, in narrow bands in jaws and broader continuous 
band, parallel, across vomer, constricted or narrower anteriorly or medially; 
interorbital 1£ to 24 in head; long and moderately wide frontal-occipital 
fontanel reaching base of occipital extension. ( Jill rakers 10 -p 28, slenderly 
lanceolate, length 14 in eye or twice gill filaments. 

Skin smooth. Lateral line complete, axial, distinct, pores minute, close 
set. Humeral extension rather short or about $ pectoral fin, its lower edge 
concave. 

D. I, 5, firm sharp pointed spine with front edge entire and hind edge 
with about 18 low, inconspicuous, small antrorse serrae, first ray 1J to lyo 
in head; adipose fin 3* to 4; A. 44 to 49 ; fin height 2i to 2i; least depth of 
caudal peduncle 3 to 3$ ; caudal 2| to 34 in rest of fish, deeply forked and 
lower lobe usually much shorter than upper; pectoral 1£ to 13 in head, spine 
slender, strong, compressed, outer edge usually with basal row of granules 
and inner edge with 12 or 13 strong antrorse serrae; ventral 1£ to 2f ; anal 
papilla short fleshy point. 

Pale brownish to grayish or whitish, darker above or with upper surface 
of head and back sprinkled with dark dots. Iris may, apparently whitish 
in life. Barbels brown. Fins all pale, dorsal and caudal pale orange, 
grayish terminally. Paired fins pale. 

A.N.S.P., No. 67,893. Bangkok, Siam. Length 115 mm. Type. Also 

Nos. 67,894 to 67,896, same data, paratypes. Length 103 to 107 mm. 

The specific distinctions are carried in those of the genus. 

{Furcatus forked; with reference to the caudal fin.) 

Pangasius siamensis Steindachner. 

Twenty, 63 to 165 mm., Bangkok; one, 151 mm., Me Poon. Lower jaw 
well included within upper. Maxillary barbel reaches end of pectoral spine; 
mandibular barbel reaches \ in pectoral fin. A. iv, 28, I to iv, 30, 1. 



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24 to 26. Pangasius burgini. 27 to 29. Pangasius sutchi. 

30 to 33. Pteropangasius cidtratus. 34. Hemipimelodus atripinnis. 

35 to 37. Mystus atrijasciatus. 



140 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF 



[Vol. LXXXIX 



Steindachner describes this species from the Menam River at Bangkok: 
Depth over 4; head 5$ to 5^. Eye 3 : \ to 3j in head; maxillary barbel H 
times head or reaches middle of pectoral. D. I, 7; A. 35 or 36; pectoral I. 
12. Gray above, white below. Pale lateral band. Fins yellowish. Oval 
dark spot between gill openings. Length 260 mm. 

Pangasius aequilabialis, new species. Figures 20 (upper and vomerine teeth), 21 
(lateral view), 22 (top of head), 23 (right pectoral spine). 

Depth 3I£ to 4i; head 4 to 4f ( , width lj to H. Snout 3f to 4 in head; 
eye 3£ to 4, slightly greater than eye to subequal with eye, 1^ to 2± in 
interorbital ; maxillary reaches J or to front eye edge, length 34 to 4± in 
head; mouth width 2* to 3^, jaws even in front; maxillary barbel reaches 
middle of pectoral or to ventral, mental barbel reaches + to $ in depressed 
pectoral; teeth minutely villiform, in rather small bands in jaws and small 
rounded patch each side of vomer, and one on each palatine; interorbital 2 
to 2i, broadly convex; bony bridge from occipital extension to dorsal plate 
complete. Gill rakers 11 + 28, slender, lanceolate, 1$ in eye; gill filaments 
5 of gill rakers. 

Upper surface of head covered with thin, smooth skin, also on predorsal 
bridge. Humeral extension § of depressed pectoral. Lateral line complete, 
distinct, axial, with few short branches, irregular, both below and above on 
costal region. 

D. I, 6 or 7, strong pungent spine with front edge entire and along hind 
edge 17 to 21 antrorse serrae, fin length i of head to 1| times head; adipose 
fin lobate, length 3| to 4 in head; A. rv, 29, 1 or iv, 30 1, fin height anteriorly 
2i to 2 J in head; least depth of caudal peduncle 2\ to 24; caudal 4 to 4^ in 
rest of fish, deeply emarginate behind, pointed, narrowly triangular lobes 
equal; pectoral 1J to \\ in head, rays I, 10, strong compressed spine with 
outer edge finely serrated or with only few weak antrorse serrae terminally 
in younger specimens, inner edge with 18 to 22 antrorse serrae; ventral 2 
to 24 in head, rays 1, 6. 

Largely silvery gray or whitish, back above and elongate area along 
lateral line over costal region dark gray or gray brown. Lower side of head, 
inclusive of adipose like tissue around eye pale to whitish, also lips and 
diffuse area in middle of interorbital. Smaller examples also show a dark 
parallel streak on lower side of costal region extended back variously from 
humeral region. Iris white, also barbels. Usually diffuse gray black blotch 
at origin of dorsal. Rounded dark blotch on opercle nearly size of eye. 
Fins pale to whitish or varied yellow or cream colored shades basally, inner 
edge of caudal grayish. 

A.N.S.P., No. 67,897. Bangkok, Siam. Length 138 mm. Type. Also 
Nos. 67,898 to 67,900 same data, paratypes. Length 98 to 115 mm. 

Greatly like Pangasius sia?nensis but the physiognomy different as the 
jaws are nearly or quite equal. Two patches of teeth on the vomer as well 
as on the palatines. 

(Aequus equal + labrum lip; with reference to the lips in profile.) 



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Pangasius burgini, new species. Figures 24 (upper and vomerine teeth), 25 (lateral 
view), 26 (right pectoral spine). 

Depth 32; head 4}, width 1L Snout 4 in head; eye 5f, lh in snout (in 
profile), 4 in interorbital ; maxillary extends | in snout (in profile to eye), 
length 3 in head; mouth width 1$, closed jaws even in front; short maxillary 
barbel reaches f to pectoral origin, and mandibular barbel only reaches half 
so far; teeth fine, sharp pointed, in rather broad band in jaws, and pair of 
curved bands or only separated medially so one each side, on vomer; 
interorbital If in head, broadly convex; occipital fontanel well marked, 
begins in interorbital space and nearly reaches base of occipital extension, 
with which nearly subequal in length. Gill rakers 5 -f 7, short lanceolate 
points, which 2 in gill filaments, latter 1£ in eye. 

Skin smooth, rather firmly coriaceous. Bony dorsal bridge complete, 
occipital extension § its extent. Humeral extension half of depressed 
pectoral. Lateral line complete, axial along side of body, with short branches 
above and below its entire extent. 

D. I, 7, spine about 1J in head, its front edge with sharp keel which only 
with feeble minute points below or basally, hind edge with 25 antrorse serrae, 
gradually larger terminally, entire fin length slightly less than predorsal 
length; adipose fin 2'\ in head; A. vi, 27, 1, fin height anteriorly 2; least 
depth of caudal peduncle 21; caudal 3jVj in rest of fish, deeply forked, lower 
lobe little longer; pectoral I, 9, strong spine compressed, little arched outer 
edge with sharp keel marked by few feeble points, inner edge with 17 strong 
antrorse serrae, fin 1^ in head; ventral 1±, rays 1, 5; anal papilla very 
small, inconspicuous. 

Back and upper surfaces dark gray, paler to whitish on sides and under 
surfaces. Lips and sides of head pale to whitish. Iris gray. Barbels pale. 
Gray black post-humeral blotch over twice size of eye. Dorsal gray, upper 
hind margin whitish. Adipose fin dark gray, with narrow whitish edge. 
Caudal whitish, with broad gray black median band on each lobe and 
connected basally. Other fins all pale to whitish. 

A.N.S.P., No. 67,901. Bangkok, Siam. Length 232 mm. Type. 

Only the type known. The species is related to Pangasius sutchi and 
P. taeniura, but differs from both in coloration, and especially in the presence 
of the gray black large post-humeral blotch. 

(For the late Dr. Herman Burgin, of Philadelphia, to whom I am 
indebted for numerous local fishes.) 

Pangasius sutchi, new species. Figures 27 (vomerine teeth), 28 (lateral view), 29 
(right pectoral spine). 

Depth 4 to 4^; head 3f to 4, width If to 1^. Snout 4 J to 4f in head; 
eye 4^ to 5±, 1-J to 1} in snout, 3} to 3^ in interorbital; maxillary reaches 
it in snout, length 4j to 4 J in head; mouth width 2i to 2$, lower jaw slightly 
shorter than upper; maxillary barbel reaches r, to, or to pectoral origin, 
mandibular reaches opposite middle of eye or !| to pectoral origin; teeth 
minutely villiform, feeble, in narrow band in each jaw and 2 parallel bands 
as one section each side of vomer, expanded little posteriorly; interorbital 
If to 1$ in head, broadly convex; frontal fontanel moderate, extends from 
middle of interorbital to base of occipital extension, which forms complete 



142 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [VOL. LXXXIX 



bony bridge with predorsal buckler. Gill rakers 4 -(- 16, lanceolate, 4 of gill 
filaments, which 14. in eye. 

Skin smooth. Occipital extension reaches If in predorsal or to dorsal 
buckler. Humeral extension reaches 24 in depressed pectoral, covered with 
thin skin. Lateral line complete, axial, with numerous short branchlets 
along its entire course both above and below. 

D. I, 6, spine slender, pungent, front edge entire, with 9 to 12 feeble small 
antrorse serrae along inner edge, fin length ly^ to l\ in head; adipose fin 
length 3i to 34; A. iv, 30 to iv, 32, front fin height 2 to 2J; least depth of 
caudal peduncle 3 to 3i; caudal 34 to 3^ in rest of fish, deeply forked, slender 
lobes pointed and equal or nearly so; pectoral I, 8, strong pungent spine 
with front edge entire, hind edge with 14 or 15 antrorse serrae along inner 
edge; ventral rays I, 8, fin 1$ in head; anal papilla short, convex. 

Above dark to blackish gray, with pale or whitish longitudinal band 
parallel and close along dark band of lateral line, and another from below 
front or lateral line back to caudal peduncle; under surface of body whitish. 
Iris gray. Lips gray, chin below sprinkled with dark dots. Maxillary 
barbels with brownish edges and mandibular all pale or white. Dorsal gray 
black, basally more grayish and lower hind edge whitish. Adipose fin 
grayish. Caudal dark gray or gray black, edges pale or whitish all around. 
Anal largely white, with gray black longitudinal band, broad anteriorly and 
narrowing posteriorly; in smaller specimens only as dark shade anteriorly, 
most of fin whitish. Paired fins largely gray black, paler marginally or 
basally, and ventrals largely whitish in small specimens. 

A.N.S.P., No. 67.902. Bangkok, Siam. Type. Length 158 mm. Also 
Nos. 67,903 to 67,905, paratypes, same data. Length 133 to 163 mm. 

Resembles Pangasius taeniura Fowler, but with shorter barbels, more 
anal rays and more greatly contrasted coloration. 

(For Will S. Sutch, late of Philadelphia, to whom this Academy is in- 
debted for many interesting local fishes.) 

PTEROPANGASIUS, new genus 

Body elongately ovoid, strongly compressed, deepest at ventral base. 
Well-developed cutaneous, median, abdominal keel. Head rather small, 
compressed. Snout short, broad, obtuse. Eye lateral, advanced, little low 
as seen in profile, with free edge all around. Maxillary not reaching eye, 
little developed. Pair of maxillary and pair of mandibular barbels, both 
shorter than head. Teeth in bands in jaws, and patch each side of vomer, 
minute. Gill membranes cleft forward opposite middle of eye. Gill rakers 
moderate, lanceolate. Lateral line present. Smooth skin covers top of head 
and humeral extension, which moderate. Dorsal advanced, begins little 
behind end of humeral extension, its basal plate forming continuous bony 
bridge forward to occipital extension; fin nearly long as head, and with 
slender spine. Adipose fin small, much nearer caudal than end of de- 
pressed dorsal, and about over last third of anal. Anal long, low, about § 
of fish without caudal. Caudal deeply forked, lobes sharply or slenderly 
pointed. Caudal peduncle moderate, well compressed. Pectoral small, 
placed little below middle of depth, with slender spine. Ventral small, its 
origin close behind base of first dorsal. Type Pangasius cultratus H. M. 
Smith. 



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143 




38 to 43. Bagarius bagarius (variation). 



144 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [VOL. LXXXIX 

Known among all the genera of its family by the remarkable median 
fleshy keel on the belly, extending from below the pectorals to the vent. 
Its contour is quite ovoid, with the lower profile more curved than the 
upper. Other features are its even jaws, coloration, short barbels and 
dentition. 

(Urepov fin -{- Pangasius; with reference to the long anal fin.) 

Pteropangasius cultratus (H. M. Smith). Figures 30 (upper and vomerine teeth), 
31 (lateral view), 32 (ventral view of head and trunk), 33 (right pectoral spine). 

Depth 3* to 44; ; head U to 44, width H to If. Snout 3 J to 3g in head; 
eye 3 J to 4, 1 to 14; in snout, 24 to 2i in interorbital; maxillary reaches about 
% in snout (in profile), length 3 J to 4 in head; mouth width 2? to 2%, closed 
jaws even or lower slightly included; maxillary barbel reaches -J to $ to 
pectoral origin, mandibular 3 to 3, teeth sharp pointed, in moderately, wide 
bands in jaws and small rounded patch each side of vomer; interorbital 
to li in head, broadly convex. Gill rakers 4 + 10, lanceolate, subequal with 
gill filaments or 2\ in eye. 

Skin smooth, entire. Narrow occipital extension reaches 11 in predorsal. 
reaches basal dorsal plate. Humeral extension half of depressed pectoral. 
Lateral line complete, axial, with numerous small branches along its whole 
course both above and below. 

D. I, 7, fin lyV to 11 in head, spine with front edge entire or with only 4 
or 5 feeble, low serrae subtcrminally, inner edge with 11 to 13 antrorse 
serrae; adipose fin 3 to 3* in head; A. iv, 38, 1 to iv, 40, 1, fin height anteriorly 
2} to 2^; caudal 34/ to 4^ in rest of fish, lobes subequal; least depth of caudal 
peduncle 3 to 3 £ in head; pectoral 1 to 1^, rays I, 12, spine with outer edge 
keeled bearing 4 or 5 feeble, low, antrorse, subterminal serrae, 13 to 18 
antrorse serrae on inner edge; ventral rays 1, 6, fin 2 to 24 in head. 

Back and upper surface of head brown to dark gray. Dark band along 
front of lateral line and another parallel from humeral extension. Sides of 
head and under surfaces whitish, also lips. Iris gray. Barbels pale. Dorsal 
whitish, fin gray terminally. Adipose fin gray. Caudal pale or whitish, 
hind border gray. Paired fins whitish, grayish terminally. 

Seven. 135 to 180 mm., Me Boon. 

BAGARIIDAE 

Bagarius bagarius (Buchanan-Hamilton). Figures 38 to 43 (variation). 
Six, 132 to 385 mm., Kemrat. 

TACHYSURIDAE 

Tachysurus caelatus (Valenciennes). 

One, 73 mm., Paknam. All mental barbels very dark brown. Adipose 
fin pale, only little brownish marginally. 

Hemipimelodus borneensis (Bleeker). 

Depth 4£ to 4*; head 4, width 14; to 14,. Snout 3£ to 3$ in head; eye 84 
to 94,, 2\ to 25 in snout, 3 to 31 in interorbital; maxillary reaches \ to \ in 
snout, length 3* in head; mouth width 2\ to 3, lower jaw shorter; lips broad, 



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fleshy, feebly striated or plaited transversely; maxillary barbel reaches $ to 
£ to pectoral origin, outer mental i to f, inner mental $ of outer; band of 
fine villiform teeth in each jaw, none on palate; interorbital 2; to 3 in head, 
rather low, broadly convex; occipital fontanel extends from front of snout 
behind nostrils nearly to base of occipital extension, narrow at first, broadest 
in parietal region; occipital extension triangular., base If' its length. Gill 
rakers 6 -4- 9, lanceolate, $ of gill filaments, which 1] times eye. 

Skin smooth, firm. Parietal and occipital region of head with rugose 
striate surfaces. Humeral extension 3^ in depressed pectoral. Axillary 
pore distinct. Lateral line axial, complete, distinct and with well marked 
branches above and below throughout its course. 

D. I, 7, fin 1 i to in head, strong spine with row of low short points its 
whole extent, about l(i along hind edge antrorse serrae; adipose tin l| to 
1* in head; A. vi or VII, 10, i to 12, i, fin height 2 to 24, ; caudal 34, to 4 in rest 
of fish, deeply forked; least depth of caudal peduncle 31 to 4 in head; 
pectoral 14,, rays I, 10, outer edge of strong spine with row of small close set 
obtuse points and 25 antrorse serrae along inner edge; ventral If to If, 
rays i, 5. 

Back and upper surface gray, sides below and under surface silvery 
white. Pale or light area around eye, forward on snout and around its front 
end. Maxillarv barbel with brown edge, mental barbels white. Fins all 
pale to whitish; dorsal dark gray terminally. 

Two, 163 to 180 mm., Bangkok. 
Hemipimelodus atripinnis, new species. Figure 34. 

Depth 4; head 3^, width Snout 3 in head; eye 6, 2 in snout, 3 in 
interorbital; maxillary reaches j? in snout, length 3?, in head; mouth width 
2%, lower jaw shorter; lips fleshy, with feeble transverse striae and papillae 
on chin behind lower; maxillary barbel reaches j in pectoral, outer mental 
reaches pectoral origin, and inner reaches band of minutely villiform teeth 
in jaws and rather large rounded area well back on each palatine; inter- 
orbital 2J in head, broadly convex, with broad median fontanel, narrowing 
behind and reaching occipital extension, last basally nearly broad as long. 
Gill rakers 6 + 12, lanceolate, § of gill filaments, which 14 in eye. 

Skin smooth. Top of head rather coarsely rugose striate. Humeral 
extension 3' ( in pectoral, with distinct axillary pore below. Lateral line 
complete, axial, median along side with numerous close set branches along 
its whole extent both above and below. 

D. I, 7, fin little longer than head, pointed; adipose fin 2 in head; A. iv, 
14, 1, fin height Y\; caudal 3 : \ in rest of fish, deeply forked; least depth of 
caudal peduncle 3; pectoral 1 rays I. 10, -pine i broken i with broad obtuse 
points along outer edge and antrorse serrae on inner; ventral rays I, 5, fin 
K in head; vent opposite last § of depressed ventral. 

Dark gray brown on back and upper surfaces, sides below and under 
surfaces silvery white. Iris pale or whitish. Lips pale or creamy. 
Maxillary barbel dark brown. Mental barbels all whitish. Dorsal gray 
white basally, blackish terminally. Adipose fin white basally, contrasted 
black terminally with narrow white edge all around. Anal fin white basally, 
blackish terminally. Caudal pale basally. dark gray terminally. Paired 
fins whitish basally, edges narrowly pale all around broad blackish terminal 
portions. 



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A.N.S.P., No. 67,906. Bangkok, Siam. Length 170 mm. Type. 
Differs from Hemipimelodus borneensis chiefly in its contrasted fins, 
most of which blackish terminally. It also has longer barbels than H. 

borneensis. 

(Ater black + pinna fin.) 

BAGRIDAE 

Mystus nigriceps (Valenciennes). 

Two, 135 to 137 mm., Bangkok; 24 specimens, 123 to 167 mm., 
Pitsanulok; ten, 80 to 173 mm., Kemrat. 

Mystus micracanthus (Bleeker). 

One, 138 mm., Kemrat. Differs a little from Bleeker's figure as the 
dorsal spine is slender, pungent, and entire, about : \ length of head. 

Mystus vittatus (Bloch). 

Eleven, 72 to 158 mm., Bangkok; one, 78 mm., Tachin; fifty. 78 to 144 
mm., Pitsanulok; eighty-eight, 46 to 130 mm., Me Poon. 

Mystus atrifasciatus, new species. Figures 35 (upper and vomerine teeth). 36 (lateral 
view of type), 37 (right pectoral spine). 

Depth 3| to4; head 33 to 4, width 1} to 1 1 Snout 2* to 3^ in head; 
eye 3^ to 4J, 1} to H in snout, 1 : ^ to H in interorbital; maxillary reaches & 
to eye, length 4£ to 4£ in head; mouth width 2'i to 2*, lower jaw shorter; lips 
fleshy, moderately broad; maxillary barbel readies caudal base, nasal barbel 
3 to £ to hind edge of gill opening, outer mental barbel reaches nearly to or 
slightly beyond ventral origin, inner mental reaches £ to 4. in depressed 
pectoral; teeth minutely villiform, in moderate band in each jaw, and 
narrower parallel band of similar teeth on vomer; interorbital 2} to 3, low, 
depressed; broad frontal fontanel extends from front of interorbital nearly 
to base of occipital extension, which narrowly triangular, reaching 1* to 
dorsal origin. Gill rakers 4 -4- 18. slender, lanceolate, 1^ in gill filaments, 
which 1* in eye. 

Skin smooth. Top of head, occipital bony bridge, opercle and humeral 
extension finely rugose striate. Bony bridge from occipital extension to 
dorsal plate complete. Humeral extension half of depressed pectoral. 
Lateral line distinct, complete, axial, pores close set on very short inferior 
branchlets. 

D. I, 7 or 8, fin height 1J to 14 in head, spine pungent, rather short, 
strong, front edge entire and 8 to 14 antrorse serrae along hind edge more 
or less terminally; adipose fin length 2'\ to 3J in fish without caudal; A. 111 
or iv, 9 or 10, fin height, 1$ to 14 in head; caudal 2J to 3-rV in rest of fish, 
deeply forked, lower lobe little shorter; least depth of caudal peduncle 2} to 
2'\ in head; pectoral I, 10, fin 1J to 11, spine strong, front edge entire, hind 
edge with 14 to 16 antrorse denticles, larger terminally; ventral rays I, 5, fin 
14, to I5 in head; vent opposite first third in depressed ventral. 

Back and upper surface of head brown. Dark to blackish gray median 
lateral band, wide as vertical eye diameter and including lateral line, 
bounded above by whitish parallel longitudinal narrower band its whole 



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147 




44 to 47. Mystus nemurus. 48 to 51. Heterobagrus bocourtii. 
52. 53. Homaloptera maxinae. 



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[Vol. LXXXIX 



extent, and below by whitish color of under surfaces of body. Pale brownish 
streak, narrowing behind, back from pectoral axil until over front of anal. 
Iris gray. Lips pale or whitish. All barbels pale, with brown margins and 
nasal and maxillary pairs darker. Fins all more or less dull brownish. 

A.N.SJP., No. 67,907. Pitsanulok, Siam. Length 118 mm. Type. Also 
Nos. 67,908 to 68,002, same data, paratypes. Length 112 to 115 mm. No. 
68,003. Me Poon, Siam. Paratype. Length 110 mm. 

Distinguished from Mystus vittatus (Bloch) chiefly by its much longer 
adipose fin, in all my materials well exceeding the length of the head. The 
dark lateral band traversing the lateral line is very distinct and contrasted, 
slate black in color. 

(Ater black -4- fascia band.) 

Mystus planiceps (Valenciennes). 

One, 118 mm., Bangkok; ten, 60 to 128 mm., Tachin; four, 47 to 75 mm., 
Rayong. 

Mystus wolffii (Bleeker). 

Ten, 72 to 176 mm., Bangkok; one, 53 mm., Pitsanulok; four, 49 to 140 
mm., Tachin. In small specimens the maxillary barbel quite variable, in 
one the left barbel only reaches the anal origin while the right reaches the 
caudal base. In others the maxillary barbel reaches $ of the adipose fin 
while in larger specimens to the middle of the caudal fin. 

BRACHYMYSTUS, new subgenus 

Distinguished from subgenus Mystus Gronow, by its broad and obtuse 
to nearly truncate snout, well protruding forward to the end of the lower 
jaw. The mouth cleft very short, extending only \ to the eye. Head 
large, depressed. Maxillary barbel reaches anal. Type Bagrus nemurus 
Valenciennes. 

(Bpaxt's short or broad, with reference to the snout -4- Mystus.) 

Mystus nemurus (Valenciennes).* Figures 44 (upper and vomerine teeth), 45 (lateral 
view, Me Poon), 46 (head above), 47 (right pectoral spine). 

Depth 4 1 to 5; head 3 to 34, width 1$ to If. Snout 24 to 3i in head; 
eye 6 to 74, 2 to 3 in snout, 2 to 2% in interorbital ; mouth width 2 1 } to 2* in 
head, lower jaw shorter; maxillary extends § to £ to eye, length 3] to 3& in 
head; maxillary barbel variable, reaches anal origin or caudal base; nasal 
barbel reaches £ in eye or to hind eye edge, outer mental barbel reaches $ 
to 4 in depressed pectoral, inner mental barbel reaches j| to J to pectoral 
origin; lips rather broad, fleshy, smooth; rather broad bands of villiform 
teeth in jaws, and parallel band on vomer expanded little each side posteri- 
orly; interorbital 3 to 34, low and flat; fontanel extends from hind part of 
snout to base of occipital extension, which narrow and slender, extending § of 
predorsal or to dorsal plate in small examples, or only 4, of space in larger 
examples. Gill rakers 3+11, lanceolate, slender, 14 in eye or in gill 
filaments. 



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54 to 63. Leiocassis albicollaris (variation). 



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Skin smooth. Cranium with low striae. Humoral extension 2 to 3 in 
depressed pectoral. Lateral line complete, distinct, axial along side of body, 
with small close set pores each at end of short inferior branchlet. 

I). I, 7, first branched ray 1,\ to 1£ in head, strong spine with front edge 
entire or with 3 or 4 feeble subterminal antrorse serrac, hind edge with 6' or 
7 better developed; adipose fin 1& to 2; A. iv, 8, 1, fin height 1$ to 24; caudal 
deeply forked, lobes slender, pointed, upper ending in filament and much 
longer than lower or 2f to 3* in rest of fish; least depth of caudal peduncle 
3£ to 44 in head; pectoral H to 13, rays I, 9, spine with front edge granular 
and 14 or 15 antrorse serrae along hind edge, smaller toward base of spine; 
ventral 1* to 2± in head, rays 1, 5. 

Back and upper surfaces gray brown, below whitish. Iris gray. 
Maxillary barbel pale, with brown edge, nasal barbel gray, mental barbels 
white. Fins all more or less grayish terminally, pectoral pale to whitish. 

Fourteen, 120 to 188 mm., Bangkok; one, 125 mm., Pitsanulok; eight, 55 
to 91 mm., Tachin; one, 137 mm., Me Poon; thirteen. 98 to 160 mm., Kemrat. 
Differs from Mystvs wyckii (Bleeker) in the striated upper surface of the 
head and much longer barbels. 

Leiocassis albicollaris Fowler. Figures 54, 55 (Bangkok). 56 to 58 (Pitsanulok), 59 
to 63 (Me Poon). 

Two, 103 to 160 mm., Bangkok; three, 91 to 112 mm., Pitsanulok; five, 
57 to 97 mm., Me Poon. 

Heterobagrus bocourtii Bleeker.* Figures 48 (head above), 49 (right pectoral), 
50 (upper and vomerine teeth), 51 (lateral view). 

Depth 3^; head 4, width 1 ; \. Snout 2h in head; eye 4!J, 2 in snout, 14 in 
interorbital; maxillary reaches 24 to eye, length 42 in head; mouth width 
3£, lower jaw shorter; lips fleshy, rather narrow, papillate; nasal barbel 
reaches hind edge of gill opening or opercular flap, maxillary barbel reaches 
middle of caudal, outer mental barbel reaches 5 in depressed pectoral, inner 
mental barbel reaches pectoral origin; teeth minutely villiform, in short, 
small, broad band in each jaw, followed above by similar smaller band close 
behind on vomer; interorbital 3i in head ; low, flat, with broad, deep, median 
fontanel from close behind nostrils on snout above to base of occipital exten- 
sion. Gill rakers 4 + 12, lanceolate, 1* in gill filaments, which 2 in eye. 

Skin smooth. Top of head and predorsal bridge finely rugose striate, 
also humeral extension, which 2,i in pectoral fin. Predorsal bridge complete, 
with long slender occipital extension. Lateral line axial, complete, with 
minute pores. 

D. II, 7, first spine short and basal, second spine greatly elongate, little 
sinuous, 2 in fish without caudal, first ray 1$ and last ray long as snout; 
long adipose fin separated from dorsal by narrow notch, length 2 of fish 
without caudal; A. in, 8, first branched ray 1$ in head; caudal deeply forked, 
with long, slender lobes, lower * of upper which 3 in rest of fish; least depth 
of caudal peduncle 34 in head; pectoral 14, rays I, 11, spine with outer edge 
entire, inner edge with 22 antrorse strong denticles; ventral 1, 5, fin 1^ in 
head. 



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64 to 69. Bolia Jiymenophysa. 70. Botia lucas-bahi. 



152 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [VOL. LXXXIX 

General color drab, little paler below. More or less ill defined pale 
parallel band along above and another along below dark band inclusive of 
lateral line. Border of eye pale. Lips pale. Dark bar of scapula followed 
by pale or creamy crescent. Barbels all more or less brownish. Fins pale 
may. transverse pale bar across dorsal, adipose fin paler posteriorly, caudal 
and paired fins darker basally. 

One, 189 mm., Pitsanulok. This specimen agrees with Bocourt's figure, 
especially in that the shape of the dorsal and adipose fin is distinctive. 
Although I placed Prajadhipokia rex Fowler as a synonym in 1935, it seems 
to differ in so many characters as the gill rakers, teeth, and coloration that 
I now feel forced to reconsider it as valid. 

HOMALOPTEMDAE 

Homaloptera maxinae, new species. Figures 52, 53 (ventral view). 

Depth 6; head 3f, width 1L Snout in head; eye 4f, 2£ in snout, 1£ 
in interorbital; mouth width 4i in head; lips moderate, with 3 pairs of 
barbels, longest about half of eye; interorbital low, but slightly convex, 2^ 
in head. Gill rakers not evident ; gill filaments 1$ in eye. 

Scales 40 -f- 2 in lateral line ; 6 above. 4 below to ventral origin, 5 below 
to anal origin; 14 prcdorsal. Chest, breast and front of belly naked. Caudal 
base scaly. Scales with 6 or 7 short marginal basal striae, 4 or 5 apically. 
On back and sides of body each scale with transverse horizontal ridge, form 
prominent longitudinal series of which median, lateral, or of lateral line, 
most distinct. Rows of scales converge rather closely on posthumeral region. 
Scales on under surface of body without keels. 

D. 11, 9, 1, first branched ray 1?, in head; A. 1, 6, first branched ray 2\; 
caudal 3j in rest of fish, forked, lobes pointed; least depth of caudal 
peduncle 3 J in head; pectoral lj, rays 11, 12; ventral rays 1, 9, fin 1± in head. 

Light brownish generally, pale to whitish on under surfaces. On back 
9 dark brown saddles of which 2 at dorsal base and 4 postdorsal, though of 
last two last now rather indistinct. Lips and mouth pale, also border around 
eye and nostrils. Iris gray. Irregular dark blotches along side of body. 
Fins grayish, with darker margins, as 3 dark bands across dorsal. 3 or 4 
on caudal, and 2 on each of paired fins. 

A.X.S.P., No. 68,004. Tachin, Siam. Length 44 mm. Type. 

An interesting species with shorter pectorals than in the three Siamese 
species I noticed in 1934. This species is much like Homaloptera vjebcri 
Hora, from Borneo, though with keeled scales and much shorter pectoral. 

(For Miss Maxine de Schaucnsee, daughter of Mr. and Mrs. Rodolphe 
Meyer de Scliauensec.) 

COBITIDAE 

Acanthopsis choirorhynchus (.Bleeker). 

Two, 81 to 94 mm., Bangkok; four, 89 to 151 mm., Kemrat; one, 121 
mm.. Me Poon, only with dark lateral line present; one, 278 mm., Pitsanulok, 
gravid female with ova, therefore depth 5 J. 



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153 




71 to 74. Botia lecontei. 75,76. N emacheilus sexcauda. 
77 to 79. N emacheilus waltoni. 



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Four, 69 to 78 mm., Tachin. In most the only color pattern remaining 
is the narrow, dark gray streak including the lateral line. All show a more 
or less perfected dark line along the side of the snout to the eye. 

Botia hymenophysa < Bleeker). Figures 64 (Kemrat), 65 (Bangkok), 66 to 69 (Tachin). 

One, 120 mm., Bangkok; one, 165 mm., Kemrat; four, 43 to 55 mm., 
Tachin. 

Botia lucas-bahi, new species. Figure 70. 

Depth 3; head 3J, width 3. Snout 2.^ in head; eye 7, 3i- in snout, 1^ in 
interorbital; maxillary extends ± to eye, length 4 in head; 4 rostral barbels 
rather long, anterior or inner pair 2A in head; preorbital spine reaches half 
way in eye, with strong anterior prong; lips smooth, rather narrow; inter- 
orbital 5, convex. Gill rakers 12 short, low, rudimentary points, greatly 
less than gill filaments, which $ of eye. 

Scales very minute, embedded. Lateral line complete, axial, distinct. 

D. 11, 9, 1, first branched ray 1£ in head; A. 11, 5, first branched ray 1£; 
caudal 3£ in rest of fish, deeply forked; least depth of caudal peduncle 1$; 
pectoral 1J, rays 1, 14; ventral rays 1, 8, fin 2\ in head. 

General color dull brownish, pale to whitish below. About 10 transverse 
darker vertical band- on body, cadi broader than Male interspaces, and less 
distinct below. Scattered over side of body innumerable dark dots, and 2 
or 3 irregular rows of larger small dark spots above and 1 or 2 below parallel 
with course of lateral line. Iris gray. Barbels brownish. Dark streak 
along side of snout to eye and another on each side of top of head back to 
front of predorsal. Dorsal and caudal very pale or whitish, on former 
narrow black upper margin and 2 irregular series of black blotches, on 
caudal 3 transverse dark bands of which basal blackish. Lower or paired 
fins pale to whitish, anal with a few gray spots. 

A.N.S.P., No. 68,005. Tachin, Siam. Length 73 mm. Type. 

Apparently differs from Botia beauforti H. M. Smith, which I wrongly 
assumed may be synonymous with B. hymenophysa. The Chieng Mai 
specimen I also reported as B. hymenophysa 2 90 mm. long I now place as 
paratypic with the present species. It may easily be distinguished from 
B. hymenophysa or any other Siamese Botia by the black upper edge to the 
dorsal fin, besides other features of coloration. 

(Named for Mr. Lucas Bah, whose industry has added much to the 
value of our Siamese collections of fishes.) 

Botia horae H. M. Smith. 

One, 51 mm., caught in December 1932 at Chieng Mai in the Me Nam 
Ping. It was brought home alive, and lived in a sixty-gallon aquarium 
until September 27, 1936, without any apparent change. It is like my two 
figures, wrongly referred to B. modesta* though not showing the four dark 
supralateral vertical streaks as given by Smith. Its caudal is also greatly 
spotted. 

2Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., vol. 86, 1934, p. 101, fig. 52. 

« Proc. Acad. Xat. Sci. Phila., vol. 86, 1934, p. 101, figs. 53 and 54. 



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80 to 87. Ncrnacheihis bcavani (variation). 88 to 95. Nemacheilwt rlcsmotes (variation). 



156 



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[Vol. LXXXIX 



Botia modesta Bleeker. 

Five, 112 to 156 mm., Pitsanulok; two, 118 to 123 mm., Kemrat. 

Botia lecontei, new species. Figures 71 (preorbital spine), 72 (lateral view), 73 (head 
above), 74 (mouth below). 

Depth 3.1; head 31, width 2. Snout 2|- in head; eye 6J, 3 in snout, 2 in 
interorbital; maxillary reaches 2$ to eye, length 5| in head; 4 rostral and 2 
maxillary barbels, anterior rostral 33j in head; mouth width 6, lips fleshy, 
entire; interorbital 31, moderately high, convex; preorbital spine strong, 
well curved, with well developed superior anterobasal prong, spine length 
3^ in head. Gill rakers about 12? very short, low, weak points, ± of gill 
filaments, which equal eye. 

Scales microscopic, feeble, simple, rounded, non-imbricate and imbedded, 
not distinguishable without a lens or microscope. Lateral line prominent, 
axial, straight, continuous and pores numerous and very minute. 

D. in, 8, 1, first branched ray H in head ; A. hi, 5, 1, first branched ray If; 
caudal 2£ in rest of fish, deeply forked, triangular lobes sharp pointed; least 
depth of caudal peduncle 2 in head; pectoral 1|, rays 1, 12; ventral 1, 7, fin 
If in head, with narrowly triangular axillary papilla long as eye; vent 
midway between ends of depressed ventrals and anal origin. 

Back and upper surface of head dull uniform brown, with pale shade 
above lateral lino on caudal peduncle before large diffuse dark gray blotch 
at end of lateral line or at caudal basally, its diameter less than twice eye. 
Iris gray. Under surface of head, including mouth and barbels, also belly 
and tail, pale to whitish. Dorsal pale brownish, with 2 ill defined longi- 
tudinal, parallel, gray brown bands, both obscure. Caudal pale brownish. 
Lower fins uniform. 

A.N.S.P., No. 68.006. Kemrat, Siam. Length 100 mm. Type. 

Only the type obtained. The species may be known by its trim, shapely 
form, much more slender than Botia modesta, and in the presence of the 
dark gray blotch at the caudal base. 

(For Dr. John L. LeConte, the distinguished entomologist of past genera- 
tions, and a contributor to the Academy collection of fishes.) 

Nemacheilus beavani Giinther. Figures 80 to 87 (variation). 

Eight, 35 to 42 mm., Me Poon. In this species only 2 dark transverse 
bands behind the dorsal, exclusive of the blackish bar on the caudal base. 
Caudal but little emarginate. 

Nemacheilus thai Fowler. 

Series of 46 specimens, 25 to 59 mm., Me Poon. 
Nemacheilus desmotes Fowler. Figures 88 to 95 (variation). 

Ten, 28 to 52 mm., Me Poon. 

Nemacheilus sexcauda, new species. Figures 75, 76 (mouth below). 

Depth 5$; head 4, width 1}. Snout 24 in head; eye 7, 2f in snout, 3 in 
interorbital, low, broadly convex; maxillary not quite reaching opposite 
front eye edge, length 3 in head; 6 long barbels, front rostral pair shortest 



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or reach -J to eye, outer rostral reaches little beyond front of eye or 24, in 
head, maxillary barbel reaches H to pectoral origin; mouth width 2h in 
head, moderately fleshy lips entire; front of upper jaw with short transverse 
or anterior bony edge, this received in depression at symphysis of mandible 
which furnished on either side with rather high trenchant bony ridge., so 
appearance of mandible somewhat spout-like inside lips; interorbital 3 in 
head, rather low, broadly convex. Gill rakers 3 -j- 10 low points, \ of gill 
filaments, which li times eye. 

Scales very small, cycloid, rounded, slightly imbricated, firmly adherent, 
absent or little distinct on front of predorsal and chest. Lateral line distinct, 
axial, complete, with minute close-set pores. 

D. ii, 8, i (ends of rays damaged), first branched ray 1? in head; A. in. 
5, i, second branched ray 1*; caudal I t, broad, hind edge but slightly emargi- 
nate; least depth of caudal peduncle 2; pectoral 1£, rays i, 11; ventral rays 
i, 7, fin 14, in head, narrow, pointed axial papilla 1 j times eye. Vent at ends 
of depressed ventrals. 

General color brown, under surfaces slightly paler. Eleven dark brown 
transverse bands on body, wider than pale interspaces, of these 4 predorsal 
and 2 below dorsal little sinuous, so 5 narrower vertical bands remain 
crowded behind dorsal, in addition to still narrower and greatly contrasted 
black transverse basal caudal band, Few -mall scattered black dot- or 
spots on interorbital and occipital regions, beside few on opercle and right 
cheek. Iris gray. Barbels brownish. Dorsal pale, basally whitish with 
black blotch at origin and rays with brown bar terminally, besides small 
brown spot on each ray basally. Caudal brown, except for dark basal bar. 
Anal pale, whitish basally, and each branched ray terminally with 2 dull 
brownish spots. Paired fins pale, each branched ray with 2 or 3 slightly 
darker spots terminally, though under surface of pectoral pale and spots 
only show on upper surface. 

A.N.S.P., No. 68,007. Me Poon, Siam. Length 116 mm. Type. 

Related to Nemacheilus semi-cincta (Blyth), but with one more dark 
band on the tail. Hora says of that species 10 or 11 broad dark transverse 
bands present, his figure 4 showing 11. 

(Sex six + cauda tail; with reference to the six dark transverse bands 
behind the dorsal fin.) 

Nemacheilus waltoni, new species. Figures 77 (type), 78 (mouth below), 79 (young). 

Depth 5 to 54; head 3f to 4, width If to If. Snout 24 to 3| in head; 
eye 44 to 7, 14 to 3 in snout, 14 to 24 in interorbital; maxillary not quite 
reaching opposite front of eye, length 3 to 3£ in head; 6 long barbels, front 
rostral pair shortest reach | to, or to eye, outer rostral reaches 1| to 2 to 
pectoral origin, maxillary barbel reaches 14, to 1-.; mouth width 3 to 3^ in 
head, moderately fleshy lips entire; front of upper jaw with short transverse 
trenchant bony edge, received in depression at mandibular symphysis giving 
rise either side to elevated trenchant bony ridge, appearing spout like; 
interorbital 34, to 3|, low, broadly convex. Gill rakers 3 -4- 12 short points, 
i of gill filaments, which subequal with eye. 



4 Records Indian Mus., vol. 31, pt. 4, Dec. 1929, p. 236, pi. 14, fig. 3. 



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PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [VOL. LXXXIX 



Scales very small, cycloid, rounded, slightly imbricated, firmly adherent, 
finer or much smaller or less distinct on predorsal, also indistinct or absent 
on chest. Lateral line distinct, axial, complete, with minute, close set pores. 

D. m, 8, i, first branched ray If to li in head; A. in, 5, i, second branched 
ray H to 1§; caudal 1 to li, little emarginate or concave behind, points of 
lobes distinct when expanded; least depth of caudal peduncle 1* to 2; 
pectoral li to H, rays i, 12; ventral rays i, 7, fin 1} to 1^ in head, with 
slender, pointed, axillary papilla 1^ times eye, smaller in young. Vent at 
ends of depressed ventrals. 

Dull or pale brownish generally, under surfaces slightly paler. Thirteen 
dark brown transverse bands on body, little wider than pale interspaces and 
with age narrower, each showing darker margin or bordering line; 5 of bands 
predorsal and 3 from below dorsal, besides 5 remaining bands behind dorsal, 
in addition to narrow, black, contrasted band at caudal base. Some obscure 
dark blotches on top of head and front of snout. Iris gray. Barbels pale 
brown, front rostral pair dark on outer basal portion and outer, longer, 
rostral pair dark all along outer edge. Dorsal pale, creamy to white basally, 
with contrasted black blotch at front of fin and another slightly paler over 
second dark band from dorsal base; each ray with broad dark brown median 
bar. Caudal brown, save for black basal band, upper and lower fulcra and 
edges of fin pale to whitish. Other fins pale to whitish, with upper surface 
of pectoral pale brown. 

A.N.S.P., No. 68.008. Me Poon, Siam. Length 102 mm. Type. Also 
Xos. 68,009 and 68,010, same data, paratypes. Length 26 to 45 mm. 

Known chiefly by its coloration, the arrangement of the broad, dark, 
transverse bands as 5 or 6 predorsal, 3 from dorsal base and 6 postdorsal 
(inclusive of dark basal caudal band). The species is suggestive of Nema- 
cheilus kengtungensis, differing in the arrangement of its dark transverse 
bands. 

(For Joseph Walton, a contributor to the Academy's collection of fishes 
in its early history). 

POGONONEMACHEILUS, new subgenus 

Differs from the typical species of subgenus Nemacheilus in the very 
long barbels, the preorbital hook and the deeply forked caudal fin, with its 
extended upper lobe. Type Nemacheilus masyae H. M. Smith. 

(llwyw beard -4- Nemacheilus; with reference to the long barbels.) 

Nemacheilus masyae H. M. Smith. 
Three, 54 to 62 mm., Me Poon. 

GYRINOCHEILIDAE 

Body elongate, moderately compressed, rather slender. Head rather 
small, nearly pyramidal. Snout long, depressed. Eye with free edge, small, 
high, postmedian. No rostral fold. Above and anteriorly on snout a 
transverse groove, continued below and around each corner of mouth to 
postlabial groove. Upper lip rather broad, fleshy, emarginate medially, its 



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9G. 97. Gyrinocheilops kaznakoi. 
100. Longiculter siahi. 



98. 99. Gyrinocheilops pennorki. 
101. Cvlter wolfi. 



160 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [VOL. LXXXIX 

outer surface papillate; inner surface with small rasp-like papillae; lower 
lip medially triangular, with 6 or more transverse plicae; laterally in con- 
junction with upper lip forms an involuted prolongation. No barbels. Gill 
opening rather narrow, lateral, above with conspicuous deep slit not covered 
by opercle and closed inside by a movable flap. Gill membranes very 
broadly united to isthmus. Pharyngeals slender, without teeth. Scales 
moderate or rather small ; with radiating marginal striae all around, medi- 
ally joined by reticulations. Lateral line complete, axial along side of body. 
Dorsal moderate, with 3 simple and 9 branched rays. Anal short, behind 
dorsal, with 3 simple and 5 branched rays. Caudal moderate, emarginate. 
Pectoral low, broad. Ventral short. Type genus Gyrinocheilus Vaillant. 

Hora in 1923 pointed out the similarity of these fishes to Garra and 
Crossocheilus, " but this outward similarity, in my opinion, is directly corre- 
lated with the life of these fishes in moderately rapid-running waters." At 
the same time he created their elevation to family rank, stressing the tooth- 
less pharyngeals, scale structure, the remarkable modified inhalent and 
exhalent apertures of the gill-openings, and mouth, lip and jaw structures. 
The genera may be distinguished as follows: 

Predorsal scales small; scales on caudal base small; eye well postmedian 
or near last third in head; 2 rows of large, dark, alternating or opposed 
spots along side of body Gyrinocheilus 

Predorsal scales very small and crowded; scales on caudal base large; eye 
slightly postmedian in head; 2 rows of large dark spots only partly or 
not at all alternating along side of body Gyrinochcilops 

GYRINOCHEILOPS, new genus 

Eye but little postmedian in head length. Predorsal scales very small 
and crowded. Ventral origin premedian in length of dorsal base. Caudal 
deeply emarginate, with rather slender, pointed lobes. Pearl organs of 
different arrangement and apparently more extensive than in Gyrinocheilus. 
Coloration with 2 rows of dark lateral spots mostly opposed. Type Gyrino- 
chcilops pennocki, new species. 

Related to Gyrinocheilus Vaillant (type Gyrinocheilus pustulosus Vaill- 
ant) of Borneo, which differs in the eye center at last third in the head, 
larger and less numerous predorsal scales, and ventral origin about opposite 
last | of dorsal base. 

{Gyrinocheilus 4- appearance.) 

Gyrinocheilops kaznakoi (Berg). Figures 96 (Chieng Mai), 97 (mouth below). 

Gyrinocheilus kaznakoi Berg, Comp. Rend. Trav. Soc. Imp. Nat. St. Petersbourg, 
vol. 37. 1906, pp. 305. 367 (type locality, Pai-lin hot ween Battambang and Sehanta- 
buri).— H. M. Smith. Journ. Siam Soc. Nat. Hist. Suppl., vol. 8, No. 3, Sep. 1931, p. 187 
(Nontaburi, Paknam, Bung Barapet, Pak Jong, Udon, east of Bandon, Lampang. 
Potaram, north of Kanburi).— Fowler. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., vol. 86, 1934. p. 137 
(Chieng Mai; Metang R. 35 miles above Chieng Mai, foot of Chieng Dao). 

? Psilorhynchus aymonieri Tirant, Bull. Soc. Etud. Indochin.. 1883. T1929, reprint, p. 
35, pi. 1, figs. 1 and 2] (type locality, "pet its affluents du Prek-Tenot dans les mon- 
tagnes de Samrong-Tonn. a 75 kilometres de Phnom-Penh ". Cambodia). 

? Gyrinocheilus aymonieri Hora, Rec. Indian Mus., vol. 39, pt. 4, Dec. 1935, p. 461, 
fig. 1 (outline photo of type). 



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1937J NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA 161 

One, 55 mm., Paknam; four, 54 to 60 mm., Tachin. These all agree with 
the series I reported in 1934, especially in the shape of the preoral region. 

The original barbaric figures of Psilorhynchus aymonieri Tirant, together 
with the incomplete description, even when viewed with Hora's outline of 
the type, hardly reveal certain identification with Berg's G yrinocheilus 
kaznakoi. 

Gyrinocheilops pennocki, new species. Figures 98 (type), 99 (mouth below). 

Depth 44 to 41 ; head 3* to 3J, width 1§ to If. Snout 2j to 2^ in head; 
eye 4f to 5*, 2} to 2f in snout, 2 to 2\ in interorbital: maxillary not quite 
reaching opposite front of eye, length 2$ to 2% in head; mouth width 3 to 
3'i; broad Meshy lips finely papillate; interorbital 2h to 2:',' in head, low, de- 
pressed, medially slightly concave. Gill rakers about 40 close set, com- 
pressed, pointed, flexible laminae, j of gill filaments, which equal eye. 

Scales 39 or 40 4 2 in lateral line; 8 above. 5 below to ventral, 6 below 
to anal, 23 or 24 prcdorsal. Pectoral with adnate triangular cutaneous pad 
in axil, length 2\ in fin. Ventral with axillary scale 2i in fin. Scales en- 
larged on caudal base medially. Chest and breast naked. Scales with 12 
to 14 basal radiating striae, with 3 to 5 more incomplete auxiliaries; 7 to 10 
complete apically, and 10 to 22 more incomplete auxiliaries. Lateral line 
complete, axial, straight ; tubes short and simple. Pearl organs as irregular 
double preorbital row forward of nostrils; on upper front ridge of snout row 
of 6 more or less extended forward; on front edge of snout outer row of 6 
large tubercles with 2 inner ones each side and closely set. all directed 
upward; preorbital region below and behind described region all more or less 
studded with tubercles. Smaller example with less elaborate ornamentation, 
though of similar pattern and tubercles fewer. 

D. 11, 10, 1, first branched ray lj to 1 : \ in head; A. m, 5 1, first branched 
ray If to In; caudal 24 to 3} in rest of fish, rather deeply emarginate and 
sharp points of lobes distinct; least depth of caudal peduncle 2 to 2 ; | in 
head; pectoral 14 to If, rays 1, 13; ventral rays 1, 8, fin 1?, to U in head. 
Vent at last § to J of depressed ventrals. 

Brownish above, paler to whitish below. Along side 9 dark to blackish 
gray spots in row above lateral line and another below, most of spots in 
rows nearly or quite opposite. Along back row of 11 similar dark spots, 
these not regular with lower spots and some alternated. Eye grayish. Lips 
pale like under surface of head. Dorsal grayish, with 2 rows of rather large 
brownish spots on membranes, one median and other basal. Caudal pale 
to whitish, spotted with dark gray, of which some of upper terminal ones 
little larger. Lower fins all more or less whitish, spotted with gray and 
dark sub-terminal blackish bar or pectoral. 

A.N.S.P., No. 68.012. Kemrat, Siam. Length 145 mm. Type. Also 
No. 68,013, paratype, same data. Length 78 mm. 

Differs from G yrinochcilops kaznakoi (Berg) in the form of the preoral 
region, the more advanced eye and the absence of the black spot behind 
the upper end of the upper section of the gill-opening. 

(For the late Charles J. Pennock, of Kennett Square, Pennsylvania, an 
ornithologist to whom I am indebted for various North American fishes.) 



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CYPRINIDAE 

ABRAMIDINAE 
LONGICULTER, new genus 

Body elongately ovoid, strongly compressed, abdominal edge cultrate. 
Head small, well compressed. Snout moderate, greatly broader than long, 
obtuse. Eye well advanced, little below median axis of head. Mouth 
superiorly terminal, its front end above level of upper edge of eye, sub- 
vertical. Maxillary short, not reaching eye. Lips thin, narrow, jaw edges 
entire and trenchant. Interorbital high, broad. Nostrils close together, 
high or close to upper profile, without cutaneous flap, and posterior greatly 
larger. Suborbitals narrow. Gill opening large, deeply cleft, extends for- 
ward opposite hind eye edge, membranes joined to isthmus. Gill rakers 
very fine, slender, rather long, numerous, closely set. Pseudobranchiae 
large, though smaller than gill filaments. Pharyngeal teeth small, biserial, 
bones small. Scales in even longitudinal series, small, numerous, narrowly 
imbricated. Abdominal scales not passing over abdominal keel. Ventral 
with small axillary papilla. Caudal base broadly scaled. Lateral line com- 
plete, little decurved. Dorsal little postmedian, small. Anal longer than 
head, begins behind dorsal, front rays little higher. Caudal deeply emargi- 
nate. Caudal peduncle short, well compressed. Pectoral rather long, falcate, 
reaches beyond front of ventral, placed low. Ventral moderate, not quite 
reaching opposite dorsal origin. Type Longiculter siahi, new species. 

Differs from Cutter and related genera in its well-elongated and strongly 
compressed body. 

(Longus long -j- Cutter.) 

Longiculter siahi, new species. Figure 100 (type). 

Depth 3$ to 33 ; head 4§ to U, width 2\ to 24. Snout 4$ to 5 in head 
from snout tip; eye 4, little greater than snout, 11 to lj in interorbital, 
marginal adipose-like membrane only moderately invading iris; end of 
closed maxillary not quite opposite lower level of lower edge of pupil, length 
4* to 5] in head from snout tip; interorbital 2-n,- to 3±, convex; narrow 
suborbitals cover half of cheek to preopercle ridge. Gill rakers 16 + 90, 
lanceolate, very slender, equal gill filaments or 1* in eye. Pharyngeal teeth 
2. 4 — 4, 2, scarcely hooked, large ones with broad, entire grinding surfaces. 

Scales 70 to 72 + 4 in lateral line; 12 above, 6 below to ventral. 7 or 8 
below to anal origin, 71 to 72 predorsal. Pectoral without axillary scale. 
Ventral with short adnate pointed axillary papilla. Lateral line complete, 
well decurved forward, extending low along side of tail till median at caudal 
base, tubes small, short, simple. Scales with 4 to 7 apical radiating striae, 
basal circuli fine, none extended apically. 

D. ii, 7. i. first branched ray lif to 12 in total head; A. in, 21, I or in, 30. 
i, first branched ray 1!?; caudal 3 : \ to 3* in rest of fish, upper lobe If to 1| 
in lower lobe; least depth of caudal peduncle 2?, to 3 in total head; pectoral 
4 in fish without caudal, rays i, 14; ventral i, 8, length 1 ; \ to 1* in total 
head length. Vent close before anal. 

Back brownish, sides and below pale, evidently whitish in life. Iris 
grayish. Jaws and under surface of head pale. Pins all light or pale, 
dorsal and caudal little grayish terminally. 



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A.N.S.P.. No. 68.014. Me Poon. Siani. Length 200 mm. Also No. 
68.015, same data, paratype. Length 198 mm. 

A unique species, distinguished chiefly by its generic characters. 

(For Mr. Y. Siah. who assisted in forming the collection of Siamese 
fishes.) 

Culter siamensis (Giinther). 

Depth 34 to 3jf; head 3'} to 4, width 2\ to 2h. Snout 3£ to 4 in head 
from snout tip; eye 34 to 4 J. larger than snout in young to subequal with 
age. 1 to 1* in interorbital ; maxillary reaches nearly to or below front eye 
edge, length 24 to 2$ in head from snout tip; jaw edges firm, moderately 
trenchant and lips narrow, lower jaw well protruded; interorbital 3\ to 3!}, 
convex; suborbital broad, invades ] of cheek to preoperele ridge. Gill 
rakers 7 -4- 23, lanceolate, * of gill filaments, which 1J in eye. Pharyngeal 
teeth 2. 4, 5 — 5, 4, 2, small, hooked moderately and larger with moderate, 
entire grinding surfaces. 

Scales 21 to 25 (10 to 14 overlap) 4- 36 to 40 + 4 to 6 in lateral line; 15 
above, 7 below to ventral origin. 9 below to anal origin; 55 to 58 predorsal. 
Scales of belly not crossing median abdominal keel. Pectoral axil with 
small, pointed, cutaneous flap, its free portion slightly longer than scale 
exposure. Axillary ventral scale \ of fin. Caudal base well scaled. Lateral 
line complete, -trongly decurved anteriorly, low along side of tail and 
finally median at caudal base; tubes simple, all small, short and slightly 
decurved. Scales with 5 to 10 radiating apical striae; fine basal circuli not 
extended, or only obsolete apically. 

D. in, 7, i, first branched ray 14 to If in total head length; A. in, 21, i 
to in, 23, i, first branched ray 1} to 2; caudal 2£ to 3 in rest of fish, upper 
lobe shorter or li in lower; least depth of caudal peduncle 2$ to 3 in total 
head length; pectoral 1 to 1 ,Vi, rays i, 14; ventral rays i, 8, fin 14, to 2 in 
total head length. Yent close before anal. 

When fresh in alcohol pale brown above, greater lower portions bright 
silvery white, especially side of head and abdomen. Iris silvery white. 
Fins all pale to whitish. Base of anal and most of caudal base yellowish, 
and hind edge of latter narrowly dark gray. Later in alcohol an underlaid 
grayish axial band borders an underlaid coppery or dull golden band or 
streak all along its upper edge. 

Seven. 109 to 178 mm., Bangkok. 

Culter wolfi, new species. Figure ioi (type). 

Depth 4 to 44., trenchant abdominal keel well developed; head 34 to 4, 
width 24, to 2]. Snout 3'j to 4 J in head from snout tip; eye 3}. to 4 : ', greater 
than snout in young to lyV in snout with age; maxillary very oblique, 
reaches opposite front eye edge though well below level of its lower edge, 
length 2f, to 2£ in head from snout tip; lips narrow, thin and mandible well 
protruded in front so end of symphysis with age above level of upper eye 
edge; jaw edges not very trenchant; interorbital 3; 1 , to 44, in head from snout 
tip. convex; suborbitals broad, invade cheek * to preoperele ridge Gill 
rakers 6 -f- 26, finely lanceolate, subequal with gill filaments, which 1;,' in 
eve. Pharyngeal teeth 1. 3, 5 — 5, 3. 1, larger ones hooked and with 
moderate, smooth, entire, grinding surfaces. 



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PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [VOL. LXXXIX 



Scale- 23 to 2,5 (overlap 5 to 10, and sometimes auxiliary median series 
of 8 scales may be interposed) -4- 53 to 55 + 7 to 9 in lateral line; 15 above, 
5 below to ventral origin, 6 below to anal origin; 55 to 60 predorsal scales 
forward until opposite hind eye edge. Pectoral with adnate pointed cuta- 
neous axillary papilla 5| in depressed fin. Ventral axillary scale 34, in fin. 
Lateral line well decurved, low along side of tail and reaches caudal base 
medially; tubes short, simple, small, slope downward. Scales with 3 or 4 
apical radiating striae and 1 to 6 incomplete marginal auxiliaries; 2 basal 
radiating striae with 1 or 2 marginal auxiliaries; circuli fine, basal. 

D. Ill, 7, i, first branched ray If to 1* in total head length; A. in, 22, i, 
or in, 23, i, first branched ray If to H; caudal equals head, upper lobe 1£ to 
14 in lower lobe; least depth of caudal peduncle 3 to 3J in total head length; 
ventral 1? to 1}, rays i, 8; pectoral rays i, 13, fin 3f to 3§ in fish without 
caudal. Vent close before anal. 

Back and upper surface of head brownish, sides and below with more or 
less pale to rather brilliant copper color. Sides of head and abdomen more 
or less whitish or with silvery tints. Iris whitish. Fins pale, with more or 
less yellowish tint and hind edge of caudal rather narrowly dark gray. 

A.X.S.P., No. 68,016. Pitsanulok, Siam. Length 205 mm. Type. Also 
Xos. 68,017 to 68,020, same data, paratypes. Length 123 to 185 mm. 

Closely related to Culter siamensis, differing in the always distinctly 
longer pectoral, well exceeding the length of the head. Three, 69 to 85 
mm., Me Poon. 

(For the late Herman T. Wolf of Philadelphia, aquarium student, who 
obtained numerous American fishes for the Academy.) 

Culter barroni (Fowler). 

Thirteen, 133 to 150 mm., Pitsanulok; 66 specimens, 56 to 97 mm., 
Kcmrat. The former all with more or less coppery tints. Lower sides of 
head and f of body silvery white. Variable obscure dark gray saddle on 
front of predorsal, often narrow, again wide as eye, and others less distinct, 
may be present posteriorly. Fins all pale, caudal with yellowish line 
basally. 

In Kemrat specimens caudal yellowish basally, marginally gray. Iris 
gray, doubtless silvery white in life. 

Culter typus (Bleeker). Figure 102 (Bangkok). 

Eighteen, 122 to 155 mm. Bangkok. Depth 2£ to 3J ■; eye 2f to 2£ in 
head from snout tip. Scales 48 (10 to 20 overlap) + 3 in lateral line. A. 
in, 27, 1, to HI, 29, 1. Pectoral not reaching ventral. Pale brown, with 
yellowish to coppery tinge. Lower side of body silvery white. Iris white. 
Anal and caudal bases yellowish, hind edge of latter dark gray. Paired fins 
cream white. 

Ten, 110 to 136 mm., Pitsanulok. All more or less coppery brown, with 
whitish shades below. Iris white or pink, evidently turning gray. Ill 
defined axial lateral band from head to caudal base, most distinct along 



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166 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [VOL. LXXXIX 

side of tail. Caudal yellowish, hind edge gray. Other fins pale brown, 
with dark dots on middle of pectoral, often inconspicuous. 

All my specimens when freshly received were brilliant brassy-white, with 
silvery reflections over the whole lower side of head from level with upper 
edge of eye. Above the back pale or light brown, with brassy tint. Most 
specimens showed only a few inconspicuous dark or scattered dots, on the 
upper pectoral rays. In formaline iris and opercle turn dark gray and fins 
nearly colorless. Lateral line usually incomplete, though often forked 
at its lowest part of bend, this variable and may or may not occur on one or 
both sides of the same specimen. 

Culter stigmabrachium (Fowler). 

Two, 78 to 105 mm., Bangkok; sixteen, 115 to 148 mm., Me Poon; one. 
43 mm.. Tachin; seven, 106 to 142 mm., Kenirat. Me Poon materials all 
show a more or less pale brown body, with an obscurely defined, underlaid, 
dull gamboge lateral band, most distinct axially along side of tail. Most 
of fins pale to whitish. Caudal yellowish, hind edge dark gray. Pectoral 
with distinct contrasted blackish blotch, made up of blackish dots, and 
equally distinct on both sides of fin. Iris whitish, now turned gray. 

Culter riveroi Fowler. 

Depth 3* to 3? ; head 4 to 4*, width 2 to 2]. Snout 44 to 5 in head from 
snout tip; eye 3i to 3$, greater than snout, greater than interorbital in 
young to subequal with age; maxillary very oblique, not quite reaching 
opposite front eye edge and not below lower eye edge, length 3yV to 3£ in 
head from snout tip; lips rather thin, narrow, jaw edges little trenchant; 
interorbital 3\ to 3-J, rather low, convex; suborbitals cover most of cheek to 
preopercle ridge. Gill rakers 10 + 33, finely lanceolate, equal gill filaments 
or 2 in eye. Pharyngeal teeth 2, 4, 5 — 5. 4, 2. hooked, with moderate, 
entire, grinding surfaces. 

Scales 50 to 52 -f 4 or 5 in lateral line; 12 above, 5 below to ventral base. 
6 below to anal origin; 47 to 59 predorsal scales forward opposite hind eye 
edge. Pectoral axillary scale 4} in fin. Ventral axillary scale 3?, in fin. 
Caudal base broadly scaly. Two rows of small basal scales on anal. 
Lateral line complete, distinct, well deeurved, runs along lower side of tail 
up to middle of caudal basally; tubes all small, short, each directed down- 
ward. Scales with 3 to 6 apical radiating striae; none or 1 basal radiating 
stria; circuli fine, basal, obsolete apically. 

D. ii, 7, i, first branched ray 1} to 1 : \ in total head length; A. in, 21, I 
to in, 25, i, first branched ray l| to VI ; caudal 3,i to 3;J in rest of fish, deeply 
forked, upper lobe 1± in lower; least depth of caudal peduncle 24 to 2'\ in 
total head length; pectoral 3| to 3}- in fish without caudal, rays i, 14; 
ventral rays i, 8, fin ljg to 1$ in total head length. Vent close before anal, 
with small fleshy papilla. 

Brown, with coppery reflections, lower sides and under surfaces whitish. 
Iris white, also lower side of head. Fins pale brown or dull pink. Caudal 
sometimes with gray basally and hind border dark gray. 



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1937 I NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA 167 

Nine, 123 to 150 mm., Pitsanulok; five, 65 to 140 mm., Me Poon. Only 
known previously from the type, which agrees in every way with the above. 

Oxygaster oxygastroides ( Bleeker). 

Three, 40 to 48 mm., Me Poon; 100 specimens, 50 to 138 mm., Bangkok. 
Depth 3i to 3',. When fresh very pale brown, with slight yellowish tinge 
below. Sides of head and iris largely silvery white. Broad silvery white 
band, wide as eye, along side of body axially. narrowing on caudal peduncle. 
Silvery white reflections also on lower side of body. Dorsal and caudal 
little grayish terminally, and gray dots on pectoral above variously 
obscured. Caudal usually tinged yellowish basally. Fins otherwise pale to 
whitish. In formaline eyes and opercle turn dark gray or leaden, and dark 
gray lateral streak forms along side of tail, bounding upper edge of silvery 
lateral band. 

Me Poon materials differ from most all my large examples in having the 
dorsal origin well behind the anal origin. 

Macrochirichthys macrochirus (Valenciennes). 

One, 240 mm., Me Poon; two, 158 to 192 mm., Kemrat. Comparison of 
this material, representative of two distinct river basins, fails to show any 
differences other than age or individual variation. 

RASBORINAE 

Rasbora cromiei, new species. Figure 103 (type). 

Depth 3J to 3A; head 3£ to 3i. width \i to 2. Snout 31 to 4 in head 
from snout tip; eye 3] to 4, greater than eye in young to subequal with age, 
li to 1$ in interorbital ; maxillary not quite reaching opposite front eye 
edge, length 2£ to 3 in head from snout tip; mandible slightly protruded, 
symphysis with rounded knob fitting in depression at front of snout or upper 
jaw; no barbels; interorbital 2| to 2*, convex; suborbitals broad, largely 
cover cheek to preopcrclc ridge. Gill rakers . 2 -}- 1 1 , lanceolate. I of gill 
filaments, which f t of eye. Pharyngeal teeth 2. 4, 5 — 5. 4. 2. hooked and 
larger with well developed, entire grinding surfaces. 

Scale- 25 in 2S 4 3 in lateral line; 5 above, 2 below to ventral origin, 3 
below to anal origin; 12 or 13 predorsal. Axillary pointed pectoral scale 
: \ of fin. Ventral with axillary scale 2,i in fin. Caudal base scaled. Anal 
base with row of large scales. Lateral line complete, continuous, well de- 
curved, low along side of tail to median at caudal base; tubes long, slender, 
simple, well exposed. Scales with 17 to 24 apical radiating striae, variably 
incomplete or marginal; 21 to 24 more or less parallel basal striae; circuli 
fine, basal finer, apically convergent. 

D. 11, 7. 1. first branched ray li to 1± in total head length; A. Ill, 5, 1, 
first branched ray 1* to 1$; caudal 2\ to 2} in rest of fish, deeply forked; 
least depth of caudal peduncle 2 to 2i in total head lencth; pectoral 1± to 
1 rays 1, 12; ventral rays 1. 8, fin 1 \ to 1? in total head length. Vent close 
before anal origin. 



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Back and upper surfaces umber, paler on lower sides and below, evidently 
white in life. Iris grayish. Mandible and lower lip pale, chin and median 
symphyseal region darker brown. Dark inclined bar along hind edge of 
shoulder girdle. Axial dark gray to black lateral band from behind head to 
middle of caudal base, narrow and pale at first it expands at caudal base as 
elongated lobe, its vertical diameter less than eye. Dorsal and caudal gray 
brown, former with each ray medially with slightly darker bar. Lower fins 
pale or dull, soiled brownish. 

A.N.S.P., No. 68,021. Me Poon, Siam. Length 89 mm. Type. Also 
Nos. 68,022 to 68,046, paratypes, same data. Length 33 to 102 ram. Besides 
the above 75 others, 31 to 100 mm., Me Poon; 77 specimens, 51 to 77 mm., 
Rayong. 

Apparently closely related to Rasbora borapetensis H. M. Smith, 1934, 
from Bung Borapet, central Siam. It is described from an example but 48 
mm. long, and " readily recognizable by the incomplete lateral line (which 
never extends beyond the anal fin) ". It is also described with a black 
lateral band, narrower than the eye extending from gill opening to base of 
caudal fin. 

The imperfectly described Rasbora paviana Tirant 1883 seems to differ 
largely in coloration. It is described with an oblique black bar dividing the 
back at the top of the head and descends obliquely back along the flank and 
the breast, level with the first third of the pectoral. 

(For Mr. George H. Cromie, of Atlantic City, N. J., who has secured 
many rare or interesting local fishes for me.) 

Rasbora cheroni, new species. Figure 104. 

Depth 3; head 4, width 2. Snout 3] in head from snout tip; eye 3$, H 
in interorbial; maxillary not quite reaching opposite front eye edge, length 
3+ in head from snout tip; mandible well protruded in front, with broad 
symphyseal knob, received in depression at end of snout; lips thin, narrow; 
interorbital 2h in head from snout tip, convex; broad suborbitals largely 
cover cheek. Gill rakers 4 -f- 10, lanceolate, § of gill filaments, which jt of 
eye. Right pharyngeal teeth 5, 3, 2, hooked, with moderate, entire grinding 
surfaces. 

Scales 30 -f- 2 in lateral line ; 5 above, 1 below to ventral origin, 2 below 
to anal origin, 14 predorsal forward opposite hind preopcrcle edge. Axillary 
pectoral scale $ of fin. Axillary ventral scale 2\ in fin. Anal with basal 
row of large scales. Caudal base broadly scaly. Lateral line complete, 
distinct, decurved, low along side of caudal peduncle then up till median 
on caudal basally. Scales with 31 apical radiating striae of which many 
incomplete; 12 close-set basal radiating striae; circuli basally fine and 
numerous, apically less so and convergent to obsolete. 

D. n, 6, 1, first branched ray 1J in head from snout tip; A. in, 5, 1, first 
ray \\; caudal 2£ in rest of fish, deeply forked; least depth of caudal 
peduncle 1£; pectoral 1 in total head length, rays 1, 11; ventral rays 1, 8, 
fin 1J in total head length. 



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Back pale brown, under surfaces scarcely lighter. Iris whitish. Narrow 
dark gray vertebral line axial on side of body, faint at first and darker 
posteriorly or along side of tail. Small round black spot, less than pupil, 
at middle of caudal base. Fins all pale, hind edge of caudal grayish. 

U.S.N.M., No. 68,011. Pitsanulok, Siam. Length 97 mm. Type. 

Known by its deep body, postmedian insertion of the dorsal and small, 
round, black basal caudal spot. 

(For Peter Cheron, who assisted in forming the collection of Siamese 
fishes.) • 

Rasbora argyrotaenia (Bleeker). 

Fifty, 46 to 145 mm., Bangkok; one 48 mm.. Tachin; two. 25 to 27 mm., 
Me Poon; sixty. 51 to 104 mm., Kemrat. 

Danio pulcher H. M. Smith. Figure 105. 

Depth 3£ to 3A; head 34 to 3 : ,\. width 1| to I', 1 . Snout 5 to 6 in head 
from snout tip; eye 3] to 41, greater than snout, 1J ( to 1^ in interorbital; 
maxillary reaching eye, length 34, to 3.] in head from snout tip; jaw edges 
blunt, not trenchant, mandible well protruding in front; rostral barbel 
reaches well beyond eye or U to 2 in rest of head, maxillary barbel reaches 
pectoral origin or { in pectoral fin; interorbital 2;', to 2£ in head, broadly 
convex; suborbitals broad, cover cheek, Gill rakers 2+ 10- short, feeble 
points, ^ of gill filaments, which 2 in eye. Pharyngeal teeth 1,3,5 — 5, 3, 2, 
hooked, with oblique, entire grinding surfaces. 

Scales 27 to 29 + 2 in lateral line course, with only 5 tubes anteriorly 
from shoulder girdle; 8 scales transversely, 12 to 14 predorsal. Paired fins 
each with pointed axillary scale. Caudal base scaly and row of 10 basal 
anal scales. Scales with 21 to 34 apical, close set, parallel striae; basal 
circuli fine, close set, not extending apically. 

D. in, 7, 1, first branched ray li to 1 j in total head length; A. m, 14, 1 
or in, 15, 1, first branched ray 1} to If; caudal 3 to 3{ in rest of fish, deeply 
forked, lobes equal; least depth of caudal peduncle 2$ to 21 in total head 
length; pectoral 1J to 1 ; \, rays 1, 11 or 12; ventral 1, 6. fin 1] to U in total 
head length. 

Back and upper surface olive brown, lower or tinder surfaces paler to 
whitish. Iris pale to whitish. Dark median band down back. On each 
side of back 2 longitudinal dark streaks more or less obscured. Diffuse 
median broad dark band from behind head to caudal and along its upper 
border which becomes dark to blackish brown. Above last a pale or light 
streak, which narrowed forward and also bounded by a dark brown band 
along its upper edge. Two very obscure slightly dark streaks above anal, 
converging behind. Dorsal and caudal brownish, former with submarginal 
crescent of dark brown, and 2 dark bands on anal as one marginal and one 
submarginal. 

Three, 29 to 40 mm., Pitsanulok; 166 specimens.. 28 to 50 mm., Me Poon. 
Besides these are the specimens I reported as Danio albolineata (Blyth) in 
1934 from Chantaboon. Smith's account of his D. pulcher in 1931 shows 
some points of difference as "eye situated low on side of head, 3 in head; 



170 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [VOL. LXXXIX 

lower jaw slightly projecting, . . . rostral barbel . . . 0.5 maxillary barbel 
. . . reaching far beyond base of pectoral, . . . lateral line entirely absent, 
. . . pectorals nearly reaching ventrals." 

Esomus metallicus Ahl. 

Two, 52 to 56 nun., Kayong. Scales 27 - 3 in lateral line; 15 predorsal 
scales. Hora and Mukerji's figure shows scales 32 -f- 2 in lateral line. 

Esomus goddardi, new species. Figure 106 (Me Poon). 

Depth 3$ to 4; head 3 A to 3 If, width 2 to 2J. Snout 4 to 4i in head, from 
snout tip; eye 3if to 4 j. greater than snout, l.\ to li in interorbital ; maxillary 
reaches J to eye, length 3jf to 4 in head from snout tip; mouth broad, jaw 
edges rather trenchant, lips thin and narrow and mandible protruding in 
front; rostral barbel reaches behind hind eye edge half to nearly entire eye 
diameter, maxillary barbel to front of anal or middle of anal base; inter- 
orbital 3 to 3 : l in head from snout tip, low, depressed; suborbitals broad, 
cover cheek to preopercle ridge, (lill opening extends forward opposite 
hind pupil edge. Gill rakers 4 -4- 18, flexible, tentacular, slender, £ of gill 
filaments, which 1 : \ in eye. Pharyngeal teeth 4 — 5, pointed, simple, each 
with entire, broad grinding surfaces. 

Scales 25 or 26 -f- 4 or 5 in course of lateral line and only 11 or 12 of 
scales tubular or extending to above ventral origin; 8 scales transversely 
above anal origin. 17 or 18 predorsal forward until opposite hind preopercle 
edge. Ventral with rather long axillary scale, 2 to 2£ in head. Caudal 
broadly scaled basally. Anal with single row of basal scales. Scales with 
13 or 14 apical radiating striae; 4 to 8 basal variable striae; circuli fine 
basally, converging and fewer apically. 

D. hi, 5, i, or m, 6, i, first branched ray 1§ to H in total head length; A. 
hi, 5, i, first branched ray H to 1;-'; caudal 2| to 3£ in rest of fish, deeply 
forked, slender lobes sharply pointed; least depth of caudal peduncle 2\ to 
2% in total head length; pectoral reaches little beyond ventral base, length 
2* to 34 in fish without caudal, rays i, 12; ventral rays i, 7, fin H to If in 
total head length. Vent close before anal fin. 

Pale brown, little lighter below. Sides of head and body with silvery 
white reflections. Narrow dark gray axial line along side of body, most 
distinct on tail. Iris white. Barbels pale brownish. Fins all pale to 
whitish. 

A.N.S.P., No. 68,047. Me Poon, Siam. Length 73 mm. Type. Also 
Nos. 68,048 to 68,067, paratypes, same data. Length 42 to 84 mm. Other 
materials, 540 specimens, 27 to 78 mm., Ale Poon; 47 specimens, 30 to 78 
mm., Pitsanulok; one, 42 mm., Tachin; eleven, 48 to 64 mm., Bangkok; two, 
39 to 50 mm., Kemrat. 

Distinguished by its long rostral barbel extending well behind the eye, 
when laid back. The incomplete lateral line reaches above the ventral, 
usually far as anal. The uniform coloration is only varied by a diffuse 
silvery-white lateral band on the body, in which an obscure dark gray 
vertebral line traverses it and is distinct largely or only on the tail. It 



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171 




10G. Esomus goddardi. 107. Filirasbora rubripinna. 

10S, 109. Cirrhinus marginipinnu. 110,111. Xcnochcilichthys gudgeri. 



172 



IMUK KKDIXCS OF THK ACADEMY OF 



[Vol. LXXXIX 



differ? from Esomus mctallicus Ahl (1928. noticed by Hora and Mukerji 
1928), in the longer rostral barbel, which always extends well behind the 
eye, and the narrow dark axial line, not band-like. 

(For Paul B. Goddard, an early donor to the collection of fishes of the 
Academy.) 

FILIRASBORA, new genus 

Body elongate, well compressed, body edges rounded. Head robust, 
moderately large, depressed above and constricted below. Snout short, 
broad, obtuse. Eye large, advanced, high, rounded. Maxillary well in- 
clined, not reaching below eye. Mandible included in upper jaw. Pair of 
maxillary and pair of rostral barbels. Interorbital broad, flat. Suborbitals 
very narrow. Nostrils well developed, anterior with flap, posterior much 
larger. Gill opening connected as free membrane over isthmus, incision 
extending forward not quite opposite hind eye edge. Gill rakers short 
points. Pseudobranchiae well developed. Pharyngeal teeth moderate, tri- 
serial. Scales large, in even longitudinal series, narrowly imbricated, present 
on breast and caudal base. Lateral line present, complete. Dorsal origin 
median between snout tip and caudal base, little before ventral origin. 
Anal small, well behind dorsal. Caudal large, forked. Caudal peduncle 
moderate, well compressed. Pectoral low, not reaching ventral. Ventral 
moderate, not reaching anal. Type Filirasbora rubripinna, new species. 

Known chiefly by the presence of two pairs of barbels, in combination 
with other characters, such as the slightly longer upper jaw, narrow sub- 
orbitals, advanced dorsal, etc. 

(Filum thread -{- Rasbora ; with reference to the barbels.) 

Filirasbora rubripinna, new species. Figure 107. 

Depth 3£; head 3j, width \}. Snout 3!| in head; eye 3], H in inter- 
orbital; maxillary not quite reaching opposite front eye edge, length 3 in 
head; jaw edges little trenchant, with narrow, thin lips; interorbital 2\, very 
broad, nearly level or only slightly convex; suborbitals narrow, only cover 
about \ of cheek to preopercle ridge. Gill rakers 4 -(- 10, short, about \ of 
gill filaments, which 2 in eye. Right pharyngeal teeth 5, 3, 1, larger ones 
without hooks, all with more or less broad, entire grinding surfaces. 

Scales 28 + 4 in lateral line; 5 above, 2 below to ventral origin, 3 below 
to anal origin, 9 predorsal forward opposite hind preopercle edge. Paired 
fins with small scales in axil. Breast and caudal fin scaled. Lateral line 
well decurved, extends upward along side of tail to caudal base medianly. 
Scales with 28 apical radiating striae; 15 short basal radiating striae; circuli 
fine and close set basally, apically converging and more wide set. 

D. in, 8, i, first branched ray 1} in head; A. n, 5, i, first branched ray 
15; caudal Z\ in rest of fish, deeply forked and lobes slender and sharply 
pointed; least depth of caudal peduncle 2} in head; pectoral H, rays i, 14; 
ventral rays i, 8, fin 13 in head. 

Brown, paler below, evidently silvery white in life. Dark median streak 
down back. Each scale on back with slightly darker border or margin. 
Dorsal and caudal brownish, latter with ends of lobes dark, lower black. 
Other fins pale to whitish, with slight brown tinge on anal. Vent close 
before anal. 



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A.N.S.P., No. 68,068. Kemrat, Siam. Length 85 mm. Type. 

Characters largely in the generic account. When freshly received the 
type had the lower fins, including the caudal and pectoral all more or less 
bright orange red. 

[Ruber red -j- pinna fin.) 

Luciosoma harmandi Sauvage. 

Four, 142 to 153 mm., Kemrat; one, 168 mm., Pitsanulok. 

CYPRININAE 

Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus. 

One, 239 mm., Bangkok. 
Cirrhinus jullieni Sauvage. 

Eight, 53 to 109 mm., Bangkok; 158 specimens, 32 to 180 mm., Me Poon; 
21 specimens. 58 to 163 mm., Kemrat ; nine, 42 to 49 mm., Pitsanulok. Sides 
of head below, also iris and most of lower surfaces bright silvery white. 
Barbels may be present on maxillary, one or both, small, very variable, and 
concealed. Distinguished from the following by its uniformly white 
ventrals. 

Cirrhinus marginipinnis, new species. Figures 108 (head below), iog. 

Depth 2i to 31; head 3t* to 4, width H to U. Snout 3!J to 5 in head; 
eye 4 to 4£, 1 to H in snout, 2 to 2 ; \ in interorbital ; maxillary extends $ 
to eye, length 4) to 4£ in head; mouth broadly obtuse as viewed from below, 
jaw edges firmly trenchant, and lower included in upper; no barbels; lips 
smooth, upper narrow, lower well forward on jaw though leaving broad 
entire symphyseal area; interorbital 2 to 2i in head, broadly convex; sub- 
orbitals broad, invade r, of cheek to preopercle ridge. Gill membranes joined 
to isthmus, extend forward opposite hind edge of eye. Gill rakers 5 -4- 40, 
short, feeble, slender points, about T \y of gill filaments, which long as eye. 
Pharyngeal teeth 2, 4, 5 — 5, 4, 2, close set, compressed, compact, all with 
bevelled, entire, well developed grinding surfaces, forming even triturating 
area. 

Scales 30 to 32 -{- 2 in lateral line; 6 above, 5 below to ventral origin, 5 
below to anal origin; 13 or 14 predorsal scales. Axillary ventral scale 2\ 
to 2j? in fin. Caudal base scaled. Lateral line complete, straight, axial, 
along side of body; tubes simple, small, little exposed. Scales with 10 to 12 
apical radiating striae and as many more incomplete, marginal ones vari- 
ously imperfect; 6 basal radiating striae; circuli fine basally, divergent and 
fewer apically. 

D. in, 8, i, first branched ray lx\, to 1£ in head; A. in, 5, I, first branched 
ray lj? to lij; caudal 2'i to 3J in rest of fish, lobes slender, lower often shorter 
and fin deeply forked; least depth of caudal peduncle 1£ to 2 J in head; 
pectoral 1 J to 11, rays 1, 17; ventral rays 1. 8. fin 1} to 1 : ', in head. Vent 
close before anal. 

Back and upper surface of head olive brown, lower sides and below pale 
to whitish. Side of head with silvery white reflections. Iris white. Jaws 



174 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [VOL. LXXXIX 

pale. Dorsal pale brown, upper edge usually darker, and each membrane 
close before front edge of fin ray with blackish gray streak medially. 
Caudal pale brownish, upper and lower edges shaded broadly little darker. 
Lower fins all pale to whitish, with distinct and contrasted margin of ventral 
terminally dark brown. 

A.N.S.P., Xo. 68.069. Pitsanulok, Siam. Length 153 mm. Type. 
Also Xos. 68,070 to 68,083 same data, paratypes. Length 107 to 170 mm. 
Other materials, 134 more specimens from same locality, and within same 
dimensions; 17 specimens, 65 to 159 mm., Bangkok; 44 specimens, 42 to 
153 mm., Me Poon. 

Always distinguished from Cirrhinus jullieni by its ventrals terminally 
edged dark gray to dusky. 

(Margo border + pinna fin.) 

Leptobarbus hoevenii (Bleeker). 

Three, 180 to 220 mm., Bangkok. Ventrals intense and greatly con- 
trasted vermilion in freshly received materials. The inner edge of eyeball 
orange and a flush of rose on the top of the head. Opercles rich gamboge or 
golden, with gray black blotch posteriorly. All scales above lateral line in 
contrast with blackish margins. Dorsal, anal and caudal dark gray, pectoral 
yellowish. 

Amblyrhynchichthys truncatus (Bleeker). 

Eleven, 130 to 148 mm., Bangkok; one, 153 mm., Me Poon; one, 162 mm., 
Kemrat. 

Albulichthys albuloides (Bleeker). 

One, 174 mm., Bangkok. 
Xenocheiiichthys gudgeri H. M. Smith. Figures no (head below), III. 

Depth 2-i; head 3§, width l^. Snout 4* in head; eye 3£, greater than 
snout, 1£ in interorbital; maxillary reaches to eye, length 4 in head; mouth 
width less than eye; mandible inferior, edge more trenchant than upper jaw 
edge, with short lateral cleft; interorbital 2f in head, broadly convex; sub- 
orbitals narrow, barely invading | of cheek to preopercle ridge. Gill open- 
ing extends forward opposite hind eye edge. Gill rakers 6 -f- 30, short, 
compressed, close set, triangular points, 2\ in gill filaments, which 2 in eye. 
Right pharyngeal teeth 4, 3, 1, or outer row only one tooth hooked and with- 
out grinding surface; all others large, without hooks and with broad oblique, 
entire grinding surfaces. 

Scales 28 + 3 in lateral line; 5 above, 4 below to ventral, 4 below to anal, 
10 predorsal. Ventral with long axillary scale, half length of fin. Dorsal, 
anal and caudal bases scaly. Lateral line complete, axial along side of 
body; tubes moderate, simple, exposure short. Scales with 27 apical striae, 
of which 5 to 7 completely radiating; 6 or 7 basal, of which 2 or 3 com- 
pletely radiating; circuli fine basally, obsolete apically. 

D. iv, 8, i, last simple ray robust, osseous, hind edge with about 18 
antrorse denticles, length 1 in head; A. m, 5, i, third simple ray 2; caudal 



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112,113. Mystacoleucus atridorsalis. 114,115. Thijnnkhthys thai. 
116.117. Catlacarpio siamensis. 118.119. Osh orhilus tatnmi. 



176 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF 



[Vol. LXXXIX 



2\ in rest of fish, deeply forked, lobes slenderly angular; least depth of 
caudal peduncle 2 in head; pectoral 1*, rays i, 13; ventral rays i, 8, fin 1* 
in head. Vent close before anal fin, with small conic papilla. 

Back and upper surface of head dull olive, sides and below pale to 
whitish. Iris gray, evidently whitish in life. Jaw- and lower part of 
muzzle pale. Fins pale, hind edge of dorsal and caudal narrowly dark gray. 

One, 145 mm., Kemrat. 

Mystacoleucus chilopterus Fowler. 
Six, 28 to 65 mm., Me Poon. 

Mystacoleucus atridorsalis, new species. Figures 112 (head below), 113. 

Depth 2; to 3; head 3H to 3 J, width 1£. Snout 4+, to 44, in head; eye 
3,i to 3^, greater than snout, subequal with interorbital; maxillary not quite 
reaching opposite front eye edge, length Zh to 4 in head; jaws firm, edges not 
trenchant, obtuse, lower included in upper; lips narrow, lower short; inter- 
orbital 2'\ to 2±, convex; suborbitals narrow, invade about : \ of cheek to 
preoperele ridge. Gill rakers 4 + 12, short, lanceolate, \ of gill filaments, 
which 1$ in eye. Pharyngeal teeth. 2. 4, 4 — 4. 2. 2. hooked with moderate, 
entire, grinding surfaces. 

Scale- 2cS or 29 • it) Lateral line; (> above. 'A below to ventral origin. 4 
below to anal origin, 8 or 9 predorsal. Axillary ventral scale 2% in fin. 
Caudal base scaly and anal with basal row of scales. Lateral line complete, 
decurved, becomes median at caudal base; tubes slender, simple, moderately 
exposed. Scales with 9 apical radiating striae; basal circuit fine, obsolete 
apically. 

D. in, 8, 1, front simple rays pungent though not osseous, entire, first 
branched ray l^ m head; A. 111, 10, 1, first branched ray 1$ to 1^; caudal 
2S to 2f in rest of fish, deeply forked, lobes slenderly pointed; least depth of 
caudal peduncle 2 to 2£ in head; pectoral lj, rays 1, 16; ventral rays 1, 8, fin 
1± to 14, in head. Vent close before anal fin. 

Pale brown, each scale on back with slightly darker median blotch so 
margins pale. On side of body imperfect or obscured short dark vertical 
streaks. Underlaid pale streak axial along side of tail. Iris gray, evidently 
whitish in life. Fins all pale to whitish, except contrasted jet black apex 
broadly on dorsal. 

A.N.S.P., No. 68,084. Kemrat, Siam. Length 67 mm. Type. Also 
No. 68,085, same data, paratype. Length 66 mm. 

Differs from the known species of its genus in the striking jet black 
summit of its dorsal fin. 

(Ater black 4- dorsum back, with reference to the dorsal fin.) 

Mystacoleucas marginatus (Valenciennes). 

Eleven, 48 to 128 mm., Kemrat ; 155 specimens, 33 to 147 mm., Me Poon. 

Dangila leptocheila Valenciennes. 

Three, 117 to 170 mm., Pitsanulok. Depth 3; head 4± to 4£. Maxillary 
barbel 2} times eye; rostral barbel equals eye. Scales 35 4- 4 in lateral line; 



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6 below to ventral origin. D. in, 25, t or in, 26, I. Large specimen without 
any trace of dark ring or blotch on lateral line over pectoral. 

Dangila siamensis Sauvage. 

Twenty, 98 to 260 mm., Bangkok; thirty, 48 to 82 mm., Me Poon; two, 
57 to 74 mm., Pitsanulok; twenty-two, 68 to 158 mm.. Kemrat. Depth 3 
to 3^. Upper lip with 6 to 8 distinct papillae. Lower lip along base of 
smooth trenchant, coriaceous jaw edge densely and finely papillose. Pearl 
organs present in smallest as well as in largest specimens. They form a 
band of 2 or 3 series around end of snout, as 6 or 7 in upper row, 4 or 5 in 
median row and a lower or imperfect row of 3 or 4, which usually smaller 
than the others. Scales 31 to 34 + 2 or 3 in lateral line; 7 above, 4 below to 
ventral, 5 below to anal. D. in, 21, 1 to in, 23, 1. 

Several details in the original account by Sauvage based on Petschaburi 
and Bangkok specimens 170 mm. long, do not altogether agree as he gives 
the snout with the pores arranged in a single line (these evidently pearl 
organs) and upper lip not fringed. 

No mention is made of the dark spots over the pectoral on the lateral 
line as figured and described by Smith for his Dangila spiloplcura. As these 
have largely faded out in many of my examples, likewise the dark blotch at 
the caudal base, I feel they were likely overlooked by Sauvage. This is also 
apparently true of the paired fins and anal, which were brilliant vermilion 
in fresh specimens, though now entirely faded whitish or light gray. Al- 
together Smith has admitted six Siamese species, though only two of these 
have been noticed above. They may now be distinguished as follows: 



a. Caudal without small scattered dark spots. 
b. No dark ring of spots over middle of pectoral. 

c. Head 5i burnianica. 

cc. Head 4A to 5^ (eptocheila. 

ccc. Head 4 kuhlii. 

bb. Dark ring or group of dark spots over middle of pectoral; head 4i 

to 4^ siamensis. 

aa. Caudal with small scattered dark spots; head 4 : ] lineata. 

THYNNICHTHYS Bleeker 



Type Leuciscus thynnoi(Us Bleeker 
THYXXICHTHYIXA, new .subgenus 
Distinguished from subgenus Thynnichthys Bleeker by its much larger 
scales 11 to 13 above the lateral line to the origin of the dorsal fin (compared 
with 16 or 17 in Thynnichthys) and scales 47 to 60 (65 to 75 in Thynni- 
chthys). Type Thynnichthys thai, new species. 

Thynnichthys thai, new species. Figures 114 (head below), 115. 

Depth 3 to 31; head 3 : \ to 3?,. width 1 : ] to 21 Snout 3^ to 41 in head; 
eye 3^ to 4i, subequal with snout. 1^ to 1* in interorbital, with marginal 



178 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [VOL. LXXXIX 

adipose lids moderately invading iris; maxillary reaches % to * to eye, length 
4 to 4i in head; mouth moderately wide,, jaw edges not trenchant and jaws 
equal or subequal; interorbital 2± or 2 : \ in head, with eyes little or scarcely 
visible as viewed from above, lower interocuiar area, as seen across under 
surface of head, 3 to 3*; suborbitals broad, cover cheek. No gill rakers; gill 
filaments equal eye. Pharyngeal teeth 2, 4, 5 — 5, 4, 2, compressed, close 
set, compact, all with oblique, smooth, grinding surfaces forming more or less 
common triturating area. 

Scales 50 to 54-1-5 in lateral line; 13 above, 9 or 10 below to ventral 
origin, 10 below to anal origin. 21 or 22 predorsal. Ventral with pointed 
axillary scale } of fin. Caudal base broadly scaly. Lateral line complete, 
axial on side of body, nearly straight. Scales with 7 or 8 apical radiating 
striae, of which 4 or 5 may be incomplete; 1 to 3 short radiating basal striae; 
circuli fine basally, converge, coarser or obsolete apically. 

D. in. 8, 1, first branched ray 1* to 2 in head; A. 111, 5, 1, first branched 
ray I4 to 1$; caudal If to 1* in rest of fish, slender lobes sharply pointed; 
least depth of caudal peduncle 2\ to 2\ in head; pectoral \\ to 1J, rays 1, 
15; ventral 1, 8, fin li to H in head. Vent close before anal. 

Back and upper surface of head pale olive, sides and lower surfaces pale 
brownish, evidently silvery white in life. Iris grayish, evidently silvery 
white. Jaws pale. Fins pale brownish, lower ones evidently more or less 
whitish. On dorsal each membrane more or less dark or dusky brown 
medially. 

A.N.S.P., No. 68,086. Me Poon, Siam. Length 162 mm. Type. Also 
Nos. 68,087 and 68,088, same data, paratypes. Length 152 and 158 mm. 
Three, 135 to 140 mm., Pitsanulok, Nos. 68,089 to 68,091, also paratypes. 

Differs from the closely related Thynnichthys thynnoides (Bleeker) in 
the scales only 22 or less on the predorsal (30 accorded by Weber and Beau- 
fort to T. thynnoides). Their figure of the latter shows only 9 scales 
between the lateral line and ventral origin, while Bleeker would show about 
10 and the pectoral fin reaching over the ventral base. 

(Thai, the ancient name of the Siamese.) 

CATLACARPIO B.mleiiRcr 

Body short, deep, compressed, deepest at dorsal origin. Head very large, 
robust, long as body without caudal. Snout large, broad, obtuse as viewed 
above. Eye small, at first third in head, lateral, with free margin all 
around, above middle in depth of head. Mouth large, little inclined, lower 
jaw slightly projecting when closed. Lips narrow above, lower coriaceous, 
broader, end close but not meeting at lower front end of chin. Jaw edge 
rounded, lower broader. Nostrils together, similar, above level of eye and 
anterior with cutaneous flap. Interorbital broadly convex. Suborbitals 
narrow. Opercle and edge of gill opening with broad membraneous border. 
Gill opening very large and deep, extends forward opposite front eye edge. 
Gill rakers finely lanceolate, long, numerous. No pseudobranchiae. Pharyn- 
geal bones small, teeth short, close set, uniserial on each bone. Scales large, 
narrowly imbricated, in even longitudinal rows parallel with lateral line. 
No scales on head. Breast, chest and bases of dorsal, anal and caudal 



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scaled. Lateral line complete, distinct. Dorsal rather large, at summit of 
back, its insertion slightly post-median, anterior simple rays flexible. Anal 
rather large, inserted behind dorsal, anterior simple rays flexible and fin 
extends when depressed behind squamous area on base of caudal. Caudal 
large, well forked, fulcra moderate. Caudal peduncle deep, short, well 
compressed. Pectoral low, short, reaches little beyond origin of ventral, fin 
pointed. Ventral inserted slightly before dorsal, slightly longer than 
pectoral. 

A very curious genus characterized by its remarkable combination of 
characters. The head is extraordinarily large, the fins all with greatly 
falcate lobes and the large scales even and firmly adherent. The mouth is 
remarkable in the extended maxillary with the rictus distant subterminally. 

Catlacarpio siamensis Boulenger. Figures 116 (head below), 117. 

Depth 2\ to 24, ; head 2 to 2£, width If to 2. Snout 3} to 3f in head 
from snout tip; eye 7£ to 9. 2% to 2% in snout, 3i to 4 in interorbital; 
maxillary reaches opposite front eye edge, length 2} to 3 in head from snout 
tip; interorbital 2i, broadly convex, eyes only very slightly evident as seen 
from above; suborbitals invade about J of cheek. Gill rakers 32 + 65, 
length 1* times eye; gill filaments * long as gill rakers. Pharyngeal teeth 
4-4, strong, obtuse with entire grinding surfaces, all close set. 

Scales 28 or 29 + 3 to 5 in lateral line; 7 above, 5 below to ventral origin. 
6 below to anal origin, 20 to 21 predorsal. Paired fins without distinct 
axillary scaly flaps. Row of rather large scales along bases of dorsal and 
anal. Caudal base with several rows of scales. Lateral line slopes down 
little at first until median along side; tubes small, simple, little exposed. 
Scales with 40 to 45 apical radiating striae; 5 or 6 short basal striae; circuli 
fine basally, obscure or obsolete apically. 

D. in, 9, 1, first branched ray 1 .', to 1£ in total head length; A. in, 5, 1, 
first branched ray 1* to H; caudal 1 to H, deeply forked, lobes sharply 
pointed; least depth of caudal peduncle 2% to 3; pectoral 1$ to 2, rays 1, 16; 
ventral lif to 1+, rays 1, 8. Vent close before anal. 

Back and upper surface of head dark olivaceous brown, sides and lower 
surfaces paler to whitish. Scales on back and sides all with dark edges, and 
at scale junctures above and below more extended to form dark longitudinal 
bands. Iris pale or whitish. Upper lip narrowly and whole mandible pale 
or whitish. Fins all pale olivaceous basally. becoming gray black to black 
terminally, all well contrasted. 

Three. 208 to 235 mm.. Bangkok. 

OSTEOCHILUS Gunther 
Subgenus OSTEOCHILUS Giinthcr 
Scales small, 45 to 55 in lateral line. Scales 8 to 10 below lateral line to 
ventral origin. Eye small. Dark blotch or bar on lateral line above 
pectoral. Type Rohita melanoplcura Bleeker. 

The species are 0. melanopleurus (Bleeker) and O. bomeensis (Bleeker). 

Osteochilus melanopleurus (Bleeker). 
Seven, 69 to 153 mm.. Bangkok. 



180 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [VOL. LXXXIX 

XEOROHITA, now subgenus 

Body elongately ovoid, well compressed. Head small, compressed. 
Snout rounded, moderate, its front edge entire and no lateral lobe covering 
upper lip. Eye small or moderate, lateral, little advanced in head. Mouth 
more or less terminal, protractile, usually partly to quite inferior. Bony 
part of lower jaw forms trenchant, firm edge, without symphyseal tubercle. 
Usually 2 pairs of barbels, as rostral and maxillary. Lips continuous all 
around, fimbriate or fringed, especially lower. Nostrils together on upper 
side of snout, posterior usually with cutaneous margin. Suborbitals narrow 
or moderate. Gill membranes broadly united to isthmus. Pharyngeal 
teeth triserial. Scales moderate or large, 30 to 40 in lateral line. Lateral 
line distinct, complete, axial along side of body, tubes simple. Males with 
large or small pearl organs on end of snout. Dorsal inserted premedially, 
front simple rays slender or not bony, branched rays 10 to 18, begins before 
ventrals and ends before or behind anal origin. Anal short, with 5 branched 
rays. Caudal forked or emarginate. Pectoral short, low. Ventral similar. 
Type Rohita hasscltii Valenciennes. 

Includes mainly the East Indian species of Weber and Beaufort, as: 
i Isti ochilus hi ldbnu Popta, 0. schh <j( I ii (Blocker), O. kahajaiu nsis 
I Blocker), 0. repang Popta, 0. triporos (Bleeker) , O. intermedins Weber and 
Beaufort, 0. bellus Popta, O. brachynotoptenis (Blocker), 0. hasscltii (Val- 
enciennes), O. waandersii (Bleeker), O. kappenii (Bleeker), O. brevicauda 
Weber and Beaufort, O. spiruhis (Bleeker) and O. harrisoni Fowler. This 
arrangement, in which the physiognomy is also different in the present forms, 
is due largely to the more elevated eyes and shorter snout. Besides the 
species listed below the following are Siamese: O. spiloplcura Fowler, O. 
marroscmion Fowler, 0. sima (Sauvagol and O. lini Fowler. 

(Ne'os new -f Rohita.) 

Osteochilus vittatus (Valenciennes). Figures 122 (head below), 123 (Kemrat). 

Five, 55 to 123 mm., Bangkok; two, 128 to 130 mm., Kemrat. 

These agree with former materials I have studied from Siam, though are 
far more brilliant in coloration. In the Kemrat specimens the dorsal and 
caudal were largely with orange red when freshly received, and the lower fins 
orange. All have the usual rostral pearl-organs. The Kemrat specimens 
also show a dark streak on each fin membrane of the dorsal parallel with 
its rays. All are without trace of a dark pectoral blotch. 

Osteochilus ochrus Fowler. 
One, 94 mm., Kemrat. 

Osteochilus tatumi, new species. Figures 118 (head below), 119. 

Depth 3A; head 3A, width 1*. Snout 3$ in head; eye 4i, I. 1 , in snout, 2 
in interorbital; maxillary extends $ to eye, length 3£ in head; lips entire, 
narrow; lower labial fold with edge rather feebly fimbriate; only one pair 
of barbels present, maxillary, about £ of eye; interorbital 2$ in head, convex; 
suborbitals moderate, invade about £ of cheek. Gill opening extends forward 



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120.121. Osleochilus ditostigma. 122,123. Oslcorhihts villains. 

124.125. Cyelockeilickthys dumerilii. 126,127. Cyclocheilichthys mekonacnsis. 



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PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF 



[Vol. LXXXIX 



below opposite hind preopercle ridge. Gill rakers 5 -f- 30?, short, feeble, 
ciliaform, barely \ of gill filaments, which equal eye. Pharyngeal teeth 5, 
4, 3 on left bone, strongly compressed, close set, cuneate, without hooks, ends 
with broad entire grinding surfaces, form more or less compact triturating 
area. 

Scales 30 + 5 in lateral line; 6 below to ventral origin, 6 below to anal 
origin, 22 predorsal. Ventral with pointed axillary scale 2^ in fin. Caudal 
base well scaled. Scales along edge of predorsal or in narrow median area, 
and along dorsal base fine, close set, and much smaller than those adjacent. 
Lateral line complete, axial or median along side of body; tubes small, 
simple, little exposed. Scales with 30 to 32 radiating apical striae; circuli 
fine basally, apically coarser, feeble and broken and imperfect to obsolete. 

D. in, 13, i, first branched ray lyV in head; A. hi, 5, i, first branched ray 
14; caudal 23 in rest of fish, deeply forked, slender lobes, pointed; least 
depth of caudal peduncle 24; pectoral li, rays i, 18; ventral rays i, 8, fin 
If. Vent at tips of depressed ventrals a little before anal. 

Back brown, sides and below paler to whitish. Lips pale. Iris gray, 
evidently white in life. At fifth scale of lateral line above 2 dark brown to 
dusky small spots, and one below. Diffuse grayish blotch or clouding at 
caudal base. Fins pale brownish, dorsal with dark to blackish gray apex. 
Caudal pale or slightly ochraceous basally, hind margin of fin grayish. 
Other fins all pale to whitish, with yellowish tints basally. 

A.N.S.P., No. 08.095. Bangkok, Siam. Length 117 mm. Type. 

Apparently related to Osteochilus ochrus Fowler in the presence of but 2 
maxillary barbels, the scales a little larger and smaller predorsal scales (22 
in place of 11). The coloration, while suggestive is dissimilar. 0. tatumi 
shows at least 4 series of pores on the snout, evidently scars of the pearl 
organs. 

(For the late Joseph W. Tatum, of Philadelphia, to whom I am indebted 
for interesting specimens and data on local fishes.) 

Osteochilus duostigma, new species. Figures 120 (head below), 121. 

Depth 2i to 3; head 3} to 4 J, width ig to 1±. Snout 3 to 3J in head; 
eye 3! to 4. 1 to li in snout. 1 ; to 21 in interorbital : maxillary extends , ; 
to eye, length 3i to 4 in head; lips broadly fringed continuously, inner faces 
broadly papillate; rostral barbel 1^ to 2 in eye, maxillary 1 to 14 times 
eye; interorbital 1& to 2 in head, broadly convex; suborbitals narrow, invade 
^ of cheek to preopercle ridge. Gill opening extends forward opposite hind 
edge of preopercle. Gill rakers 6 + 19, short, weak, close set points, 4 of 
gill filaments which equal eye. Pharyngeal teeth 2, 4, 5 — 5, 4, 2, com- 
pressed, close set. without hook-, all with entire oblique grinding surfaces, 
whole forming compact triturating area. 

Scales 27 to 30-4-2 or 3 in lateral line; 6 above, 4 below to ventral, 5 
below to anal; 11 predorsal. Ventral with pointed axillary scale 2.^ to 2£ 
in fin. Caudal base scaled. Chest and breast scaled. Lateral line com- 
plete, axial, midway along side of body; tubes small, simple, short, little 
exposed. Scales with 27 or 28 apical radiating striae; 3 or 4 short radiating 
basal striae; circuli fine basally, obsolete apically. 



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D. in, 14. i to in, 16, i, first branched ray 1£ to in head; A. in, 5, i, 
first branched ray 1J to 1±; caudal 2% to 2 ; } in rest of fish, fin deeply forked, 
lobes sharply pointed; least depth of caudal peduncle 1$ to U in head; 
pectoral 1J to l^, rays I, 15; ventral rays i, 8, fin 1£ in head. Vent close 
before anal. 

When fresh most all with a brilliant vermilion or orange spot on each 
scale of back and sides, fading to gamboge and finally to dark gray, or may 
disappear eventually. Large dark gray to blackish blotch li times eye at 
caudal base. Iris gray, evidently pale in life. Lips brownish. At fourth 
scale of lateral line blackish bar, also one on scale above and another on 
scale below. Fins with bright red tinge when fresh, brilliant vermilion on 
ventrals and anal. In preservative fins fade to orange and then pale or 
whitish, at least basally, dorsal with grayish. 

A.N.S.P., Xo. 68,096. Kemrat, Siam. Length 115 mm. Type. Also 
No. 68.097, same data, paratype. Length 112 mm. Other examples Nos. 
68,098 to 68,111. Bangkok, Siam. Length 73 to 158 mm. Paratypes. 

Agrees with Osteochilus has'scltii in the absence of pores on the snout, 
but differs in the presence of the dark or black spot at the fourth scale of 
the lateral line and others, both above and below. 

(Av'o two + a-Tiyfia spot ; with reference to the dark blotch each side of the 
body above the pectoral fin.) 

Osteochilus prosemion Fowler. 
One, 148 mm., Kemrat. 

Cosmochilus harmandi Sauvage. Figures 149 (head below). 150. 

Depth 2| to 3; head 3 to 3 : ,\ width If to 2. Snout 3£ to 4^ in head; 
eye 3 to 3f, greater than to subequal with snout, 1$ to lj in interorbital; 
maxillary extends f to -} to eye, length 3] to 4i in head; lips broadly 
papillate, with entire, firmly trenchant jaw edges, and lateral labial groove 
deep; rostral barbel 1 to 2 in eye, maxillary barbel li to 1£; interorbital 2\ 
to 2^ in head, broadly convex; suborbitals narrow. Gill opening extends 
forward opposite hind eye edge. Gill rakers 4 -f- 11, short, cuneate, with 
broad bases, length 4^ gill filaments, which 1 1 in eye. Pharyngeal teeth 
2. 3, 5 — 5, 3, 2, hooked moderately, with moderate, entire grinding surfaces. 

Scales 34 or 35 + 3 in lateral line; 8 above, 5 or 6 below to ventral, 6 
below to anal; 14 predorsal. Ventral with pointed axillary scaly flap 2 J 
to 2% in fin. Vertical fins all with broad scaly bases. Lateral line distinct, 
complete, axial along side of body; tubes slender, well exposed. Scales with 
8 to 28 apical radiating striae; 5 to 15 short basal striae; circuli basal, fine, 
obsolete apically. 

D. IV, 8, 1, fourth osseous ray with 24 antrorse denticles along its hind 
edge, all smaller basally, first branched ray 2^ to 3] in fish without caudal; 
A. in, 5, 1, front rudimentary rays pungent, entire, first branched ray If to 
lit m head; caudal 2^ to 3i in rest of fish, fin deeply forked, long lobes 
slender, pointed; least depth of caudal peduncle 2 to 2\ in head; pectoral 
\ \ to If, rays 1, 16; ventral rays 1, 8, fin \\ in head. Vent close before anal. 

Light brown generally, lower sides and under surfaces paler to whitish 
with silvery white reflections. Iris silvery white. Jaws, lips and barbels 



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PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [VOL. LXXXIX 



pale. Cheeks silvery white. Dorsal and caudal light brownish, former with 
upper edge and latter with hind edge dark gray. Lower fins whitish. 

Eight, 76 to 183 mm., Bangkok. 

Hampala macrolepidota (Valenciennes). Figures 128 to 131 (Bangkok), 132 to 134 
(Kemrat), 135 to 139 (Tachin). 

Forty-three, 40 to 197 mm., Bangkok; ten, 40 to 97 nun., Tachin; one, 
191 mm., Me Poon; eight, 74 to 180 mm., Kemrat. Most have the caudal 
brilliant vermilion, though after the specimens were placed in alcohol it 
faded to yellowish and finally whitish. 

Three, 108 to 120 mm., from Kemrat represent Hampala dispar H. M. 
Smith, two showing the black spot exactly as the figures in the Chitrakarn 
drawing, though the dark borders of the caudal, both above and below are 
dark gray to blackish. The caudal is also bright vermilion, a condition not 
mentioned by Smith. 

Cyclocheilichthys apogon (Valenciennes). 

Eighty-four, 43 to 169 mm., Bangkok; eighteen, 28 to 58 mm., Me Poon; 
seventeen, 40 to 52 mm., Tachin. In most all the fins were more or less 
vermilion when freshly received. Iri< and side of head silvery white. 

Cyclocheilichthys enoplus (Bleeker). 

Depth 3; head 31, width If. Snout 3f in head; eye 4$, 14, in snout, 2 in 
interorbital ; maxillary reaches f to eye, length 44, in head; lips narrow, 
smooth, lower moderately interrupted at symphysis; front barbel § of eye, 
hind barbel 2 in eye; interorbital 24, broadly convex; suborbitals narrow, 
invade about 4, of cheek to preopercle ridge. Gill opening extends forward 
opposite angle of preopercle ridge. Gill rakers 9 + 12, short bifid points, 
2; 1 , in gill filaments, which 1^ in eye. Right pharyngeal teeth 5, 3, 2, outer 
larger, molariform and with entire, moderate concave grinding surfaces. 

Scales 36 • 4 in lateral line; 6 above. 5 below to ventral origin. 6 below 
to anal origin, 14 predorsal. Ventral with free, pointed axillary scale, 24 
in fin. Dorsal, anal and caudal bases scaly. Head all more or less marked 
with fine, inconspicuous vertical striae. Lateral line axial along side of 
body, each scale with tubular bifurcation. Scales with 46 apical radiating 
striae; 15 short basal striae; circuli fine, largely basal, obsolete apically. 

D. IV, 8, 1, fourth ray osseous, robust, with about 22 antrorse denticles 
along its hind edge, first branched ray equals head; A. ill, 5, 1, simple rays 
pungent, first branched ray If; caudal 2f in rest of fish, fin deeply forked, 
lobes slender, pointed; least depth of caudal peduncle 2£ in head; pectoral 
14, rays 1, 14; ventral rays 1, 9, fin 14 in head. Vent nearer tips of depressed 
vcntrals than anal origin. 

Head and back brown, sides below and under surfaces whitish. Iris light 
or whitish. Sides of head with silvery reflections. Jaws pale. Dorsal and 
caudal brownish, upper hind edge of former and hind edge of latter grayish. 
Lower fins pale to whitish. 

One, 312 mm., Bangkok. The specific name wrongly spelled anoplos in 

my listing of 1934 material. 



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185 




128 to 139. Hampala tnacrolepidota (variation). 



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186 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [VOL. LXXXIX 

Cyclocheilichthys repasson (Bleeker). 

Eleven, 51 to 93 mm., Me Poon; seven, 88 to 115 mm., Pitsanulok; 
seventy-two, 43 to 95 mm., Tachin. Barbels 4. Dark basal caudal spot. 

Cyclocheilichthys armatus (Valenciennes). 

Sixteen, 49 to 134 mm., Pitsanulok; one, 120 mm., Kemrat. Only 2 
barbels present, these maxillary. 

Cyclocheilichthys dumerilii Sauvage. Figures 124 (head below), 125. 

Depth 3 to 3£; head 3 to 3f, width 1£ to 2L Snout 3f to S'i in head; 
eye 3i to 4, greater than snout in young to 1£ in snout with age, 1^ to 1^ in 
interorbital; with age moderate, marginal adipose lids develop; maxillary 
not quite reaching opposite eye, length 3f to 4£ in head ; lips rather narrow, 
smooth, firm, lower moderately interrupted at symphysis; front or rostral 
barbel 3 in eye, maxillary barbel § of eye; interorbital 2$ to 3 in head, 
broadly convex; suborbitals narrow, invade ^ of cheek to preopercle ridge. 
Gill opening extends forward opposite hind angle of preopercle ridge. Gill 
rakers 6+11, lanceolate, with broad bases, J of gill filaments, which $ of 
eye. Pharyngeal teeth 2, 3, 5 — 5 ; 3, 2, hooked and with moderate, entire 
grinding surfaces. 

Scales 28 to 33 + 2 or 3 in lateral line; 6 above, 4 below to ventral, 5 
below to anal, 11 predorsal. Pointed ventral axillary scale 3 in fin. 
Dorsal, anal and caudal bases scaly. Chest and breast scaled. Lateral 
line complete, axial along side of body; tubes simple, moderate. AVhole 
surface of head with nearly transverse close set. inconspicuous striae. Scales 
with 6 to 12 apical radiating striae; 6 to 8 short basal striae; circuli fine, 
basal, become obsolete apically. 

D. IV, 8, 1, osseous front simple rays slender with fourth furnished with 
about 24 antrorse denticles along its hind edge, first branched ray 1 to H 
in head; A. in, 5, 1, first branched ray 1± to H; caudal 2| to 3 in rest of 
fish; least depth of caudal peduncle 2\ to 2 : } in head; pectoral rays 1, 17, 
fin 1* to U in head; ventral 1J to If, rays 1, 9. 

Pale brown generally, sides and lower surfaces all with more or less 
silvery white reflections. A more or less distinct silvery lateral streak along 
lateral line. Iris bright silvery white. Lower side of head bright silvery 
white. Dorsal and caudal very light brown, slightly gray marginally. 
Lower fins whitish. 

Forty-four, 54 to 140 mm., Bangkok; four, 76 to 131 mm., Me Poon; one, 
64 mm., Tachin.; two, 78 to 85 mm., Paknam; five 68 to 78 mm., Kemrat. 
This interesting species does not seem to have been seen since originally 
described in 1881. It is characterized chiefly by its very light and silvery 
white color. Resemblance is seen with C. tapiensis H. M. Smith 1931, but 
the present species is without a vestige of a dark spot at the caudal base, the 
dorsal inserted more anterior or midway between the snout tip and caudal 
base, and the pectoral not reaching the ventral. 



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187 



Cyclocheilichthys mekongensis, new species. Figures 126 (head below), 127. 

Depth 2} to 3? ; head 3^ to 3J. width 2 to 2J. Snout 3i in head; eye 3 to 
3i, 1 to 1£ in snout, 1 to li in interorbital; maxillary extends § to § to eye, 
length 4 to 4| in head; lips fleshy, rather narrow, lower with free edge across 
symphysis of mandible; rostral barbel feeble, short, 4h in eye, maxillary 
barbel 3; interorbital 3± to 3| in head, low, broadly convex; suborbitals 
narrow, invade -J of cheek to preopercle ridge. Gill rakers 4 + 5, moderate, 
firm, strong, 2 in gill filaments, which 2 in eye. Pharyngeal teeth 2, 3, 5 — 
5, 3, 2, hooked, with moderate, entire, grinding surfaces. 

Scales 32 or 33 + 2 in lateral line; 6 above, 4 below to ventral origin, 5 
below to anal origin. Ventral with pointed axillary scaly flap, 2}, to 2* in 
fin. Dorsal, anal and caudal bases scaly. Small scales on chest. Whole 
surface of head with distinct, close set or finely parallel transverse striae. 
Lateral line distinct, complete, axial along side of body; tubes small, simple, 
slender, all well exposed. Scales with 12 to 23 apical radiating striae; 2 or 
3 basal striae; circuli fine, coarser to obsolete apically. 

D. IV, 8, i, fourth osseous ray with 22 antrorse denticles along hind edge, 
first branched ray 1 to 1^ in head; A. in, 5, i, first branched ray If to H; 
caudal 2jf to 3 in rest of fish, deeply forked, long slender lobes sharply 
pointed; least depth of caudal peduncle 2i to 2 J in head; pectoral D 5 to If, 
rays n, 15; ventral rays i, 8, fin 1] to 1* in head. Vent 2 scales before anal 
origin or trifle before tips of depressed ventral rays. 

Back and upper surface of head light brown, each scale with brown 
marginal spot. Dark brown bar along and obliquely behind gill opening. 
Underlaid, ill defined gray band axially along side of tail and little expanded 
at caudal base. Whole lower side and under surfaces with silvery white 
sheen. Fins pale, dorsal and caudal grayish marginally. 

A.N.S.P., No. 68,112. Kemrat, Siam. Length 151 mm. Type. Also 
Xos. 68,113 to 68,132, same data, paratypes. Length 48 to 150 mm. Other 
material, eight, 88 to 114 mm., Pitsanulok. 

Close to C. tapiensis H. M. Smith 1931, but that species said to be " Plain 
silvery, a round dusky spot on caudal peduncle; fins hyaline", and the 
figure without the dark oblique bar behind the gill opening. It is also said 
to have 37 scales in the lateral line, and the figure .hows 5 below the 
lateral line to the origin of the ventral fin. No mention is made of its 
gill rakers. 

(Named for the Mekong River, where the types were obtained.) 

Cyclocheilichthys amblyceps, new species. Figures 140 (head below), 141. 

Depth 3 ; \ to 3:1; head 31, width 1* to 1}. Snout 4j to 5 in head; eye 3 
to 3^, slightly greater than snout, to H in interorbital; maxillary reaches 
nearly to, or quite to eye, length 3h to 4i in head; lips rather narrow, thin, 
lower interrupted at mandibular symphysis; barbels minute to vestigeal or 
even absent, rostral always smaller or shorter, maxillary barely J of eye; 
interorbital 3 to 3 \ in head, low, broadly convex. Gill opening extends 
forward opposite hind edge of eye. Gill rakers 4 + 10, short, firm points, 
£ of gill filaments, which 1£ in eye. Pharyngeal teeth on right bone 5, 3, 2 r 
hooked, with small, even grinding surfaces. 



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Scales 34 or 35 + 2 or 3 in lateral line; 6 above, 4 below to ventral origin, 
5 below to anal origin, 9 or 10 predorsal of which most anterior largest. 
Axillary ventral scale 3 to 3i in fin Dorsal, anal and caudal scaly basally. 
Head with numerous hue, parallel, transverse striae, less distinct on cheek 
and opercle. Lateral line complete, distinct, axial along side of body; tubes 
moderate, simple, short. Scales with 13 to 21 apical radiating striae; 7 to 
10 short basal striae; circuli fine, basal, obsolete apically. 

D. IV, 8, i, fourth simple ray osseous, rather slender, with 22 antrorse 
denticles along its hind edge, first branched ray l-fa in head; A. ra, 5, i, first 
branched ray If to 14; caudal 3i; to 3.1 in rest of fish, deeply forked, slender 
lobes sharply pointed; least depth of caudal peduncle 2\ to 2\ in head; 
pectoral 1* to H, rays i, 19; ventral rays i, 9, fin U to H in head. Vent 
little nearer depressed ventral tips than anal origin. 

Light brown, sides and below paler to whitish, with silvery reflections. 
Axial along side of body underlaid and indistinctly defined silvery band. 
No dark spot at caudal base. Iris gray, evidently silvery white in life. 
Fins pale, dorsal with upper edge and caudal with hind edge gray, and lower 
fins nearly whitish. 

A.N.S.P., No. 08,133. Bangkok, Siam. Length 104 mm. Type. Also 
No. 08,134, same data, paratypc. Length 90 mm. 

Known by its short blunt muzzle, less than the large eye, small barbels 
and pale coloration. 

( 'Afifikvi blunt + "tfa^V head.) 

Lissochilus dukai (Day). 

Twelve, 65 to 139 mm., Me Poon. 

Varicorhinus dyocheilus (Mac Clelland). Figures 142 (head below), 143. 

One, 103 mm., Bangkok; one, 230 mm., Pitsanulok; eighty-nine, 64 to 
212 mm., Kemrat. The young are somewhat different in appearance from 
the adult. They also have a dark caudal blotch and some are furnished 
with pearl organs. Mature or adult specimens with the dorsal often ruddy 
medially. Lower fins tinged with vermilion, especially the ventrals. All 
the lower fins show narrow pale to whitish edges. 

Barbus spilopterus Fowler. 

One-hundred and seventeen, 48 to 117 mm., Tachin. 

Barbus foxi, new species. Figures 144 (head below), 145. 

Depth 2\ to 2i; head 31 to 34, width 1$ to 2. Snout 4± to U in head; 
eye 2h to 2$, greatly exceeds snout, 2$ to 2* in interorbital ; maxillary 
reaches eye, length 3A in head; lips narrow, firm, entire, lower moderately 
interrupted across chin; rostral barbel 1* in eye, maxillary barbel equals 
eye, interorbital 3 in head, low, broady convex; suborbitals narrow, invade 
J, of cheek to preopercle ridge. Gill opening extends forward opposite hind 
eye edge. Gill rakers 3 -f- 9, short, firm points, } of gill filaments, which 
2 in eye. Right pharyngeal teeth 5, 3, 2, little hooked and with moderate, 
entire grinding surfaces. 



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140, 141. Cyclocheilirhthys amblycepa. 142, 143. Yaricorhiniis dyorheihift. 
144, 145. Barbits joxi. 146. 147. Barbus daruphnni. 



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Scales 29 + 3 in lateral line; 7 above, 4 below to ventral, 4 below to anal, 
12 predorsal. Ventral with axillary scaly flap 3 to 4 in fin. Dorsal, anal 
and caudal bases scaly. Small scales on breast. Lateral line distinct, com- 
plete, well decurved and becomes medial at caudal base; tubes slender, well 
exposed, simple. Scales with 6 apical radiating striae; 1 short basal stria; 
circuli fine and close set basally, obsolete apically. 

D. IV, 8, i, fourth simple ray, osseous, with 12 antrorse serrae along its 
hind edge, first branched ray equals head; A. ill, 5, I, front simple rays 
pungent, first branched ray 1£ to l\ in head; caudal 2& to 2§ in rest of fish, 
lobes long, narrowly pointed, fin deeply forked; least depth of caudal 
peduncle 2i to 2] in head; pectoral 1± to 1£, rays i, 16; ventral rays i, 8, fin 
1^ to 1$ in head. Vent close before anal origin. 

Pale brown, sides and below with silvery white reflections. Iris gray, 
evidently white in life. Barbels and lips pale. Fins pale to whitish, only 
dorsal contrasted with rounded, jet black blotch apically larger than eye, 
and upper and front edges of fin pale all around. 

A.N.S.P., No. 68,135. Kemrat, Siam. Length 57 mm. Type. No. 
68,136, same data, paratype. Length 52 mm. 

Characteristic of this species is the large, contrasted black apical blotch 
on the dorsal fin, leaving a narrow pale edge to the fin all around in front 
and above. Puntius. siamensis Sauvage 1883 is based on an example 110 
mm. long and largely agrees in its body contour, barbels, snout shorter than 
the eye, and large scales (28 > in the lateral line. It differs markedly in the 
anal rays 11, but 5 scales above the lateral line and 3 below, and the ventrals 
inserted below the median part of the dorsal. 

(To Mr. William J. Fox, to whom I am indebted for many valuable 
American fishes.) 

Barbus daruphani (H. M. Smith). Figures 146 (head below), 147. 

Depth 2i to 2f ; head 3i to 3±, width 1^ to 1*. Snout 3| to 3 ; \ in head; 
eye 2* to 4, \ greater than snout in young to 1£ in snout with age, 1| to 
If in interorbital; maxillary reaches nearly or quite to eye, length 3± to 4± 
in head; lips fleshy, narrow, smooth, lower moderately interrupted at man- 
dibular symphysis; rostral barbel 1 to If in eye or one may be absent, 
maxillary 1£ in eye to 1^ times eye; interorbital 2\ to 2* in head, broadly 
convex; suborbitals moderate, invade i of cheek to preopercle ridge. Gill 
opening extends forward opposite hind eye edge. Gill rakers 5 +8, lanceo- 
late, \ of gill filaments, which \\ in eye. Pharyngeal teeth 2, 3, 5 — 5, 3, 2, 
compressed, several of larger row enlarged, with narrow, entire grinding 
surfaces, and end in small points. 

Scales 22 to 26 + 2 or 3 in lateral line; 6 above, 3 below to ventral origin, 
4 below to anal origin, 8 to 10 predorsal. Axillary pointed ventral scale 2i 
to 3 in fin. Dorsal, anal and caudal bases scaly. Small scales on breast 
and chest. Lateral line complete, distinct, little decurved, becomes median 
at caudal base; tubes small, simple, well exposed. Scales with 47 apical 
radiating striae; 22 basal striae; circuli fine, basal, obsolete apically. 

D. IV, 8, 1, fourth ray robust, osseous, with 17 strong antrorse striae along 
its hind edge, first branched ray 2$ to Z\ in fish without caudal; A. ra, 5, 1, 



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192 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [VOL. LXXXIX 

first simple rays pungent with third entire and flexible terminally, 1 to 1£ 
in head; caudal 2\ to 2f in rest of fish, deeply forked, with long slender lobes 
sharply pointed; least depth of caudal peduncle 1* to 2j in head; pectoral 

to 1£, rays i, 16; ventral 1 to 1£, rays r, 8. Vent close before anal. 

Pale brown above, sides and below paler to whitish, with silvery reflec- 
tions. On back each scale with darker brown basal pocket than body color. 
Iris pale to whitish. Lips and barbels pale. Fins all pale, dorsal and 
caudal little grayish terminally and lower fins whitish. 

Fifteen, 92 to 178 mm., Me Poon; 67 specimens, 48 to 203 mm., Kemrat. 
These materials differ from Puntius pierrei Sauvage 1880. His figure shows 
an example, evidently large as he gives the length as 300 mm. It differs in 
much smaller fins, the pectorals reach 1 : \ to ventrals, 5 scales above the 
nearly straight lateral line and the small head (5£ according to figure). The 
suborbitals are also shown as nearly covering the cheek. 

Puntius (Barbodes) daruphani H. M. Smith 1934, based on a specimen 
135 mm. long (and another 163 mm.) is rather incompletely described, 
especially as it is without a figure. Its head is slightly smaller than my 
materials, or given as 3.9. Although the scales below the lateral line are 
indicated as " 4.5 in transverse series ", the number to the ventral origin is 
not given. It is known from Raheng and Ban Pong. Poropuntius normani 
H. M. Smith is based on a single specimen 105 mm. long from near Chanta- 
boon. It differs largely in having the bluntly rounded snout covered with 
rows of large pores medianly, depth 3, scales 31, fourth osseous simple dorsal 
ray less than head or 1| in body depth. 

Barbus orphoides Valenciennes. Figure 148 (Bangkok). 

Depth 2£ to 21; head 3 to 3^, width H to 1^. Snout 3-J to 4 in head; 
eye 3f to 4, subequal with snout, 1§ to If in interorbital; maxillary reaches 
opposite front eye edge, length 3 to 3i in head; lips moderate, fleshy, lower 
moderately interrupted at mandibular symphysis; lower jaw usually slightly 
shorter, or included in upper; rostral barbel £ of eye to 1} times eye, 
maxillary H to 2 times eye; interorbital 2^ to 2 J in head, convex; suborbitals 
narrow, invade i of cheek to preopercle ridge. Gill opening extends forward 
opposite hind eye edge. Gill rakers 4 -j- 9, short, firm points, f of gill fila- 
ments, which \\ in eye. Pharyngeal teeth 2, 3, 5 — 5, 3, 2, some of larger 
row enlarged, ends conic, grinding surfaces broad and uneven. 

Scales 21 to 28 + 3 to 5 in lateral line; 6 above, 4 below to ventral origin. 
5 below to anal origin, 10 or 11 predorsal. Ventral with pointed axillary 
scale 2 to 2\ in fin. Bases of vertical fins scaly, on caudal broadly so. 
Lateral line distinct, complete, little decurved; tubes simple, moderate, well 
exposed. Scales with 15 or 16 apical, more or less radiating striae; 12 to 15 
basal radiating striae; circuli fine, basal, obsolete apically. 

D. IV, 8, 1, fourth osseous ray moderate, with about 20 close set more or 
less erect conic denticles on hind edge, first branched ray IjV to 1± in head; 
A. in, 5, 1, front simple rays moderately flexible, first branched ray If to 
1*; caudal 2 J to 3 in rest of fish, deeply emarginate; least depth of caudal 
peduncle 2 to 2± in head; pectoral 1J to 1$, rays 1, 14; ventral rays 1, 8, fin 
\ \ to If in head. Vent close before anal. 



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NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA 



193 



Back and head above brown, sides and below paler to whitish, usually 
with silvery white reflections. In some specimens sides and lower surfaces 
with brassy tint. Iris white to silvery white. Barbels and lips pale. Close 
behind along upper edge of gill opening dark brown band. More or less 
diffuse dark median blotch, large as eye, at caudal base. Dorsal and caudal 
pale brownish, latter with upper and lower edges dark gray to blackish. 
Paired fins and anal whitish. When fresh opercle red, also paired fins, anal 
and caudal. 

Ten, 90 to 160 mm., Bangkok; two, 110 to 153 mm., Pitsanulok; three, 
73 to 78 mm., Me Poon; 56 specimens, 80 to 32 mm., Tachin. The last have 
the dark borders to the caudal variously distinct. The dark basal caudal 
spot is more or less evident in all. 

Barbus ashmeadi, new species. Figures 151 (head below), 152. 

Depth 3f to 3if; head %% to 4, width 1-} to 2. Snout 31 to 4 in head; eye 
3 to 31,. greater than snout, 1 to 1 i in interorbital ; maxillary reaches opposite 
or nearly opposite to front eye edge, length 3f to 3^ in head; lips smooth, 
narrow, lower interrupted at mandibular symphysis; barbels feeble, small, 
rostral little longer than maxillary or about § of eye, maxillary less than -] 
of eye; interorbital 3 to 3j in head, low, broadly convex; suborbitals 
moderate, invade about f of cheek to preopercle ridge. Gill rakers 3 + 7, 
short points, £ of gill filaments, which 2 in eve. Pharvimeal teeth 2, 4 — 4, 
2, of which one enlarged in longer series, ends short conic points. 

Scales 31 or 32 -f- 3 in lateral line; 5 above, 3 below to ventral origin, 4 
below to anal origin, 11 predorsal. Pointed axillary ventral scale half or 
more or fin. Vertical fin bases scaly. Small scales on breast and chest. 
Lateral line distinct, complete, little decurved, ascends behind to middle of 
caudal base; pores all slender, simple, well exposed. Scales with 12 to 22 
apical radiating striae; 8 to 14 short basal striae; circuli moderate, basal, 
less distinct apically. 

D. Ill, 8, 1, first simple rays pungent, slender, hind edge of third with 
about 8 feeble denticles, first branched ray slightly less than head; A. in, 
5, 1, first simple rays pungent, first branched ray H to 1$ in head; caudal 
2* to 3 in rest of fish, deeply forked; least depth of caudal peduncle 1£ to 
2\ in head; pectoral 1J to If, rays 1, 15; ventral rays 1, 8, fin 1£ to If in 
head. Vent slightly nearer tips of depressed ventrals than anal origin. 

Light brown, paler to whitish on lower or under surfaces. Iris gray, 
evidently pale to whitish in lite. Lips and barbels pale. Fins all pale to 
whitish, dorsal with jet black apical blotch H times eye, but with narrow 
white border all around upper edge. 

A.N.S.P., No. 68,137. Kemrat, Siam. Length 77 mm. Type. Also 
Nos. 68,138 and 68,139, same data, paratypes. Length 53 and 68 mm. 

Distinguished by its slender form, short feeble barbels with the rostral 
a trifle longer than the maxillary pair and the dorsal with a conspicuous, 
contrasted, large, jet black apical blotch. 

(For Charles C. Ashmead, an early local contributor to the Academy's 
collection of fishes.) 



194 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [VOL. LXXXIX 



Barbus beasleyi, new species. Figures 153 (head below), 154. 

Depth 2;-]: head 3^. width 1*. Snout 3J in head; eye 3, $ times greater 
than snout, equals interorbital ; maxillary reaches $ to eye,, length 3§ in 
head; lips moderate, smooth, fleshy, lower broadly interrupted at mandibular 
symphysis; rostral barbel f of eye ; maxillary about IjV times eye; inter- 
orbital 3 in head, low, convex; suborbitals narrow, invade J of cheek to pre- 
opercle ridge. Gill rakers 3 -4- 5 short points, J of gill filaments, which 2 in 
eye. Right pharyngeal teeth 5, 3, 2, several of larger row enlarged and 
compressed tips short conic points, grinding surfaces narrow, oblique. 

Scales 23 + 3 in lateral line; 5 above, 3 below to ventral origin, 4 below 
to anal origin, 9 predorsal. Ventral with free pointed scaly flap 2* in fin. 
Dorsal, anal and caudal bases scaly. Lateral line complete, continuous, 
decurved, ascends to caudal base medially; tubes simple, slender, well ex- 
posed. Scales with 19 apical, radiating striae; 12 short basal striae; circuli 
fine, basal, apically obsolete. 

D. IV, 8, 1, osseous anterior simple rays slender, with 13 antrorse den- 
ticles along hind edge of fourth, first branched ray lyV in head; A. nr, 5. 1. 
first 3 simple rays pungent and entire, first branched ray 1 : \ in head; caudal 
2;4 in rest of fish, deeply forked, lobes slender and sharply pointed; least 
depth of caudal peduncle 2^ in head; pectoral 1§, rays 1, 14; ventral rays 

1, 8, fin 14, in head. Vent close before anal. 

Pale brown, lighter or with silvery white reflections below or on sides. 
An ill-defined silvery white underlaid lateral band axial along side of body. 
On back each scale with brown basal pocket, little darker than general body 
color. Iris grav. Barbels and lips pale. Dorsal and caudal pale brownish, 
former with upper margin gray, and latter with edge of inner angle gray. 

A.N.S.P., No. 68,140. Kemrat, Siam. Length 62 mm. Type. 
Resembles Barbus pessuliferus, but with much larger eye. 
(For Dr. Morris Beasley, who early contributed to the collection of 
fishes of the Academy.) 

Barbus jolamarki (H. M. Smith). Figures 155 (head below), 156. 

Depth 24, to 2§; head 3} to 3f, width If to \\. Snout 3£ to 4 in head; 
eye 34 to 4$, little greater than snout in young to subequal with age, If to 
Y\ in interorbital; maxillary reaches \, or to front eye edge, length Z\ to 4 in 
head; lips narrow, smooth, lower interrupted rather broadly at mandibular 
symphysis; interorbital 2^ to 24 in head, broadly convex; suborbitals 
narrow, invade h of cheek to preopercle ridge. Gill rakers 6 -f- 10, short 
points, \ of gill filaments, which 14 in eye. Pharyngeal teeth 2, 3, 5 — 5, 3. 

2, compressed, several in outer row enlarged, end in short conic tips, with 
narrow grinding surfaces smooth. 

Scales 26 or 27 + 2 or 3 in lateral line; 6 above, 4 below to ventral origin. 
5 below 7 to anal origin, 10 or 11 predorsal. Ventral with free pointed axillary 
scale 24, to 2\ in fin. Dorsal, anal and caudal bases scaly. Chest and 
breast scaled. Lateral line complete, distinct, decurved, ascends caudal 
base medially; tubes slender, simple, well exposed. Scales with 23 to 49 
apical radiating striae; 5 to 20 basal, short; circuli fine, basal, obsolete 
apically. 



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NATURAL SGTLWCES OF PHILADKLPHIA 




155, 156. Barbus jolnmarki. 
159. 160. Barbus colctnnni. 



157, 158. Barbus pessuliferus. 
161.162. Mckongina erylhrospila. 



196 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF 



[Vol. LXXXIX 



D. IV, 8, i, front simple rays osseous, compressed, fourth with 12 antrorse 
denticles along hind edge, first branched ray equals head; A. in, 6, i, first 
simple rays pungent, first branched ray If to 1§ in head; caudal 2$ to 3^ 
in rest of fish, deeply forked, lobes broad, pointed; least depth of caudal 
peduncle 2; pectoral 1± to U, rays I, 14; ventral rays i, 8, fin 1± to li in 
head. Vent close before anal. 

Back and upper surfaces brown, sides and lower surfaces paler to whitish 
with silvery white reflections. Iris white. Barbels, lips and mouth pale. 
Dorsal and caudal pale, whitish basally, grayish marginally. Lower fins 
whitish. 

Fifty-one, 60 to 109 mm., Pitsanulok. A species of uniform color, with- 
out dark caudal blotch. 

Barbus javanicus Bleeker. 

Eighty-four, 48 to 179 mm., Bangkok; 119 specimens, 25 to 92 mm., Me 
Poon; 117 specimens, 33 to 175 mm., Pitsanulok; five, 43 to 153 mm., 
Kemrat. Depth 24 to 2%. Maxillary barbel § of eye, rostral shorter. 
Scales 28 + 3 in lateral line; 6 above, 4 below to ventral. D. Ill, 8, i; A. 
in, 6, i. No markings except sometimes faint gray blotch on caudal peduncle 
at caudal base. Eyes and lower side of head bright silvery white. 

Barbus pessuliferus, new species. Figures 157 (head below), 158. 

Depth 2* to 3; head 3 to 3 J, width 1£ to 2. Snout 3§ to 3* in head; eye 
3i to 3*, greater than snout, 1£ to \\ in interorbital; maxillary reaches i to 
eye, length 3£ to 3$ in head; lips thin, narrow, smooth, entire, lower rather 
narrowly separated at symphyseal region of mandible; only one pair of 
barbels, 1J to 1$ times eye, on upper hind end of maxillary; interorbital 2% 
to 2| in head, low, broadly convex; suborbitals narrow, invade \ of cheek 
to preopercle ridge. Gill opening extends forward opposite hind eye edge. 
Gill rakers 3 + 8, short weak points, \ of gill filaments, which § of eye. 
Pharyngeal teeth 2, 3, 5 — 5, 3, 2, small, ends pointed. 

Scales 23 or 24 + 2 or 3 in lateral line ; 5 above, 3 below to ventral 
origin, 4 below to anal origin; 8 or 9 predorsal. Ventral with axillary scaly 
flap 2 Ho 2i in fin. Vertical fins with scaly bases. Chest and breast scaled. 
Lateral line complete, distinct, decurved, ascends middle of caudal base; 
tubes slender, simple, all well exposed. Scales with 5 to 7 apical radiating 
striae; 5 to 10 basal, mostly all complete and radiating from center of 
scale; circuli moderate, basal, obsolete apically. 

D. IV, 8, 1, anterior simple osseous rays rather slender and hind edge 
with 12 or 13 small antrorse denticles, first branched ray equals head; A. 
in, 5, 1, first 3 simple rays slender, entire, third flexible terminally, first 
branched ray 1^ to 1* in head; caudal 2% to 2r, in rest of fish, deeply forked, 
lobes sharply pointed; least depth of caudal peduncle 1& to 2-rV in head; 
pectoral \\ to 1 : \, rays 1, 12; ventral rays 1, 8, fin \\ to 1* in head. Vent 
close before anal. 

Body brown, above, scales often showing darker pockets basally. Lower 
and under surfaces of body whitish with silvery reflections. Iris gray, 
evidently whitish in life. Lips brownish, barbels paler. Along side of body 
above lateral line series of 6 or 7 blackish brown to blackish variable short 



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1937 I NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA 197 

vertical bars, in some specimens anterior ones may reach extent of 2 or 3 
scales vertically; interspaces variable, though in none are all equidistant. 
Fins pale brownish, lower ones whitish, sometimes dorsal terminally and 
front of anal subterminally with brownish. Usually dark or blackish blotch 
at front of dorsal basally. 

A.N.S.P., No. 68,141. Kemrat, Siam. Length 12 mm. Type. Also 
Xos. 68,142 to 68,151, same data, paratypes. Length 34 to 54 mm. 

Known by the presence of only two rather long barbels, the distinctive 
color pattern of several narrow short vertical black bars on the side of the 
body above the lateral line, and the black blotch at the front of the dorsal 
basally. 

(Pessulus a little bar + jero to bear.) 

Barbus colemani, new species. Figures 159 (head below ) , 160. 

Depth 3±; head 4, width If. Snout 4 in head; eye 3, greatly exceeds 
snout, 1£ in interorbital ; maxillary reaches slightly below front of eye, 
length 2% in head; lips thin, narrow, smooth, lower moderately interrupted 
at symphysis of mandible; rostral barbel 1.1 in eye. maxillary 1§; interorbital 
2£ in head, low, broad, slightly convex; suborbitals narrow, invade about * 
of cheek to preopercle ridge, (iill opening extends forward opposite hind 
eye edge. Gill rakers 4 + 6, short, robust points. 4- of gill filaments, which 2 
in eye. Right pharyngeal teeth 5, 3, with penultimate from lowermost of 
larger series, enlarged and ends in short conic point, others with smooth, 
entire, moderate grinding surfaces. 

Scales 26 + 3 in lateral line; 5 above, 3 below to ventral origin, 4 below 
to anal origin, 9 predorsal. Ventral with free, pointed axillary scale 
2£ in fin. Bases of vertical fins scaly. Chest and breast scaled. Lateral 
line complete, distinct, decurved, ascends mcdianly to caudal base; tubes 
small simple, slender. Scales with 14 apical radiating striae; 8 basal, short; 
circuli fine, obsolete apically. 

D. 111. 8, 1, front simple rays slender, pungent, entire, first branched ray 
equals head; A. m, .">. 1. first simple rays slender and third flexible termin- 
ally, first branched ray H in head: caudal 2;.; in rest of fish, deeply forked 
and long slender lobes sharply pointed; least depth of caudal peduncle 2 in 
head; pectoral 1\, rays 1, 18; ventral rays 1, 9, fin li in head. Vent at ends 
of depressed ventrals. 

Pale brown, sides and below lighter with bright or silvery white tinge. 
Iris pale or whitish. Barbels pale, also jaws and lips. Fins light to whitish, 
apices of dorsal and caudal lobes black. 

A.N.S.P., No. 68,152. Me Poon, Siam. Length 80 mm. Type. 

Distinguished by its combination of characters, trim contour of the body 
and contrasted coloration. 

(For Waldburg Coleman, an early contributor to the collection of fishes 
in the Academy.) 



198 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [VOL. LXXXIX 

Barbus binotatus Valenciennes. 

One, 25 mm., Pitsanulok; twenty, 48 to 67 mm.. Rayong; 68 specimens, 
42 to 94 mm., Tacliin; 327 specimens, 25 to 128 mm., Me Poon. One speci- 
men from Me Poon has the left eye completely atrophied. In most all Me 
Poon specimens the black spot below the front of the dorsal is present, like- 
wise the black caudal spot. A black bar on the shoulder girdle, behind the 
gill opening, also often present. 

Barbus brevis (Bleeker). Figures 165 (head below), 166 (Bangkok). 

Two, 70 to 78 mm., Tachin; 26 specimens, 45 to 64 mm., Rayong; 300 
specimens, 65 to 110 mm., Bangkok. Scales 21-4-3 in lateral line. D. m, 
8. 1; A. 111, 5, 1. Only 2 barbels. Black spot, little smaller than eye, before 
caudal base. End of anal usually dusky to blackish. Lower fins vermilion. 

Barbus altus Giinther.* Figures 163 (head below), 164 (young, Bangkok), 167 (head 
below), 168 (adult, Bangkok). 

Depth U to 2i; head 3£ to 34, width ljj to 1$. Snout 4 to 5J in head; 
eye 2* to 3J, greater than snout, 1 to 1§ in interorbital ; maxillary reaches 
nearly or quite opposite front eye edge, length 3 to 4 in head; lips thin, 
narrow, smooth, lower moderately interrupted at mandibular symphysis; 
rostral barbel 1 to 1£ in eye, maxillary barbel equals eye; interorbital 2\ to 
2$ in head, low, slightly convex; suborbitals invade ^ to § of cheek to pre- 
opercle ridge. Gill opening extends forward opposite hind edge of eye. Gill 
rakers 5 -f- 8 short, robust points, \ of gill filaments, which 1$ in eye. Right 
pharyngeal teeth 5, 3, 2, penultimate from below enlarged, tips short conic 
points, and smooth, moderate grinding surfaces developed. 

Scales 28 to 30 -f 2 in lateral line; 8 or 9 above, 5 below to ventral 
origin, 5 below to anal origin; 9 predorsal. Axillary ventral scale 2± to 2f 
in fin. Vertical fins with scaly bases. Small scales on chest and breast. 
Lateral line complete, distinct, decurved, ascends caudal base medially; 
tubes simple, short. Scales with 10 to 18 apical radiating striae; 5 short 
basal striae; circuli fine basally, obsolete apically. 

D. IV, 8, 1, anterior osseous rays robust, fourth with 12 antrorse denticles 
along its hind edge, first branched 1 T V in head to 1 1 times head; A. Ill, 5, I, 
first 3 simple rays strongly pungent, in smallest specimen end flexible, first 
branched ray 1± to 1) in head; caudal 2} to 2 A in rest of fish, deeply forked, 
long slender lobes sharply pointed; least depth of caudal peduncle 1$ to 
2i in head; pectoral li to 1£, rays 1, 14 to 1, 16; ventral rays 1, 8, fin 1^ to 
1J in head. Vent close before anal. 

Light brown, paler to whitish with silvery reflections on side< and below. 
Iris white. Lips and barbels pale. Fins pale to whitish, dorsal with gray 
black apex, and some specimens with yellowish tinge to lower fins. 

Three, 81 to 150 mm., Bangkok; one 58 mm., Paknam; one, 58 mm., 
Kemrat. An interesting species not previously represented in our collections. 

Puntioplites proctozysron (Bleeker). 

Seven, 78 in 130 nun.. Bangkok; two, 64 to L95 nun.. Mr Poon; one, 160 
mm., Pitsanulok; thirteen, 68 to 180 mm.. Kemrat. 



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199 




163. 1G4 and 167. 16S. Barbus alias. 165 and 166. Barbus brevis. 



200 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF 



[Vol. LXXXIX 



Balantiocheilus melanopterus (Bleeker).* Figures 185 (head below), 186 (Kemrat). 

Two, 155 to 160 mm., Bangkok; three, 73 to 76 mm., Kemrat. The 
original figure by Bleeker in his Atlas gives a very poor idea of the species 
as compared with my specimens. The black borders to the fins are entirely 
different, very broad, and merge or become pale against the flushed or 
rosy bases. Also the upper lip is shown as greatly papillose. Weber and 
Beaufort have also given an equally perplexing figure. It shows the eye 
as longer than the snout and 6 scales between the lateral line and the ventral 
origin. Their description however rectifies this as it gives " eye 34-4, less 
than snout," and " Ventrals . . . separated by 3£ scales from the 9th scale 
of lateral line." This figure while showing the black borders to the fins, 
better contrasted than Bleeker's, indicates a black bar before the lateral 
line on the head, not found in my specimens. 

Barbichthys laevis (Valenciennes). 

Seven, 152 to 183 mm., Me Poon; two, L15 to 128 mm., Kemrat. 

Morulius pectoralis (Sauvage). 

Two, 72 to 101 mm., Tachin; nine, 80 to 157 mm., Bangkok; thirteen, 
108 to 228 mm., Kemrat. In none does the pectoral extend over the ventral 
base. The front lobe of the dorsal is, however, quite variable, and in one 
large specimen at least reaches back nearly far as end of last dorsal ray. 
Most have the fin edges more or less pale gray or whitish, though the general 
color gray black. No orange or red on scales at present. 

MEKONGINA, new genus 

Body elongate, slender, trim, moderately compressed. Head small,, 
robust, subpyramidal. Snout, long, obtuse. Eye large, elevated, largely 
postmedian in head. Mouth transversely inferior. No barbels. No dis- 
tinct rostral fold. Upper lip broad, flat, with wide papillate areas and its 
hind edge festooned, or with a series of small papillate lappets. Nostrils 
close together, nearer eye than end of snout, separated by a broad mem- 
branous flap. Interorbital broad. Gill openings lateral, leave broad 
isthmus. Scales moderate, more or less uniform over most of body, in even 
longitudinal rows, small and crowded on chest. Lateral line distinct, nearly 
straight. Dorsal origin prcmedian, with 10 branched rays. Anal small, 
begins behind depressed dorsal, and falcate like dorsal. Caudal deeply 
forked. Pectoral small, low, reaches $ to ventral. Ventral begins below 
first third of dorsal base. Coloration brilliant. Type Mekongina erythro- 
spila, new species. 

Differs from Labeo in its lip structure, and the absence of barbels. Pearl 
organs a band of several series around the end of the muzzle. 
(For the Mekong River.) 

Mekongina erythrospila, new species. Figures 161 (head below), 162. 

Depth 4 to 4£; head 34 to 4-J, width If to 13. Snout 2 to 2J in head; 
eye 3i to 4i, 1§ to 2 in snout, 1% to 2 in interorbital; mouth width 2f to 3 



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201 



in head; no rostral fold; broad upper lip broadly papillate, festooned, with 
about 18 to 20 marginal lappets; lower lip broad, smooth, little papillate 
marginally in young, forms entire margin across symphysis; no barbels; 
from each mouth corner rather deep groove converges toward isthmus; in-, 
terorbital 2 to 24, in head, slightly convex; suborbitals moderately wide, 
invade : \ of cheek. Gill rakers 5 + 34. largely uniform short points, 4 of 
gill filaments, which equal eye. Pharyngeal teeth 3, 5 — 5. 3. small, com- 
pressed, close set, cultrate, all with oblique, smooth grinding surfaces. 

Scales 30 to 35 3 or 4 in lateral line; 7 above, f below in ventral origin, 
5 below to anal origin, 12 predorsal along each side of narrow naked pre- 
dorsal strip its entire length. Ventral with pointed free scaly axillary flap, 
2 to 2} in fin. Caudal base scaly. Lateral line axial along side of body, 
median; tubes small and little exposed. Scales with 23 to 37 apical radi- 
ating striae; no basal striae; circuli fine, basal, obsolete apically. From 
below each eye forward around end of snout 4 rows of pearl organs, lower 
two rows with largest tubercles. 

D. in, 10, i, first branched ray 3| to 3§ in fish without caudal; A. m, 5, i, 
first branched ray lyj, to 14 in head; caudal 2;-| to 2'} in rest of fish, slender 
lobes sharply jointed; least depth of caudal peduncle 1* to 2 in head; 
pectoral l^ to 1J, rays I, 17; ventral rays I, 8, fin l^ to 14 in head. Vent 
opposite last fourth or opposite ends of depressed ventrals. 

Back and sides brown, each scale with a bright vermilion spot. Under 
surface of head and body pale to whitish. Iris gray. Lips and cheeks pale. 
Young with diffuse dark gray blotch at caudal base, about large as eye, 
obliterated or less distinct with age. Dorsal and caudal brownish, grayish 
terminally, some specimens with reddish tinge. Lower fins, as pectoral, 
ventral and anal deep vermilion, pale or whitish in alcohol. 

A.N.S.P., No. 68,158. Kemrat, Siam. Length 193 mm. Type. Also 
Nos. 68,159 to 68,168, same data, paratypes. Length 73 to 183 mm. Also 
56 others, same data. 

Small examples only 100 mm. long show the pearl organs and coloration 
of the largest. The species is known by its brilliant coloration and struc- 
tural characters as given above, especially noteworthy in the naked pre- 
dorsal strip. 

(EpvBpos red + spot.) 

LABEO Cuvier 

Labeo bicolor H. M. Smith. 

Depth 34; head 4i. width If. Snout 3 in head; eye 4j, H in snout, 1| 
in interorbital ; maxillary reaches below nostrils; mouth as soon below broad 
shallow arc, width 34 in head; lips broad, smooth, entire; rostral barbel well 
anterior, £ of eye, maxillary long as eye; interorbital 2'i in head, low, broadly 
convex; suborbitals narrow. Gill rakers 3+ 15, short feeble points, 4, of 
gill filaments, which If, in eye. Right pharyngeal teeth 5, 3, 2, pointed, 
with entire, narrow grinding surfaces. 

Scales 30 + 3 in lateral line; 6 above, 5 below to ventral origin, 6 below 
to anal origin, 11 predorsal. Ventral with pointed axillary scale 24 in fin. 
Caudal base scaly. Small scales on chest and breast. Lateral line straight, 



202 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [VOL. LXXXIX 



axial along middle of side of body; tubes moderate, simple, well exposed. 
Scales with 16 to 20 radiating apical striae; 4 to 9 short basal striae; circuli 
fine, basal, obsolete apically. 

D. in, 12, i, front simple rays slender, entire, longest terminally flexible, 
first branched ray 1^ in head; A. in, 5, i, front simple rays entire and 
slender, first branched ray 1$; caudal 2'\ in rest of fish, deeply forked, slender 
lobes sharp pointed; least depth of caudal peduncle 2 in head; pectoral 1±, 
rays i, 16; ventral rays I, 8, fin li in head. Vent at tips of depressed 
ventrals close before anal. 

Brown above, paler to whitish on lower surfaces and below. Whole side 
sprinkled with dark dots, not extending on under surface of belly. On scale 
at beginning of lateral line small blackish <pot less than pupil, and another 
large as pupil on scale above fifth scale of lateral line, besides less distinct 
one on scale below it. Rounded black blotch at caudal base large as eye. 
Rostral barbel brown, maxillary barbel whitish. Iris gray. Lips whitish. 
Dorsal, ventral and anal blackish, basally each fin paler, and ventrals and 
anal with narrow whitish margin. Caudal white, also pectoral. 

One, 70 mm., Tachin. Agrees with the original account except the dark 
spot below the fifth scale of the lateral line is not mentioned. 

Labeo frenatus Fowler. 

Two, 60 to 68 mm., Tachin. Differ slightly in the nearly blackish anal 
with white edge. Small black spot over fifth scale of lateral line. 

Labeo stigmapleura, new species. Figures i(>o (.head below), 170 (.Kemrat). 

Depth 34 to 4; head 4 to 4§, width 1* to 1£. Snout 3 to 3£ in head; eye 
2} to 3 ; \, little greater than snout in young to equal with age, 1 £ to I5 in 
interorbital; mouth rather small, inferiorly transverse, width 3J to 3| in 
head; lips entire, smooth; rostral barbel ^ to ^ of eye, no maxillary barbel; 
interorbital 2 J to 2» in head, low broadly convex; suborbitals narrow. 
Gill rakers 6 -f- 40, short, feeble points, £ of gill filaments, which $ of eye. 
Pharyngeal teeth 2, 4, 5 — 5, 4, 2, compressed, with well-developed concave, 
smooth grinding surfaces, no hooks. 

Scales 33 or 34 -(- 3 in lateral line; 7 above, 5 below to ventral origin, 
5 or 6 below to anal origin, 12 or 13 predorsal. Ventral with pointed axillary 
scale 2\ to 3 in fin. Caudal base scaly. Rather small scales on chest and 
breast. Lateral line complete, axial on side of body, well marked; each 
scale with short simple tube. Scales with 12 to 17 apical radiating striae; 
0 to 5 short basal striae; circuli fine, basal, obsolete apically. Top of head 
from snout above to predorsal scales studded with numerous, close set, 
minute pearl organs. 

D. in, 11, 1, front simple rays slender, entire, first branched ray 4 to 4± 
in fish without caudal; A. in, 5, 1, first branched raj' 1} to lj in head; caudal 
2£ to 23 in rest of fish, deeply forked, long slender lobes sharply pointed; 
least depth of caudal peduncle l£ to 2 in head; pectoral 1J. to 1§, rays 1, 15; 
ventral 1, 8, fin 1£ to U in head. Vent close before anal. 

Dull brown, sides and below pale to whitish. At fourth and fifth scales 
of lateral line each scale black bordered, also 2 scales below, or may even 
include 3. Lips and barbels pale. Iris whitish. Dorsal rays pale or light 



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NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA 



203 




169,170. Lnbco stigmapleura. 171,172. Labco erytkrura. 
173. 174. Labco cheveyi. 175, 176. Labeo bchri. 



204 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [VOL. LXXXIX 



brown, membranes dotted with dark gray to gray black terminally, also 
ends of rays so upper edge of fin dark. Caudal light brown, inner and hind 
edge gray. Lower fins all pale or whitish, with some yellowish tints basally. 

A.N.S.P., No. 68,169. Kemrat, Siam. Length 104 mm. Type. Also 

Nos. 68,170 to 68,179, same data, paratypes. Length 50 to 115 mm. Besides 

these 53 specimens also same data, not included as paratypes; two, 63 to 

80 mm., Bangkok. 

Apparently to be distinguished by its distinctive color marking on the 
lateral line above the pectoral, suggestive of certain species of Dangila. 

(STiy/na spot -f- irXevpa rib; with reference to the dark marking above the 
pectoral.) 

Labeo erythrura, new species. Figures 171 (head below), 172. 

Depth 3£ to 4*; head 4 J to 4$, width If to 1+,. Snout 2\ to 2\ in head; 
eye Z'\ to 4, 1^ to 1* in snout, 1| to 2\ in interorbital; mouth transverse, 
slightly before nostrils, width 3 to 3f in head; upper lip with about 16 
broadly papillate lappets or plaits, form finely notched edge; lower lip 
entire, with rather well-marked labial groove directed toward isthmus, from 
each angle or corner of mouth; rostral barbel to of eye, maxillary barbel 
$ to \\ interorbital 2} to 2^ in head, low, broadly convex; suborbitals narrow. 
Gill rakers 4 -j- 26, short, lanceolate, \ of gill filaments, which equal eye. 
Pharyngeal teeth 2, 4, 5 — 5. 4, 2, cultrate, without terminal hooks, with 
concave, smooth grinding surfaces. 

Scales 27 to 30 + 3 or 4 in lateral line; 5 above, 4 below to ventral origin, 
5 below to anal origin, 10 or 11 predorsal. Ventral with scaly flap 2 to 24 
in fin. Caudal base scaly. Moderate scales on chest and breast. Lateral 
line complete, continuous, axial along side of body; tubes small, simple, 
short, little exposed. Scales with 34 to 38 apical radiating striae; 6 to 22 
short marginal basal striae; circuli fine basally, obsolete apically. 

D. hi, 11, 1, first branched ray 4J to 4£ in fish without caudal, first simple 
rays slender and smooth, longest terminally flexible; A. ill, 5, 1, first 
branched ray 1 to lyV in head; caudal 2^ to 3 in rest of fish, well forked, 
lobes pointed; least depth of caudal peduncle \\ to 2 in head; pectoral 1 to 
1J, rays 1, 15; ventral rays 1, 9, fin 1 to l r V Vent a little before anal 
origin or at ends of depressed ventrals. 

Body above and on sides more or less dark brown, under surfaces pale or 
whitish. Large rounded black blotch contrasted, twice size of eye, at 
caudal base. Blackish preocular band about wide as pupil. Iris gray. 
Rostral barbel blackish. Maxillary barbel pale or whitish like lips. Dorsal 
with membranes grayish, become darker to gray black basally, upper edge 
of fin broadly much paler. Caudal brilliant vermilion, turns orange and 
then brownish to whitish in alcohol. Pectoral pale to whitish. Anal dark 
gray, gray black on membranes medially. Ventral like anal, often paler 
and ends and border pale to whitish. 

A.N.S.P., No. 68,180. Kemrat, Siam. Length 119 mm. Type. Also 

Nos. 68,181 and 68.182, same data, paratypes. Length 103 to 117 mm. 



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205 



Greatly like Labeo munensis H. M. Smith 1934 from the Menam Mun at 
Tha Chang, in eastern Siam, also the Mekong basin. L. erythrura differs 
in several very distinct characters ; its dorsal and ventrals all rather broadly 
pale or whitish, though the pale margin not in contrast or sharply defined; 
no dark humeral spot and black blotch on caudal peduncle without forward 
extension on lateral line; pectoral not reaching opposite dorsal origin; black 
band along each side of snout before eye and slightly behind eye. 

('Epvdpbs red + °»pb tail.) 

Labeo cheveyi, new species. Figures 173 (head below), 174. 

Depth 3§ to 3J; head 3§ to 3±, width 1§ to 1±. Snout 2\ to 2> in head; 
eye 4 to 4f, 1^ to 2 in snout, 1J to 2± in interorbital; mouth broadly crescentic 
as viewed below, width 3 to 3£ in head; lips broadly fleshy, smooth, edge of 
upper entire though edge of labial fold slightly uneven, hardly fringed, and 
lower lip edge fringed or papillate all around; a very small and largely 
concealed maxillary barbel; interorbital 2\ to 2'i in head, low, broadly 
convex; suborbitals narrow. Gill opening extends forward opposite hind 
eye edge. Gill rakers 4 + 40, short, slender, close set points, \ of gill fila- 
ments, which 1.] in eye. Pharyngeal teeth 2, 4, 5 — 5, 4, 2, close set, com- 
pact, cultrate, with broad, entire grinding surfaces. 

Scales 34 or 35 -J- 4 in lateral line; 9 above, 6 below to ventral origin, 6 
below to anal origin, 14 predorsal. Ventral with pointed axillary scale 2\ 
to 2i in fin. Caudal base scaly. Scales small and crowded on chest and 
breast. Lateral line complete, continuous, axial along side of body; tubes 
short, simple, little exposed. Scales with 24 to 25 radiating apical striae; 

1 to 4 short basal striae; circuli fine, basal, obsolete apically. Pearl organs 
extensive over whole of snout, largest and most conspicuous on front sides 
and around end of snout, small and minute above arc in internasal space; 
all are close set, and smooth to touch. 

D. in, 11, 1, front simple rays pungent, entire, first branched ray equals 
head; A. in, 5, 1, first branched ray li to 1^; caudal 2i to 2i in rest of fish, 
deeply forked, slender lobes sharply pointed; least depth of caudal peduncle 

2 to 2± in head; pectoral 1± to 1^, rays 1, 17; ventral rays 1, 8, fin \^ to \\ 
in head. Vent little before anal at ends of depressed ventral. 

Back and upper surfaces olivaceous, sides and below whitish. Very 
obscure darker longitudinal dark bands along middle of each scale row on 
back. A diffuse gray blotch size of eye at caudal base in small specimen, 
fades with age so that in large specimens pair of well separated dark spots, 
opposite, one above and the other below the lateral line result. Iris pale 
brownish. Lips and under surface of body pale or whitish. Dorsal and 
caudal pale brownish, former with membranes grayish basally. Lower fins 
pale, all more or less grayish medially. 

A.N.S.P., No. 68,184. Me Poon, Siam. Length 182 mm. Type. Also 
Nos. 68,185 to 68,189, same data, paratypes. Length 154 to 181 mm. 

An interesting species known by its large prominent lips, the largely 
concealed maxillary barbel and other structural characters in combination, 
besides the pair of dark spots at the caudal base in mature specimens. 

(For Dr. Paul Chevey of the Institut Oceanographique de l'lndochine.) 



206 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF 



[Vol. LXXXIX 



IXCISILABEO, new subgenus 

Differs from subgenus Labeo in the notch or transverse groove on the 
snout, the lower lip with a fringed edge, and the upper lip and edge of the 
rostral fold entire. Pair of maxillary barbels become smaller and concealed 
with age. Type Labeo behri, new species. 

{Incisum notch + Labeo; with reference to the groove on the snout 
separating a very distinct arrangement of the pearl organs.) 

Labeo behri, new species. Figures 175 (head below), 176 (Kemrat). 

Depth 3| to 3i; head 21 to 3i width 1? to 2-rV Snout 2£ to 3^ in 
head; eye 4 to 5, \\ to 1£ in snout, 1^ to 2\ in interorbital ; mouth broad, 
width 2J to 44 in head; maxillary reaches % or nearly opposite front eye 
edge, length 2* to 3i in head; upper labial fold broad, leaves only narrow 
margin of upper lip exposed, edges of both entire; lower lip with fine 
marginal fringe all around and front inner area well papillated; edge of 
lower jaw horny, trenchant keel; young with pair of very minute, incon- 
spicuous rostral barbels, disappearing with age; maxillary barbel half long 
as eye in young and terminally exposed, with age much smaller and con- 
cealed in labial groove; interorbital 2* to 2h in head, broadly convex; 
suborbitals moderate, width $ of eye. Gill opening extends forward opposite 
hind eye edge. Gill rakers 7 -4- 32, compressed, pointed, laminate, £ of gill 
filaments, which equal eye. Pharyngeal teeth 2, 4, 0 — 5, 4, 2, close set, 
cultrate, each with more or less of entire oblique grinding surface. 

Scales 34 or 35 ■ 3 or \ in lateral line: 10 above, 6 below to ventral 
origin, 6 or 7 below to anal origin, 15 to 24 predorsal with those down its 
median ridge little defined. Ventral with pointed axillary scale 24, to 2 ; \ 
in fin. Caudal base scaly. Scales very small and crowded on chest and 
breast. Lateral line complete, little decurved, axial along side of tail; 
tubes small, short, simple. Scales with 24 to 56 apical radiating striae; 4 to 
12 short basal striae; circuli fine, basal, become obsolete apically. Band of 
small, close set pearl organs on end of snout, extend back below T nostrils, 
made up of 4 irregular series; broad band of smaller tubercles across inter- 
nasal space; in young specimens tubercles fewer and comparatively larger. 

D. iv, 12, 1, first simple rays pungent with fourth terminally flexible, first 
branched ray 1} in head to 1J times head; A. m, 5, 1, first branched ray 1£ 
to 14 in head; caudal 2% to 3 in rest of fish, deeply forked; least depth of 
caudal peduncle 1£ to 2\ in head; pectoral 1£ to 14, rays 1, 18; ventral rays 
1, 8, fin 1± to 1$. Vent slightly before ends of depressed ventrals. 

Dark or olivaceous brown on back or upper surface, lower sides and 
under surfaces whitish. Above fifth scale of lateral line scale gray black, 
also one below and sometimes second one. Dark gray transverse bar at 
caudal base. Iris brown. Lips whitish. Dorsal gray, more contrasted or 
rays paler in young. Caudal brownish. Lower fins largely pale brown, 
medially darker or gray brown. 

A.X.S.P., No. 68.190. Kemrat, Siam. Length 208 mm. Type. Also 
Xos. 68,191 to 68,200, same data, paratypes. Length 40 to 208 mm. 

Besides these a series of 77 specimens with same data, not paratypes. 
and one example 65 mm. long from Bangkok. 



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177,178. Discolobeo fishcri. 179,180. Tylognathux davisi. 

181, 182. Tylognalhus context. 183. 184. Tylognathus gracilis. 



208 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [VOL. LXXXIX 

Known anions Siamese specie* by its coloration and combination of 
structural characters. 

(Named for the late Otto Behr, of Lopez, Pa., to whom the Academy is 
indebted for many specimens of the natural history of his region.) 

Tylognathus davisi, new species. Figures 179 (head below), 180. 

Depth 31; head 34, width 2. Snout 3£ in head; eye 4, 1£ in snout, If 
in interorbital ; maxillary reaches & to eye, length 3} in head; upper labial 
fold broad, its edge and that of upper lip entire, and lower lip with papillate 
edge, otherwise smooth; small maxillary barbel 1± in eye, largely concealed; 
interorbital 2] in head; suborbitals narrow, width ^ of eye. Gill opening 
extends forward nearly opposite hind eye edge. 

Scales 30 -f- 2 in lateral line ; 6 above, 4 below to ventral origin, 5 below 
to anal origin, 12 predorsal. Ventral with pointed axillary scale 2| in fin. 
Caudal base scaly. Small scales on chest and breast. Lateral line com- 
plete, slightly decurved. median at caudal base; tubes small, slender, simple. 
Scales with 15 apical radiating striae; 6 short basal striae; circuli fine, basal, 
more or less obsolete apically. 

D. in, 8, 1, simple rays slender, entire, first branched ray 1£ in head; A. 
in, 5. 1. first branched ray 1£; caudal 2\ in rest of fish, deeply forked, 
slender lobes sharply pointed; least depth of caudal peduncle 2i in head; 
pectoral \\, rays 1, 15; ventral rays 1, 8, fin L 1 , in head. Vent close before 
tip of depressed ventrals. 

Back and upper surfaces brown, sides below and under surfaces whitish. 
On tail narrow dark axial line, ending in elongate black blotch, about long 
as snout, at base of caudal. Iris gray. Lips whitish. On back forming 
slightly darker longitudinal streaks at scale junctures, about 6 distinguished 
above lateral line. Dorsal pale brown, each membrane medially rather dark 
gray. Caudal brownish, little yellowish basally. Lower fins all pale or 
whitish. 

A.N.S.P., No. 68.201. Kemrat, Siam. Length 78 mm. Type. 

Apparently related to Tylognathus siamensis Beaufort 1927, but that 
species described with 35 or 36 scales, 5 scales above lateral line, uniform, 
dorsal with blackish border and a row of oblong blackish spots on mem- 
branes between fin rays, forming a cross bar, specimen 135 mm., from 
Payao Swamp. 

(For Mr. William Baldwin Davis, of Philadelphia, who contributed 
numberous local fishes to the Academy.) 

Tylognathus coatesi, new species. Figures 181 (head below), 182. 

Depth 4; head 4, width 1*. Snout 3 in head; eye 4±, If in snout, 1$ 
in interorbital; mouth small, transverse, width 4i in head; upper lip with 
about 16 plicae, tip of each free and forming more or less free edge, their 
surfaces entirely finely papillate; edge of lower lip papillate and uneven, 
though outer surface smooth, rictal groove moderate and converging a little 
toward isthmus; rather robust rostral barbel H in eye, interorbital 2f in 
head; suborbitals narrow, width about ^ of eye. Gill opening extends 
forward opposite hind eye edge. 



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209 



Scales 29 -h 3 in lateral line; 5 above, 4 below to ventral origin, 4 below 
to anal origin, 10 predorsal. Ventral with free, pointed axillary scale, 2\ 
in fin. Caudal base scaly. Chest and front of breast before pectorals 
naked. Lateral line continuous, slightly decurved, midway at caudal base; 
tubes small, simple, slender, well exposed. Scales with 29 radiating apical 
striae; 15 short basal striae and many as 10 more incomplete auxiliaries; 
circuli fine, basal, apically obsolete. 

D. hi, 8, i, front simple rays pungent, slender, smooth, third flexible 
terminally, first branched ray 1 in head; A. in, 5, I, first branched ray 1^, 
caudal 2* in rest of fish, deeply forked, lower lobe little shorter; least depth 
of caudal peduncle 2 in head; pectoral 1^, rays I, 14; ventral rays i, 8, fin 
1\ in head. Vent little in advance of anal, opposite tips of depressed 
ventrals. 

Back and upper surfaces light brown, scale pockets showing through as 
darker brown though in little contrast. Along side of tail medially an 
underlaid ill defined lateral band ending at caudal base in a contrasted 
blackish blotch larger than eye. Iris gray. Rostral barbel and lips pale. 
Dorsal pale brown, each membrane with slightly darker or dark gray 
median streak. Caudal pale brown, with dull yellowish tinge basally. 
Lower fins whitish. 

A.X.S.P., No. 68,202. Bangkok, Siam. Length 83 mm. Type. 
Known by the possession of only two barbels, the rostral pair, the 
scaleless breast, and structural characters as noticed above. 

(For Josiah L. Coates, an early contributor to the Academy's collection 

of fishes.) 

Tylognathus gracilis, new species. Figures 183 (head below), 184. 

Depth 4i to 4f; head 3 J to 44, width 1] to 1£. Snout 2\ to 2* in head; 
eye 5 to 6, 2 to 2 : \ in snout, 2] to 3 in interorbital ; mouth broad, transverse, 
width 2\ to 3± in head; maxillary extends 'i to £ to eye, length 24, to 34 in 
head; rostral fold broad, edge entire, leaving narrowly exposed upper lip 
entire; lower lip with broad free inner face entire, outer face with broad 
marginal band of papillae; lower jaw edge trenchantly coriaceous, broad; 
single maxillary barbel each side, partly concealed and little less than eye; 
interorbital 2 to 2i in head, broadly convex, rather low; suborbitals narrow, 
width about $ of eye. Gill opening extends forward opposite hind eye edge. 
Gill rakers (i 1 2"). short, compressed, laminated, pointed, i of gill filaments, 
which equal eye. Pharyngeal teeth 2, 4, 5 — 5, 4, 2, small, compact, com- 
pressed, cultrate, with broad, smooth grinding surfaces. 

Scales 28 or 29 + 2 or 3; 6 above, 3 below to ventral base, 4 below to 
anal origin, 10 or 11 predorsal. Ventral with free pointed axillary scale 
24 to 2\ in fin. Caudal base scaled. Chest and breast finely and closely 
scaled. Lateral line complete, distinct, axial along side of body; tubes 
small, simple, little exposed. Scales with 43 or 44 apical radiating striae; 
3 to 5 short basal striae; circuli fine, basal, obsolete apically. Five irregular 
rows of pearl organs around end of snout to below nostrils. Some examples 
even show cheeks and most of upper surface of head minutely tuberculate. 

D. in, 8, 1, simple rays slender, first branched ray 1^ to \\ times head; A. 
in, 5, 1, first branched ray \\ to H in head; caudal 2* to 2% in rest of fish, 



210 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [VOL. LXXXIX 

deeply forked, long slender lobes sharply pointed; least depth of caudal 
peduncle 2$ to 2f in head; pectoral 1 to 1}, rays i, 16; ventral rays i, 8, fin 
Iyo to 1^ in head. Vent at last fifth to third in space between ventral and 
anal origins: 

Back gray brown, each scale with dark blotch, and along sides of body 
each scale with small and still darker spot. On side of tail small dark 
spots form, with others present in interspaces, 3 distinct nearly blackish 
longitudinal lines. At caudal base a broad axial dark gray band continued 
out over middle of caudal fin. Sides of head with gray and olive tints, 
below whitish. Iris gray. Lips and barbels pale to whitish. Dorsal 
grayish, each membrane with gray black streak medially. Caudal brownish, 
except for dark gray median band as described. Lower fins all pale to 
whitish. 

A.N.S.P., No. 68,203. Me Poon, Siam. Length 233 mm. Type. Also 
Nos. 68,204 to 68,218, same data, paratypes. Length 164 to 228 mm. One, 
153 mm., Kemrat. 

A handsome slender species, related to T. quadrilineatus Fowler 1935, but 
with long falcate fins and three dark lines on the caudal peduncle. 
{Gracilis slender.) 

Tylognathus melanotaenia Fowler. 

Three, 142 to 158 mm., Kemrat. As this is known only from the type 
I have the following notes: Depth 3 : ] to 4; head 4 to 4^, width 1J to 1*. 
Snout 2$ to 3 in head; eye 4i to 5, H to in snout, 2 to 2i in interorbital; 
maxillary reaches £ to £ to eye, length 2± to 3 in head; interorbital 2 to 2J. 
Gill rakers 5 + 25. Right pharyngeal teeth 5, 4, 2. Scales 27 to 29 + 3 in 
lateral line; 11 or 12 predorsal. Ventral axillary scale 2 to 2i in fin. 
Small scales crowded on chest and breast. Pearl organs (scars) in 4 or 5 
irregular rows around end of snout, extend below nostrils; head above and 
median predorsal ridge with minute, inconspicuous, numerous tubercles or 
papillae. First branched dorsal ray 1J to H times head; first branched anal 
ray 1± to 1] in head; caudal 2| to 2§ in rest of fish; least depth of caudal 
peduncle 1£ to 2 in head; pectoral 1 to 1J; ventral 1 to l^. Each specimen 
with subopercle brilliant red when first received. 

DISCOLABEO, new genus 

Body moderately long, compressed. Head moderate, little compressed. 
Snout obtuse. Eye small, elevated, entirely in front half of head. Mouth 
inferior, broad. Lips not greatly developed. Two pairs of barbels, well 
developed. Mandible modified, disk like, with velum behind. Nostrils to- 
gether, little nearer eye than end of snout. Gill opening lateral, with broad 
isthmus. Pseudobranchiae moderate. Gill rakers minute. Scales rather 
large, well exposed, in even longitudinal rows. Lateral line complete, simple. 
Dorsal origin but slightly premedian, branched rays 8. Anal small, entirely 
behind dorsal, branched rays 5. Caudal large, forked. Pectoral low, less 
than head. Ventral inserted little behind dorsal origin, moderate. Type 
Discolabco fishcri, new species. 



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211 



Small cyprinids allied to Tylognathus, remarkable for the mandibular 
disk and somewhat contrasted coloration. 
(Discus disk 4- Labeo.) 

Discolabeo fisheri, new species. Figures 177 (head below), 178. 

Depth 3|; head 3| to 3|, width If Snout 3£ to 3j in head; eye 4, 1| to 
1\ in snout, 1$ to H in interorbital; maxillary not quite reaching opposite 
front eye edge, length 3i to 3 J in head; mouth broad, width 4 to 4J; upper 
lip entire, lower broadly interrupted and entering broad rounded mental disk 
with broad, free, entire edge behind; rostral barbel $ to equal to eye, max- 
illary barbel li to 1 : ? ( times eye; interorbital 2} to 2^ in head, low, broadly 
convex; suborbitals narrow, width about \ of eye. Gill opening extends 
forward about opposite hind eye edge. Gill rakers very short feeble rudi- 
ments, about i of gill filaments, apparently 20 on lower part of arch. Gill 
filaments about f of eye. Right pharyngeal teeth 5, 4, 2, small, slender, 
ends curved, with entire, concave grinding surfaces. 

Scales 27 or 28 4- 2 or 3 in lateral line; 5 above, 4 below to ventral base, 
4 below to anal origin, 10 predorsal. Ventral with pointed axillary scale 3 
in fin. Caudal base scaled. Chest and breast covered with small scales. 
Lateral line complete, distinct, nearly straight and axial along side of body; 
tubes small, simple, little exposed. Scales with 16 apical striae; 2 short 
basal striae; circuli fine, basal, obsolete apically. Pearl organs (scars) as 
2 or 3 irregular series around end of snout. 

D. in, 8, 1, simple rays slender, entire, first branched ray 1J in head; A. 
in, 5, 1, first branched ray If; caudal 2^ to 2* in rest of fish, deeply forked, 
lobes sharply pointed; least depth of caudal peduncle 1-ny to 2 in head; 
pectoral 1£, rays 1, 13; ventral rays 1, 8, fin li to J in head. Vent little 
before anal origin, at depressed ventral tip. 

Brown above, paler to whitish below or underneath. Two very obscure, 
ill defined or diffuse, slightly darker, longitudinal streak-. Side of head and 
body all more or less dusted with dark dots. Black blotch, larger than eye 
at caudal base. Iris gray. Barbels and lips whitish. Dorsal pale or very 
light brownish basally, apex broadly black. Caudal brownish. Lower fins 
all very pale brown to whitish. 

A.N.S.P., No. 68,219. Tachin, Siam. Length 43 mm. Type. Also No. 
68,220, same data, paratype. Length 42 mm. 

The characters are included in the generic account. 

(For Dr. J. C. Fisher, an early contributor to the natural history collec- 
tions of the Academy.) 

Garra taeniatops Fowler. 

Series of 195 specimens, 28 to 87 mm., Me Poon. Many with the dark 
or blackish lateral band, and the dark border of the dark shade on the back 
each edged with black, and in sharp contrast. Lower caudal lobe with a 
median streak at the base of the lower lobe. Lateral line indistinct and not 
always evident with age, though in small or young mostly evident or quite 
distinct. One example, abnormal with greatly swollen predorsal, is 70 mm. 
long. 



212 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [VOL. LXXXIX 



Garra fasciacauda, new species. Figures 187 (head below), 188. 

Depth 5* to 54; head 3f to 4§, width U to If. Snout 1$ to 2 in head; 
eye 4 to 5^, 2 to 2i in snout, l£ to 2 in interorbital; mouth width 2i to 2£ 
in head; upper lip broadly papillate, edge with 16 to 20 plaits and short free 
end of each with slight terminal notch; lower lip broad disk, also largely 
finely papillate around front border, more narrowly so behind; rostral barbel 
long as eye; interorbital 2 to 2J in head, low, scarcely convex; suborbitals 
narrow, width little less than half of eye. Gill opening lateral, extends 
forward opposite hind eye edge. Gill rakers 8 + 16, short, more or less 
uniform points, J of gill filaments, which equal eye. Pharyngeal teeth 2, 3 
or 4, 5 — 5 or 6, 3, 2, compressed, small, close set, without hooks, moderate, 
entire, oblique granding surfaces. 

Scales 28+ 2 or 3 in lateral line; 4 above, 3 below to ventral origin, 4 
below to anal origin, 10 predorsal. Ventral with free pointed axillary scale 
2£ to 2'i in fin. Caudal base scaly. Chest and breast naked. Lateral line 
complete, nearly straight, axial along side of body; tubes small, slender, 
simple. Scales with 37 to 58 apical radiating striae; 12 to 21 short basal 
striae; circuli fine, basal, obsolete apically. Pearl organs moderate, over 
end of snout back into internasal space and below nostrils on preorbital; 
pair of enlarged, wide set, laterally directed horny tubercles each side of 
snout end. 

D. in, 8, 1, simple rays in front slender and smooth, first branched ray 
1$ to 1^ times head; A. ill, 5, 1, first branched ray 1| to 1£ in head; caudal 
2 J to Sk in rest of fish, well forked, lobes sharply pointed; least depth of 
caudal peduncle 1* to 2£ in head; pectoral 1, rays 1, 15; ventral rays 1, 8, fin 
1 to 1J in head. Vent opposite last fourth or fifth of depressed ventrals. 

Body brown above, lower sides and under surfaces pale to whitish. Pale 
spot, nearly whitish, and little smaller just before eye. Iris gray. Lips, 
barbel and disk whitish. Along side of body, from behind head, broad gray 
black lateral band, wider than eye, contains lateral line and reflected 
narrowly out over median caudal rays. Above band narrow parallel paler 
streak separates darker color of back. Dorsal grayish, paler basally, and 
each membrane medially with dark gray streak along front of each ray. 
Caudal pale to whitish, each lobe with narrow gray black submarginal band. 
Lower fins all more or less whitish, dusted with gray brown medially. 

A.N.S.P., No. 68,222. • Kemrat, Siam. Length 110 mm. Type. Also 
Nos. 68,223 to 68,231, same data, paratypes. Length 75 to 105 mm. Also 
28 others, same data, not included as paratypes. 

Related to Garra taeniatops Fowler, especially in its pearl organs. It 
differs in the dorsal less contrasted and not banded, its very slender and 
trim body, and each caudal lobe with a narrow black band nearly or quite 
to its hind edge. The species is also of moderate size. 

(Fascia band + cauda tail. ) 

LEUCISCINAE 

Barilius harmandi (Sauvage). 

Two. 133 to 222 mm., Me Poon. 



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185. 186. Balantiocheilus melanopterus. 187, 188. Garra fasciacauda. 
189.190. Phenacostethus thai. 191. Dcrmogenys siamensis. 



214 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [VOL. LXXXIX 

CYPRINODONTIDAE 

Panchax panchax ( Buchanan-Hamiiton). 
Two, 28 to 29 mm., Bangkok. 

BELONIDAE 

Strongylura leiura (Bleeker). 

Three, 204 to 246 mm.. Tachin. 

Xenentodon canciloides (Bleeker). 

Depth 1U to 14; head 2$ to 2$, width 7 to 8. Snout H to 1£ in head 
from snout tip; eye 7 to 81 in snout, 2J to 34 in postocular region of head, 
14, to 1^ in interorbital ; maxillary reaches below ^ to J of eye; canines in 14 
to 16 pairs, sub-vertical; interorbital 2 to 24 in postocular region; deep 
groove along top of head conspicuous, its width half of eye. Xo gill raker-. 

Scales about 200 to 205 in axial lateral series to caudal base and 7 or 8 
more on latter; 20 or 21 scales between dorsal origin and lateral line; 110 
to 146 predorsal scales forward to occiput. Lateral line low along side of 
body, after anal slopes up until median along side of caudal peduncle, with- 
out keel. Opercle naked. 

D. ii, 13 to ii, 15, first branched ray 31 to 4 in lateral head length; A. II, 
13 or ii, 14, first branched ray 3} to 4$; caudal 3* to 3£, convex behind; 
least depth of caudal peduncle about equals eye; pectoral 3 J to 4f in total 
head length, rays i, 9; ventral rays i, 5, fin 1* to 2 in postocular space. 
Vent rather close before anal. 

Pale brown, lower sides and under surfaces white, evidently silvery white 
in life. Iris gray. Lateral mandibular cutaneous margin black in young, 
brownish with age. Fins all pale brownish, dorsal and caudal grayish 
marginally. 

Eight, 111 to 260 mm.. Bangkok; one, 212 mm., Kemrat. 

HEMIRAMPHIDAE 

Hemiramphus erythrorinchus Le Sueur. 

One, 228 mm., Paknam; five, 158 to 213 mm., Tachin. Branched anal 
rays 10 or 11. 

Hyporhamphus neglectus (Bleeker). 

Two, 212 to 227 mm., Rayong; eight, 110 to 128 mm., Tachin. 

Zenarchopterus dunckeri Mohr.* Figure 192. 
Eight, 75 to 140 mm., Rayong. 

Dermogenys siamensis Fowler. Figure 191 (Bangkok). 

Two, 22 to 36 mm., Bangkok; one, 35 mm., Paknam. Mohr 1936 has 
suppressed this form, along with D. burmanicus Mukerji 1935, as synonyms 
of D. pusillus Van Hasselt. In this I am not altogether convinced as my 
specimens show only the first three anal rays simple and longer than those 
following, and in D. burmanicus at least five are shown in the figure of the 
anal fin of the male. In commenting on Dermogemjs pusillus Van Hasselt 



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215 




192. Zenarchopterua dunckeri. 193. C yitoglossus microlepis. 

194. Cynorjlossus mncrolepidotus. 195. Centriscus scut at lis. 
196. Syngnathus djarong. 197. Mugil vaigiensis. 



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may she be reminded that Sherborn (Index Animalium) gives Van Hasselt 
as the author in 1823 and 1824, likewise for the same genus. Further it may 
be well for her to remember that Cuvier wrote Hemi-Ramphus in 1817 and 
that the family and subfamily names evolve as Hemiramphidae and Hemi- 
ramphinae respectively. Still more she has no excuse for writing " Der- 
mogenys burmanensis Mukerji 1935" for D. burmanicus, as originally 
spelled, thereby creating the contention for a different name. Without deal- 
ing with the generic problems involved I accept the suppression of Zen- 
archopterus kneri Fowler 1934 'as a synonym of Z. dunckeri Mohr 1926. 
Contention for Z. atrodorsalis Fowler 1934 as a synonym of Z. pappenheimi 
Mohr 1926, and Z. basudensis Fowler 1934 merged with Z. kampeni Weber 
1913, much less the preoccupied Z. brevirostris (Giinther) 1866, are far 
from established. 

EXOCOETIDAE 

Parexocoetus brachypterus (Richardson).* 

Two, 110 to 116 mm., Rayong; two, 96 to 115 mm., Paknam. 
Cypselurus arcticeps (Giinther). 

Two, 175 mm., Tachin. A. n, 7. 

PSETTODIDAE 

Psettodes erumei (Schneider). 
One, 193 mm., Rayong. 

PLEURONECTIDAE 

Pseudorhombus arsius (Buchanan-Hamilton). 

One, 139 to 170 mm., Rayong; one, 143 mm., Bangkok. 

SOIEIDAE 

Brachirus orientalis (Schneider). 
One, 91 mm.. Bangkok. 

Brachirus aeneus (H. M. Smith). Figures iq8, 200 (Kemrat), 201, 202 (Pitsanulok). 

Three, 37 to 50 mm., Kemrat; two, 76 to 80 mm., Pitsanulok. 

Zebrias zebra (Bloch). Figure 203. 
One, 150 mm, Paknam. 

CYN0GL0SSIDAE 

Paraplagusia bilineata (Bloch).* 

Three, 165 to 168 mm., Rayong. 

Cynoglossus lingua (Buchanan-Hamilton). 
Six, 122 to 173 mm., Bangkok. 



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217 




198 to 202. Brachirus aeneus. 203. Zebrias zebra. 
204 to 209. Mastacembehts favus. 



218 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [VOL. LXXXIX 



Cynoglossus arel (Schneider).* 

Depth 5i to 6J; head 4 to 4|. Snout 24 in head; upper eye 11 to 13, S'i 
to 4± in snout, greater than interorbital; rostral hook moderate, extends 
behind mandibular symphysis for space equal to i eye; maxillary extends 
£ eye diameter behind eye, much nearer gill opening than end of snout; 
nostrils on eyed side, upper pore in front part of interorbital space, lower 
in tubule little before eye. 

Scales ctenoid on eyed side, cycloid on blind side. Two lateral lines on 
eyed side, scales in median or axial from above gill opening to caudal base 
63 to 65; 10 between lateral lines. No lateral line on blind side. 

D. 120 to 123, fin height 4 in head; A. 103 to 104, fin height 4£ to 4J; 
caudal 2^ to 2jf, ends in slender median point. 

Uniform pale brown on left or eyed side, right side whitish. Iris gray. 
Fins pale. 

Three, 130 to 142 mm., Tachin. 

Cynoglossus microlepis (Bleeker).* Figure 193. 

Depth 4 li to 4f ; head 4$. Snout to upper eye 2\ to 2;] in head; upper 
eye 134 to 15, 4f to 5 in snout, slightly greater than interorbital; rostral 
hook long, extends back over lower face of mandible opposite hind edge of 
lower eye; maxillary reaches opposite or little behind hind edge of lower 
eye, or mouth corner much nearer gill opening than snout end; upper 
nostril pore in interorbital slightly behind hind edge of upper eye, lower in 
short tube close to upper lip and below front part of upper eye; interorbital 
narrow, concave. 

Scales ctenoid on both sides of body. Left or colored side with 3 lateral 
lines, on median or axial 110 to 120 scales from above gill opening to caudal 
base; 20 or 22 between median and upper lateral line; 24 between median 
and lower lateral line. Single median or axial lateral line on blind side. 

D. 113 to 115, fin height 3.} to 5 in head; A. 95, fin height 3f to 4£; 
caudal 1£ to 1£, ends in median point behind. 

Left side brown, right side pale to whitish. Fins grayish on upper 
surfaces, whitish on lower. Iris gray. 

Two, 160 to 263 mm., Bangkok. 

Cynoglossus borneensis (Bleeker).* 

Seven, 78 to 197 mm., Bangkok. Rictus nearer gill opening than end 
of snout. On left side 16 to 18 scales between upper and median lateral 
line. On right side single lateral line. 

Cynoglossus macrolepidotus (Bleeker).* Figure 194. 

Depth 4j ; head 3i. Snout to upper eye 2$ in head; upper eye 15, 4| in 
snout, greater than interorbital; rostral hook encroaches very little on 
mandible; maxillary reaches very slightly behind eye, with rictus slightly 
nearer gill opening than end of snout; upper nostril pore at front of inter- 
orbital above front edge of lower eye, lower in short tube near upper lip 
and opposite front edge of upper eye. 

Scales ctenoid on left or ocular side, smooth on right side. Lateral lines 
2 on left side, medial with 52 scales from above gill opening to caudal base; 
7 scales between. No lateral line on right side. 



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1937] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA 219 

D. 106, fin height 4 in head; A. 84, fin height 3|; caudal 2$. 
Left or eyed side brown, right side whitish. Fins grayish on eyed side, 
whitish on right. Eyes gray. 

One 180 mm. Bangkok. 
Cynoglossus puncticeps (Richardson). 

Two, 74 to 82 mm., Bangkok; three, 61 to 98 mm., Paknam; nine, 78 to 
104 mm., Tachin. Scales 16 to 18 between median and upper lateral line 
on eyed side. 

Cynoglossus cynoglossus (Buchanan-Hamilton). 

One, 103 mm., Tachin; eight, /3 to 94 mm., Paknam; 33 specimens, 62 
to 100 mm., Bangkok. 

CENTRISCIDAE 
Centriscus scutatus Linnaeus.* Figure 195. 
One, 160 mm., Rayong. 

SYNGNATHIDAE 

Syngnathus djarong Bleeker. Figure 196. 
One, 122 mm., Bangkok. 

PHALIOSTETHIDAE 

Phenacostethus thai, new species. Figures 189 (male), 190 (female). 

Depth 4$ to 4$; head 4 to 4 J, width 1* to 2. Snout 3; to 4 in head from 
snout tip; eye 2| to 3$, greater than snout, 1 to 1£ in interorbital; maxillary 
reaches slightly beyond front eye edge, length 2j? to 2} in head from snout 
tip; mandible distinctly protruded; interorbital li to 2. depressed, with eye 
slightly impinging on upper profile. 

Scales 28 or 2!) - -2 or 3 in axial lateral -eric-; 7 transversely above anal 
origin, about 14 predorsal. Caudal base scaly, fins otherwise and head 
naked. 

D. 1-6, 1, small detached spine less than pupil in length, first ray 2 to 
2± in total head length; A. 1, 13, 1 or 1, 14, 1, third branched ray H to If; 
caudal 3* to 3$ in rest of fish, emarginate; least depth of caudal peduncle 
2 to 2 i in head; pectoral 1£ to lj, rays 13. Male with priapium elongate, 
excluding toxactinium little longer than head; toxactinium, or hook-like 
structure at front of pulvinulus, extends forward below chin; pulvinulus 
disk-like below eye and slightly longer than its diameter; infra-pectoral 
expansion below fin base large as eye; abdominal ridge distinct. 

Largely pale uniform brownish in alcohol. Iris gray. Median axial line 
dark to biackish brown, and another along anal base. Patch of dark dots 
below depressed pectoral. Fins all pale to whitish. 

A.N.S.P., No. 51,352. Bangkok, Siam. August 1923. Dr. H. M. Smith. 
Length 17 mm. Type. Also Nos. 51,353 to 51,360, same data, paratypes. 
Length 15 to 18 mm. Of these 4 are males. 

Apparently very closely related to P. smithi Myers 1928, but my speci- 
mens with a larger caudal or less than 4 in the rest of the fish (compared 



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with 4§ in figure of P. smithi), anal origin midway, or but very slightly 
postmedian in female (anal origin midway between hind edge of eye and 
caudal base in P. smithi), longer pectoral reaching over § to anal origin, 
and depth less than 5. As these characters seem to me distinctive, possibly 
they may in part at least be due to preservation and may eventually be 
found less contrasted than now appears. 

(Thai, the ancient name of the Siamese.) 

SPHYRAENIDAE 

Sphyraena jello Cuvier. 

One, 170 mm., Tachin; four, 81 to 83 mm., Rayong. 

MUGILIDAE 

Mugil vaigiensis Quoy and Gaimard.* Figure 197 (Rayong). 
One, 42 mm., Rayong; one, 53 mm., Bangkok. 

Mugil oligolepis Bleeker. Figure 210. 

Seven, 68 to 142 mm., Tachin. Scales 24 to 28 + 3 in median lateral 
series; 20 predorsal. Pectoral scale in axil 3 to 3± in fin. Soft vertical fins 
mostly scaly. A. in, 9, 1. Pectoral H to ljf in head. 

Mugil troscheli Bleeker* Figure 211. 
One, 70 mm., Tachin. 

Mugil longimanus Gunther. Figure 212. 

Twenty, 110 to 157 mm., Tachin. 

Mugil seheli Forskal.* Figure 213. 

Series of 133 specimens, 34 to 116 mm., Rayong. 

ATHERINIDAE 

Atherina valenciennei Bleeker. 

Two, 89 to 90 mm., Paknam; 19 specimens, 48 to 97 mm., Tachin. 

Atherina duodecimalis Valenciennes. 

Series of 220 specimens, 48 to 86 mm., Rayong; one, 48 mm., Bangkok. 

P0LYNEMIDAE 
Eleutheronema tetradactylum (Shaw). 

One, 111 mm., Paknam; three, 73 to 163 mm., Tachin. 
Polydactylus sextarius (Schneider). Figure 216 (Rayong). 

One, 160 mm., Bangkok; seventeen, 63 to 95 mm., Rayong. 

Polydactylus dubius (Riippell). 

Ten. 112 to 188 mm., Bangkok; one, 105 mm., Paknam. 



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210. Mugil oligolepis. 211. Mugil troschcli. 
212. Mugil longimanus. 213. Mugil seheli. 



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HOLOCENTRIDAE 

Hoiocentrus ruber (Forskal). 

One, 177 mm., Bangkok. 

MASTACEMBELIDAE 

Rhynchobdella aculeata (Bloch). 

One, 215 mm., Bangkok; nine, 104 to 190 mm., Tachin; five, 95 to 253 
nun.. Me Poon; two, 92 to 112 mm., Kemrat. 

Mastacembelus favus (Hora). Figures 204 (Me Poon), 205 to 209 (Bangkok). 

One, 223 mm., Me Poon; five, 170 to 210 mm., Bangkok. 

ANABANTIDAE 

Anabas testudineus (Bloch). 

Eight, 60 to 102 mm., Pitsanulok; five, 48 to 79 mm., Tachin; nineteen, 
55 to 90 mm., Me Poon. 

Trichopodus pectoralis Regan. 

One, 143 mm., Bangkok; two, 93 to 100 mm., Pitsanulok; five, 60 to 98 
mm., Me Poon; one, 83 mm., Kemrat. These identified tentatively as I 
have been unable to find very salient characters to distinguish them from 
T. trichopterus, except the generally shallower or narrower body depth and 
the color pattern. In small specimens the dark bands cross completely over 
the under side of the head as in T. trichopterus. 

Trichopodus microlepis (Giinther). Figure 214 (Me Poon). 

Eleven, 90 to 156 mm., Bangkok; three, 40 to 101 mm., Me Poon; one, 
62 mm., Tachin. 

Trichopodus trichopterus (Pallas). 

Twelve, 25 to 117 nun.. Bangkok; twenty-eight, 33 to 87 mm., Me Poon; 
five, 38 to 100 mm., Pitsanulok; twenty, 35 to 73 mm., Rayong. Sometimes 
the median lateral dark spot is double though usually only on one side of the 
fish. 

Trichopsis harrisi Fowler. 

Four, 32 to 44 mm., Bangkok. 

Trichopsis vittatus (Cuvier). 

One, 43 mm., Me Poon. Anal spines 7 and no dark blotch at dorsal base 
or dark longitudinal line along lower side of head. 

CHANNIDAE 

Channa striata (Bloch). 

One, 52 mm., Bangkok; seven, 113 to 160 mm., Pitsanulok; two, 71 to 96 
mm., Tachin; one, 167 mm., Kemrat. 



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214. Trichopodus microlepis. 215. Channa melanoma. 
216. Polydactyhis sextarius. 217. Trichiurm muticus. 



224 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [VOL. LXXXIX 

Channa lucius (Cuvier). 

Five, 134 to 213 mm., Bangkok; four. 27 to 148 mm.. Pitsanulok; eight. 
65 to 122 mm., Me Poon. 

Channa melasoma (Bleeker).* Figure 215 (Me Poon). 

Seven, 60 to 147 mm., Kemrat; 52 specimens, 30 to 128 mm., Me Poon. 

Channa micropeltes (Valenciennes). 
Fifteen, 37 to 43 mm., Kemrat. 

SCOMBRIDAE 

Rastrelliger kanagurta (Ritppell). 

One, 110 mm., Bangkok; forty-two. 89 to 112 mm., Rayong; fifty-three, 
112 to 130 mm., Taehin. 

Scomberomorus commerson (Lacepede). 

One, 153 mm., Bangkok; one, 81 mm., Paknam; one, 143 mm., Rayong. 

TRICHIURIDAE 

Trichiurus muticus Gray. Figure 217 (Bangkok). 

Three, 145 to 230 mm., Bangkok; one, 158 mm., Tachin. 

ISTIOPHORIDAE 

Istiophorus gladius ( Broussonet) . Figure 218. 

The accompanying figure is modified from a photograph and a detailed 
sketch by Y. Sial, sent to Mr. de Schauensee under date of December 10, 
1935. The fish was caught at Klong Yai, near Kok Kong, and reported as 
rare. It measured 148 cm. in total length, and the dorsal fin 50 cm. in 
height. 

CARANGIDAE 

Scomberoides sancti-petri (Cuvier).* Figure 219 (Paknam). 
One, 165 ram, Rayong; nine, 137 to 187 mm., Paknam. 

Selar boops (Cuvier). Figure 220. 
Eight, 61 to 168 mm., Rayong. 

Magalaspis cordyla (Linnaeus). 

One, 143 mm, Paknam; five, 81 to 118 mm., Tachin; eight, 86 to 150 
mm., Rayong. 

Alepes melanoptera Swainson. Figure 221. 
One, 101 mm., Paknam. 

Alepes macrurus (Bleeker). 

One, 162 mm., Rayong. Scutes in straight section of lateral line 57. 



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218. htiophorus gladius. 219. Scomberoides sancti-pelri. 
220. Selar hoops. 221. Air pes mclanoptcra. 



226 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [VOL. LXXXIX 

Alepes djedaba (Forskal). 

Four, 123 to 146 nun., Bangkok; one. 127 nun.. Rayong; three. 48 to 50 
mm., Paknam; 25 specimens. 44 to 100 mm.. Tachin; one, 59 mm., 
Pitsanulok. 

Alepes kalla (Cuvier). 

Four, 114 to 132 mm., Bangkok; thirteen, 88 to 128 mm., Rayong; 79 
specimens, 44 to 112 mm., Tachin; five. 29 to 148 mm., Paknam. 

Alepes mate (Cuvier). 

Seven. 46 to 123 nun.. Bangkok; three, 56 to 110 mm., Paknam; four, 44 
to 108 mm., Rayong. 

Caranx sexfasciatus Quoy and Gaimard. 

One, 103 mm., Bangkok. 
Selaroides leptolepis (Cuvier). 

Three, 68 to 127 mm., Paknam; five, 106 to 117 nun.. Rayong. 

Carangoides praeustus (Bennett). 
One. 100 mm., Paknam. 

Carangoides malabaricus (Schneider). Figure 222 (Rayong). 

One, 86 to 145 mm., Paknam: 47 specimens, 40 to 123 mm., Rayong. 

Carangoides chrysophrys (Cuvier). 

One, 100 mm., Paknam; seven. 74 to 103 mm., Rayong. 

Atropus atropos (Bloch). 

Seven. 57 to 135 nun.. Paknam; two. 50 to 56 mm.. Rayong. 

Scyris indica Ruppell. Figure 223 (Rayong). 

Nine, 47 to 117 mm., Rayong; five, 108 to 196 mm., Paknam. 
Trachinotus blochii (Lacepede) .* 

One, 81 mm., Rayong. 
Parastromateus niger (Bloch). 

Two. 110 to 112 mm.. Tachin. 

RACHYCENTRIDAE 

Rachycentron canadum (Linnaeus). 
One, 203 mm., Paknam. 

LACTARIIDAE 

Lactarius lactarius (Schneider). Figure 224 (Rayong). 

Three, 30 to 88 mm., Rayong; three, 70 to 110 mm., Tachin. 

LEIOGNATHIDAE 

Macilentichthys berbis (Valenciennes). 

Two, 58 to 68 mm., Paknam. 



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H. W. F. del. 




222. Carangoides malabaricus. 223. Scyris indica. 



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228 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [VOL. LXXXIX 

Macilentichthys leuciscus (Giintlier). 

One, 118 mm., Rayong; one, 120 mm., Paknam. 

Leiognathus blochii (Valenciennes).* 

Two, 84 to 90 mm., Tachin; four, 116 to 123 mm., Paknam; six, 28 to 
68 mm., Bangkok. 

Leiognathus equlla (Forskal). 

Two, 48 to 60 mm., Tachin; nine, 23 to 53 mm., Rayong. 

Leiognathus splendens (Cuvier). 

Eighteen, 41 to 75 mm., Paknam. 

Leiognathus daura (Cuvier). Figure 225 (Bangkok). 

Depth 2 to 2f ; head 3 to 3f, width 1| to 2. Snout 3 to 3\ in head; eye 
2* to 3^, greater than snout in young to subequal with age, 1 to If in inter- 
orbital; maxillary reaches } in eye in young, to front eye edge with age; 
intcrorbital 24 to 2$ in head, low, broadly convex. Inner edge of gill open- 
ing with 2 wide set bony knobs. Gill rakers 7 + 14, lanceolate, If in gill 
filaments, which 2? in eye. No serrae or spines on ridges above eye or on 
sides of head. 

Scales largely uniformly small on body. Chest and breast, up half way 
to pectoral and back to anal in narrow strip naked. Ventral with pointed 
scale in axil 4, length of fin. Spinous dorsal and spinous anal each with 
basal scaly sheath, less developed in young. Lateral line of 56 or 57 rather 
large pores, continuous to caudal base. 

D. VIII, 15, 1 or 16, 1, second spine If to 1§ in head, soft fin height 3^ to 
4i; A. Ill, 15, 1, or 16, 1, second spine If to 2J, soft fin height 3| to 4; caudal 
1 to 1J, deeply emarginate; least depth of caudal peduncle 4 J to 44; pectoral 
1| to 1$, rays 11, 18; ventral rays I, 5, fin 2 to 3 in head. Vent little before 
tips of depressed ventral spines. 

Back gray, sides and below largely silvery white. Back with scattered 
and rather large blotches of darker gray in young, become broken as more or 
less vertical, variable lines on back with age. Iris white. End of snout 
gray brown, lips white. Fins pale, spinous dorsal with large black apical 
blotch. 

Two, 33 to 79 mm., Bangkok; eight, 70 to 123 mm., Rayong. 

Leiognathus bindus (Valenciennes). 

Two, 43 to 60 mm., Bangkok; series of 184 specimens, 29 to 88 mm., 
Paknam. 

Leiognathus fasciatus (Lacepede). Figure 226 (Rayong). 
One, 97 mm., Rayong; one, 120 mm., Paknam. 

Secutor insidiator (Bloch). 

Two, 69 to 78 mm., Bangkok; three, 54 to 70 mm., Tachin; thirteen, 50 
to 80 mm., Paknam. 

Secutor ruconius (Buchanan-Hamilton).* 

Two, 44 to 60 mm., Tachin; 21 specimens, 40 to 95 mm., Paknam. 



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224. Lactarius laclarius. 225. Leiognathus daura. 
226. Leiognathus fasciatus. 



230 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [VOL. LXXXIX 

Gazza equulaeformis Ruppell. 

One, 125 mm., Paknam; ten, 40 to 72 mm., Rayong. Depth 2*. 

Gazza minuta (Bloch).* 

Eight, 95 to 126 mm., Rayong. Depth 2 to 2J. 

CHANDIDAE 

Acanthoperca wolffi (Bleeker). Figure 227 (Bangkok). 

Five. 61 to 118 mm., Bangkok; one, 112 mm.. Paknam; two, 57 to 60 
mm., Tachin. 

Chanda siamensis, new species. Figure 228 (Bangkok). 

Depth 2; head 23 to 2^, width 2J to 2J. Snout 44 to 44. in head from 
snout tip; eye 23 to. 3, greater than snout or interorbital ; maxillary reaches 
£ to ^ in eye, expansion 1} to 3, length 2^ to 2 : j in head from snout tip; inter- 
orbital 3$ to 4; 1 ,, rather low, convex; hind preopercle edge denticulate, and 
ridge with lower edge denticulate, though vertical edge entire; lower pre- 
orbital edge serrate, small spine before and opposite middle in front of eye. 
Gill opening large, extends forward opposite front eye edge. Gill rakers 
4 -f 15, lanceolate, equal gill-filaments, which 2 in eye. 

Scales 46 or 47 f- 5 or 6 in lateral line; 11 above, 23 or 24 below to anal 
origin. Cheek with 4 or 5 rows of scales, head otherwise largely naked, also 
predorsal region. Dorsals and anals with rather broad basal scaly sheaths, 
caudal also well scaled basally. Ventral with pointed axillary scale 2* in 
fin. Lateral line well arched anteriorly, median along side of tail; tubes 
simple, all well exposed. 

D. VIII, 13, 1 to 15, 1, second spine U to 1* in total head length, first 
branched ray 1£ to 1$; A. Ill, 14, 1, third spine 1 : \ to If, first branched ray 
14 to 1$; caudal 2,V to 2* in rest of fish, deeply forked; least depth of caudal 
peduncle 2^ to 2* in total head length; pectoral 14 to If, rays 1, 13; ventral 
rays I, 5, fin H to If. Vent at first * in depressed ventrals. 

Body pale to uniform light brown, with silvery reflections on head and 
sides. Iris gray. End of muzzle, predorsal. and back along base of dorsal 
sheaths with scattered dark brown dots. Fins whitish to transparent, with 
scattered dark to dusky dots terminally or marginally on vertical fins. 

A.N.S.P., No. 68.233. Bangkok, Siam. Length 60 mm. Type. Also 
Nos. 68,234 to 68,243, same data, paratypes. Length 40 to 52 mm. Besides 
the above a series of 214 specimens 25 to 58 mm., Bangkok; 92 specimens, 
29 to 59 mm., Kemrat. This material not considered paratypic. 

C. siamensis differs from the Indian species described by Day, in its 
larger scales. C. ranga Hamilton-Buchanan usually differs in the penulti- 
mate dorsal spine shorter than the spine immediately before it. Day gives 
the scales as 60 to 70 in the lateral line, besides no scales are shown on his 
figure of C. ranga. 

(Named for Siam.) 

Ambassis urotaenia Bleeker* 
Two, 80 to 90 mm., Rayong. 



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227. Acanthoperca wolffi. 228. Chanda siamensis. 
229. Serranus fmio. 



232 



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Ambassis safgha (Forskal).* 
Six, 63 to 68 mm., Rayong. 

Ambassis buruensis Bleeker * 

Series of 318 specimens, 43 to 52 mm., Rayong. 

Ambassis gymnocephalus (Lacepede). 

Six, 42 to 66 mm., Bangkok; two, 59 to 65 mm., Paknam; six, 43 to 70 
mm., Tachin. 

Ambassis kopsii Bleeker. 

Seventeen, 28 to 80 mm., Rayong. 

AMIIDAE 

Amia multitaeniata (Cuvier).* 

Depth 23; head 2%, width 1§. Snout 34 in head from snout tip; eye 3f, 
lyV in snout, slightly greater than interorbital; maxillary reaches £ in eye, 
expansion If in eye, length lji, in head from snout tip; teeth finely villi- 
form in jaws, on vomer and palatines; interorbital 4i in head from snout tip; 
hind preopercle edge very feebly serrate. Gill rakers 5 + 14, of which 3 
above and 6 below rudimentary knobs; gill filaments £ of gill rakers, which 
2 in eye. 

Scales 33 + 6 in lateral line; 5 above, 10 below, 8 predorsal, 3 rows on 
cheek to preopercle edge. Ventral axil with short scale, \ of fin. Caudal 
base scaly. Several rather large scales on opercle. Lateral line very 
distinct, mostly concurrent with profile of back, falls median along side of 
tail. Scales with 14 basal radiating striae; 114 apical denticles, each with 
a transverse series of basal elements; circuli fine, basal, obsolete apically. 

D. VI, I, 9, i, second spine 2\ in total head length, first branched ray 1$; 
A. II, 8, i, second spine 2'i, second ray 1£; caudal \\, little emarginate 
behind, with 2 distinct rounded lobes; least depth of caudal peduncle 2 : \; 
pectoral 1§, rays n, 13; ventral rays I, 5, fin H in total head length. Vent 
slightly before tips of depressed ventrals. 

Brown, under surfaces a little paler. At junctures of scale rows dark 
brown band, forming 4 above lateral line parallel with its course and 10 
below, all horizontal. Iris gray. Spinous dorsal largely blackish brown, 
basally behind and last membrane pale to whitish. Fins otherwise dull 
brown, with base of soft dorsal narrowly blackish brown. 

One, 142 mm., Bangkok. 

Amia robusta Smith and Radcliffe. Figure 230 (Paknam). 

Depth 2i to 2±; head 2h to 2£, width 2. Snout 3f to 4 in head; eye 2f 
to 3, greatly exceeds snout or interorbital; maxillary reaches § in eye, ex- 
pansion 2, length 2 in head; teeth minutely villiform in jaws, on vomer and 
palatines; interorbital 4 to 4i, low, nearly level; hind preopercle edge very 
minutely and feebly denticulated. Gill rakers 5 + 13, of which 3 above and 
5 below rudimentary low knobs; gill filaments % of gill rakers, which 2h 
in eye. 



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233 




230. Amia robusla. 231. Lutjanus flavipes. 
232. Lutjanus Julviflamma. 



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PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF 



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Scales 22 or 23 - 4 in lateral line; 2 above, 6 below. 3 or I predorsal of 
which anterior very large and with large longitudinal flutings. Caudal base 
scaly. Large scales on chest and breast. Lateral line little curved, promi- 
nent; tubes large, each with accessory like scale above and below. Scales 
with 15 to 21 basal radiating striae; 90 to 121 fine apical denticles, with 2 
or 3 transverse basal elements; circuli fine, basal, obsolete apically. 

D. VII - 1, 9, i, third spine H to If in head, first branched ray 1£; A. II, 
8, i, second spine 24 to 2j}, first branched ray 14; caudal 1 to 1|, emarginate 
behind, lube- broadly triangular; least depth of caudal peduncle 2| to 2$; 
pectoral 14, to If, rays i, 12; ventral rays I, 5, fin H to If. Vent close 
before tips of depressed ventrals. 

Light brown, paler to whitish on under surfaces. Dark band begins over 
nostrils extends over side of head and back to upper part of caudal base. 
Still higher and narrower one begins as median line on occiput, divides 
before dorsal to extend around each side of bases of dorsal fins. Third line 
extends back from upper hind edge of eye, crossing lateral line below soft 
dorsal. Fourth or axial dark band reaches lateral line behind dorsal, 
narrowing behind, and ending in round black blotch little less than eye, very 
contrasted, at caudal base. Fifth dark band from preorbital along lower 
eye edge to pectoral base along lower side of caudal peduncle. Above and 
parallel a less distinct and shorter dark streak. Sixth dark band extends 
from maxillary below pectoral back to middle of anal base. Iris dark gray. 
Fins all pale brownish, dorsals and caudal little more brownish. Dark 
subbasal horizontal band on soft dorsal, ends at end of last ray. Similar 
dark band on anal subbasally. 

One, 82 mm., Paknam; one, 66 mm., Bangkok. A quite variable species, 
and though Fowler and Bean 1930 identify it with Amia fasciata (Shaw), 
the larger black blotch on the caudal base is quite distinctive. The present 
materials also show other details of coloration. 

SERRANIDAE 

Cephalopholis pachycentron (Valenciennes). 

One, 198 mm., Bangkok; six, 72 to 139 mm., Rayong. 

Serranus diacanthus Valenciennes. 

One, 130 mm., Rayong; four, 166 to 178 mm., Paknam. 

Serranus fario (Thunberg). Figure 229. 

Three, 18 to 150 mm., Bangkok. Compared with Epinephelus maculatus 
as figured by Bleeker, but less distinctly cross-barred. 

PEMPHERIDAE 

Pempheris oualensis Cuvier.* 

Fifteen, 117 to 135 mm., Rayong. 

PRIACANTHIDAE 

Priacanthus tayenus Richardson. 
One, 268 mm., Bangkok. 



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1937 j NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA 235 

LUTJANIDAE 

Lutjanus flavipes (Valenciennes).* Figure 231. 
One, 148 mm., Bangkok. 

Lutjanus fulviflamma (Forskal). Figure 232 (Rayong). 
One, 127 mm., Bangkok; one, 58 mm., Rayong. 

Lutjanus vitta (Quoy and Gaimard). 

One, 134 mm., Bangkok; seven, 129 to 255 mm., Rayong. 

Lutjanus erythropterus Bloch. 

Two, 160 to 172 mm., Rayong. 

POMADASYIDAE 

Caesio cuning (Bloch). 

One, 204 mm., Rayong. 

Plectorhinchus niger (Cuvier). 

One, 80 mm., Bangkok; three, 40 to 50 mm., Rayong. 

Plectorhinchus pictus (Thunberg). 

One, 123 mm., Paknam; one, 169 mm., Rayong. 

Pomadasys grunniens (Schneider). 
One, 132 mm., Paknam. 

Pomadasys maculatus (Bloch). 

Two, 133 to 166 mm., Paknam; 36 specimens, 35 to 69 mm., Rayong. 

Pomadasys hasta (Bloch). Figure 233. 
Four, 35 to 84 mm., Rayong. 

Pomadasys trifasciatus, new species. Figure 234. 

Depth 2£ to 2§; head 2i to 2%, width 2i to 2h. Snout 3|| to 4 in head 
from snout tip; eye 2^ to 3, greatly exceeds snout or interorbital ; maxillary 
largely concealed, reaches opposite front of eye, length 2^ to 2$ in head from 
snout tip; mandible well protruded in front; teeth very minute, in narrow 
bands in jaws; interorbital 44. to 4f in head from snout tip, with median 
convexity, and deep channel or groove over each eye parallel with same; 
preopercle edge serrate all around and serrae little larger around angle. 
Gill rakers 7 4- 14, lanceolate, slender, subequal with gill filaments or 2 
in eye. 

Scales 42 or 43 + 3 or 4 in lateral line ; 6 above to spinous dorsal origin, 
13 below to spinous anal origin, 15 predorsal forward opposite hind eye 
edge. Head above and on sides very cavernous, with loose deciduous scales. 
Base of ventral with axillary scale }, of fin. Bases of vertical fins finely 
scaled. Lateral line little arched, concurrent with dorsal profile, becomes 
median along side of caudal peduncle, tubes simple, well exposed. Scales 
with 8 to 10 basal radiating striae; circuli fine basally, coarse though com- 
plete apically. 



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D. XII, 13, i, fourth spine 1^ to 2 in total head length, first branched 
ray 1£ to 2\\ A. Ill, 7, i, second spine 2 to 2i, second branched ray 2 to 2£; 
caudal If to U, truncate, with edges rounded; least depth of caudal peduncle 
32 to 4; pectoral 1} to 1 : \, rays n, 12; ventral I, 5, fin H to 1*. Vent little 
before ends of depressed ventrals. 

Pale brown on back, sides and below whitish. Dark brown band in- 
cludes region along dorsal bases and upper edge of caudal peduncle. Second 
broader dark brown longitudinal band from occiput to caudal base, with ill 
defined dark blotch above and below on last. Third short parallel dark 
brown band from behind opercle and narrowing backward ends opposite 
spinous dorsal. Snout brown above. Iris gray, evidently white in life. 
Blackish blotch about large as pupil on hind part of opercle. Vertical fins 
brownish; dark gray brown on membranes of spinous dorsal; soft dorsal 
dark gray on outer half and subbasal dark gray longitudinal band; anal 
dark gray on outer portion and each ray similar basally. Paired fins pale 
to whitish. 

A.N.S.P., No. 68,244. Paknam, Siam. Length 52 mm. Type. Also 
Nos. 68.245 and 68.246, same data, paratypes. Length 51 mm. 

Though based on small specimens this species appears to be quite dis- 
tinctive in the 3 broad, dark longitudinal bands and their arrangement. It 
appears related to the South African P. striata* (Gilchrist and Thompson), 
though with more gill rakers and fewer scales in the lateral line. 

[Tres three + fascia band.) 

Scolopsis vosmeri (Bloch). 
One, 140 mm., Bangkok. 

Scolopsis temporalis (Cuvier). Figure 235. 

Four, 158 to 200 mm., Rayong. Though the dark axial streak is not very 
distinct on the postocular region and the front of the costal region it is pro- 
nounced and broad as the pupil at least over the middle of the pectoral, and 
fades out behind as it crosses the lateral line on the side of the caudal 
peduncle. In most other respects it is greatly like my figure of the Sriracha 
specimen I identified as S. monogramma. It also has a dark, though in- 
conspicuous streak across the pectoral base. 

TERAPONIDAE 

Datnioides polota (Buchanan-Hamilton). 
Six, 82 to 98 mm., Bangkok. 

Terapon jarbua (Forskal). 

Seven, 54 to 156 mm., Bangkok; eleven, 61 to 103 mm., Tachin; 22 speci- 
mens, 60 to 115 mm., Rayong. 

Terapon theraps (Cuvier). 

Four, 80 to 131 mm., Paknam; five, 30 to 49 mm., Rayong; eight, 97 to 
148 mm., Tachin. Of the last only one specimen varies in the second black 
bar of the upper caudal lobe, broken as 3 subequal black spots. 



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NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA 




233. Po?nadasys hasla. 234. Pomadasys trifasciatus. 
235. Scolopsis temporalis. 



238 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [VOL. LXXXIX 

Pelates quadrimaculatus (Bloch).* 
One, 126 mm., Rayong. 

LETHRINIDAE 

Lethrinus frenatus Valenciennes. 

One, 109 mm., Bangkok; one, 133 mm., Rayong. 

SPARIDAE 

Pentapodus setosus (Valenciennes). 

One, 152 mm. to end of lower caudal lobe (upper filament 28 mm. longer 
from end of upper caudal lobe), Rayong. 

Nemipterus luteus (Schneider). Figure 236. 
Three, 149 to 173 mm., Rayong. 

MULLIDAE 

Upeneus sulphureus Cuvier. 

One, 126 mm., Bangkok; three, 53 to 167 mm., Rayong; two, 97 to 139 
mm., Paknam. 

Upeneus tragula Richardson. 

One, 170 mm., Bangkok; one, 94 mm., Paknam; one, 164 mm., Rayong. 

Mulloidichthys auriflamma (Forskal).* 

One, 180 mm., Rayong. The golden lateral band is now gray, paler on 
side of caudal peduncle. It is evidently intensified from preservation in 
formaline. 

GERRIDAE 

Gerres setifer (Buchanan-Hamilton).* 

One, 43 mm., Rayong. 
Gerres abbreviatus Bleeker. 

Five, 29 to 52 mm., Rayong. 

Gerres oblongus Cuvier. 
One, 45 mm., Rayong. 

Gerres kappas Bleeker.* Figure 247. 

Nineteen, 23 to 105 mm., Rayong. 
Gerres filamentosus Cuvier. 

Four, 115 to 121 mm., Paknam. 

SILLAGINIDAE 

Sillago sihama (Forskal). 

Thirty-three, 60 to 149 mm., Rayong. 

Sillago maculata Quoy and Gaimard. 
One, 178 mm., Rayong. 



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236. Nemiptcrus luteus. 237, 23S. Johnius osseus. 
239, 240. Johnius sina. 



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SCIAENIDAE 

Otolithes argenteus Cuvier. 

Two, 147 to 158 mm., Tacliin. 
Otolithes ruber (Schneider). 

One, 81 mm., Paknam. 
Johnius diacanthus (Lacepede).* 

Five, 33 to 61 mm., Paknam. 
Johnius aneus Bloch. 

Nine, 47 to 83 mm., Tachin; 33 specimens, 60 to 90 mm., Rayong. D. X, 

I, 23, i; A. II, 7, i. Lower gill rakers 14. 

Johnius osseus (Day). Figures 237 (head below), 238. 

Four, 100 to 126 mm., Tachin. Depth 3$ to 3£. Pores 43 to 46 in 
lateral line to caudal base. Lower gill rakers 10. D. X, 23, 1 or 24, 1; A. 

II, 6, 1, second anal spine 2{ to 2^ in postocular or 2h to 3 in head. These 
specimens seem to agree with Day's account. They differ only in that the 
second anal spine is longer and the pectoral dark or dusky. 

Johnius sina (Cuvier).* Figures 239 (head below), 240. 

One, 86 mm., Bangkok; 22 specimens ; 62 to 82 mm., Rayong. Depth 3£ 
to 3L Several external canines along outer front edge of upper jaw when 
closed. Mandible included in upper jaw. Lower gill rakers 10, lanceolate. 
Pores 38 to 40 in lateral line to caudal base. D. X, I, 27, 1 to 29; 1; A. II, 
7, 1. Pectoral 1 }, to U in head. Spinous dorsal gray black marginally. 

Johnius soldado (Lacepede). Figures 241 (head below). 242. 
One, 63 mm., Paknam. Lower gill rakers 13. 

Johnius dussumieri (Cuvier). 

Fifteen, 95 to 157 mm., Tachin; one, 108 mm., Bangkok. Depth 3§ to 
4. Lower gill rakers 9 to 11. Tubes 40 to 48 in lateral line to caudal base. 
D. X, I, 26, 1 to 30, 1 ; A. II, 7, 1, second spine 2} to 2? in head. The figure 
given by Valenciennes shows jaws about equal, depth 3 J, third anal spine 
4 in head. 

Johnius trachycephalus (Bleeker).* 

Depth 3? to 3k ; head 3 to 3£, width 2. Snout 3A. to 3f in head, with 
upper conic protuberance in front; eye 4i to 4$, 1£ to 1£ in snout, H to If 
in interorbital; maxillary reaches I in eye, length from snout tip 2 to 2£ in 
head; teeth in villiform bands in jaws, upper outer little enlarged and 
exposed when jaws close; interorbital 3£ to 3i, low, broadly and unevenly 
convex; hind preopercle edge denticulate, several denticles little enlarged 
at angle. Gill rakers 7+15. lanceolate, U in fill filaments, which 1$ 
in eye. 

Scales 44 to 48 in lateral line to caudal base; 10 above to spinous dorsal 
origin, 10 or 11 above spinous anal origin to lateral line. Soft dorsal, ana! 



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NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA 241 



H. W. F. del. 





241.242. Johnins soldado. 243,244. Johnius mclanobrachium. 
245. 24G. Johnius microlepis. 



242 • PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF |VOL. LXXXIX 

and caudal with fine scales basally. Head very cavernous and with rather 
loosely attached scales. Body scales small and crowded anteriorly, larger 
on tail. Lateral line arched little at first, becomes median on tail above 
anal; tubes large, simple, well exposed. Scales with 7 or 8 basal radiating 
striae, close set, evenly spaced; circuli fine, a little coarser apically. 

D. IX, I, 23, i to 27, i, third spine 1$ to 2£ in head, first branched ray 
3ip to 4; A. II, 6, i or 7, i, second spine 2 A to 24, second branched ray 2* to 
24; caudal 1} to 1£, ends in median point behind; least depth of caudal 
peduncle 4 to 4*; pectoral lj| to 1?, rays i, 17; ventral rays I, 5, fin l'j to 
1£. Vent close before anal origin. 

Head brownish, body drab, pale to whitish below. Whole upper surfaces 
dusted with minute blackish dots. Iris gray. Jaws and lips pale or whitish. 
Spinous dorsal gray, membranes dusted with blackish terminally and 
basally. Soft dorsal whitish basally, dusted with gray black broadly over 
outer surface. Caudal pale, grayish terminally. Anal whitish, with gray 
black dots on outer portion. Pectoral with upper half blackish brown, lower 
half whitish. Ventral whitish. 

Six, 84 to 100 mm., Tachin. 

Johnius melanobrachium Fowler. Figures 243 (head below), 244. 
Six, 62 to 113 mm., Tachin. 

Johnius microlepis (Bleeker). Figures 245 (head below), 246. 

One, 164 mm., Bangkok; one, 174 mm., Tachin. Depth 3 ; \ to 4$. Eye 
5± to 6J in head. Scales 90 counted along and above lateral line to caudal 
base. D. X, I, 33, 1 or 34, 1; A. Ill, 7, 1. Anal scaly. Paired fins small, 
pale. 

Sciaena indica Kuhl and Van Hasselt. 
Three, 50 to 67 mm., Paknam. 

Sciaena dussumieri ( Valenciennes) . 

Three, 61 to 70 mm., Rayong; eight, 42 to 55 mm., Tachin. 

NANDIDAE 

Pristolepis fasciatus (Bleeker"). 

Six, 62 to 78 mm., Bangkok; 24 specimens, 37 to 72 mm., Tachin. 

SC0RPAENIDAE 

Prosopodasys gogarzae Jordan and Seale.* 

One, 59 mm., Port Nakara, Gulf of Siam, Oct, 20. 1923, Dr. H. M. Smith. 
It agrees in most every detail with the original figure and description of this 
Philippine species. 

Pterois volitans (Linnaeus). 

Three, 158 to 222 mm., Rayong. 



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PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [VOL. LXXXIX 



SYNANCEJIDAE 

Synancidium horridum (Linnaeus).* 
One, 207 mm., Rayong. 

PLATYCEPHALIDAE 

Platycephalus indicus (Linnaeus). 

Two, 218 to 268 mm., Paknam. 

Grammoplites scaber (Linnaeus). 

Five, 62 to 105 mm., Bangkok; one, 154 mm., Tachin; one, 185 ram., 
Paknam. 

Suggrundus hunti, new species. Figures 249 (head above), 250. 

Depth 1\; head 2f, width If. Snout 3i in head from snout tip; eye 7, 
\\ in snout, greatly exceeds bony interorbital ; maxillary reaches \ in eye, 
its hind end concave, length 2^ in head from snout tip; teeth villiform, very 
fine, in bands in jaws, on vomer and palatines; tongue broadly spatulate, 
truncate in front; interorbital about half eye diameter, deeply concave. Gill 
rakers 2 + 4, lanceolate, subequal with gill filaments, i of eye. 

Pair of very small, close set internasal spines; supraorbital ridge with 
rather larger anterior spine and posteriorly 4 spines, then pair of long 
parallel keels to occiput with spine on each small space from end; short 
spineless low median interparietal keel; postocular spine high, followed 
closely by small spine, one over preopercle and 3 over opercle with last at 
suprascapula ; opercle with 2 oblique keels, each ending in spine; ridge of 
suborbital stay with spine at preorbital, 2 low spines below eye, and ends in 
spine at preopercle half long as eye; with very small outer antero-basal 
spine; lower suborbital ridge forms keel and also ends in small spine at 
preopercle. Distinct small humeral spine. 

Scales 55 + 5 in lateral line; 6 above, 14 below, 15 predorsal forward to 
occiput. Head scaly on sides behind eye. Caudal base scaly, also chest, 
breast and prepectoral region. Lateral line complete, distinct; tubes large, 
simple, without spines. Scales with 7 basal radiating striae; 12 or 13 apical 
denticles, with 2 or 3 transverse series of basal elements; circuli fine. 

D. IX, 11, third spine 2$ in total head length, second ray 3; A. I, 10, first 
ray 4; caudal If, convex behind; pectoral 2\, rays 20; ventral rays I, 5, fin 
H. Vent close before anal. 

Back and upper surfaces brown or drab, with 6 or 7 obscure darker 
transverse blotches. Sides of head below with 6 indistinct dark blotches. 
Iris gray. Under surfaces, except paired fins, whitish. Spinous dorsal 
blackish. Soft dorsal pale, on each ray 4 dark spots. Caudal whitish, with 
broad black basal and subterminal bands, and 2 less distinct medially. Anal 
white. Pectoral with 5 dark brown transverse bars on its upper part, 
greater lower portion blackish brown with whitish border. Ventral largely 
blackish terminally, border and base pale. 

A.N.S.P., No. 68,247. Rayong, Siam. Length 94 mm. Type. 
Compared with the East Indian species grouped by Bleeker with 50 to 
60 rows of scales, as Platycephalus malayanus Bleeker, P. pristiger Cuvier, 



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H. W. F. del. 




251 to 258. Toxotes chatareua (variation). 



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246 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [VOL. LXXXIX 

and P. celebicus Bleeker, all differ in the more or less serrated supraorbital 
ridges, the last also with other ridges serrated. Suggrundus crocodilus 
(Tilesius) has far more scales (90). 

(For the late Chreswell J. Hunt, of Chicago, to whom the Academy is 
indebted for local fishes.) 

TOXOTIDAE 

Toxotes chatareus (Buchanan-Hamilton).* Figures 251 to 258 (variation). 
Nine. 64 to 111 mm.. Bangkok. Scales 33 or 34. 

EPHIPPIDAE 

Drepane punctata (Linnaeus). 

Seven, 27 to 55 mm., Tachin; 25 specimens. 43 to 92 mm., Paknam. 

SCATOPHAGIDAE 

Scatophagus argus (Linnaeus). 

One, 83 mm., Bangkok; one, 12 mm., Rayong; five, 53 to 108 mm., 
Tachin; four, 18 to 74 mm., Paknam. 

PLATACIDAE 

Platax orbicularis (Forskal). 
One, 39 mm., Paknam. 

CHAETODONTIDAE 

Chelmo rostratus (Linnaeus). 

Two. 88 to 133 mm., Bangkok. 
Parachaetodon ccellatus (Cuvier).* 

Six, 92 to 118 mm., Rayong. 

Chaetodon octcfasciatus Bloch.* 

Two, 112 to 118 mm., Bangkok. 

SIGANIDAE 

Siganus rivulatus (Forska!).* Figure 248. 
Six, 24 to 30 mm., Bangkok. 

Siganus oramin (Schneider). 

One, 164 mm., Rayong; six, 25 to 30 mm., Bangkok. 

POMACENTRIDAE 

Abudefduf saxatilis (Linnaeus). 

Two, 172 to 183 mm., Rayong; five, 17 to 34 mm., Bangkok. Both large 
specimens have but 5 transverse dark bands, and not 6 as shown in 
Lacepede's figure of Labrns saxatilis, pi. 19, fig. It shows a dark transverse 
postocular band, which was evidently included when counting the dark 



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248 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [VOL. LXXXIX 

bands. It does not show a dark blotch at the pectoral origin, or a dark 
median band on each caudal lobe. As the dark caudal bands are present in 
Cuvier's figure 135 of Glyphisodon coelestinns, that species had best be 
known as Abudefduf coclestinus (Cuvier), and later also figured by Jordan 
and Seale. My young specimens with blackish ventrals. 

Abudefduf sordidus (Forskal).* 

Two, 51 to 180 mm., Bangkok; one, 80 mm., Rayong. 

LABRIDAE 

Thalassoma schwanefeldi (Bleeker). 

Three, 61 to 104 mm., Bangkok. The two larger specimens show two 
dark spots subbasally on third and fourth membranes of soft dorsal, while 
in the smallest specimen it is single, larger and more contrasted. 

Cheilinus chlorurus (Bloch). 
One, 202 mm., Rayong. 

ELEOTRIDAE 

Eleotris fusca (Schneider). 

Three, 66 to 73 mm., Tachin. 

Butis butis (Buchanan-Hamilton). 

Five, 58 to 102 mm., Bangkok; three, 41 to 98 mm., Tachin. 
Prionobutis koilomatodon (Bleeker).* Figure 259 (Tachin). 

One, 51 mm., Paknam; five, 44 to 73 mm., Tachin. 
Oxyeleotris marmorata (Bleeker). 

Four, 135 to 154 mm., Bangkok. 

G0BIIDAE 

Gobiella pellucida H. M. Smith. 

Seventy, 18 to 23 mm., Bangkok. 
Brachygobius xanthozona (Bleeker). Figures 263 to 277 (Bangkok), 278 (Medan). 

Depth 3$ to 4§; head 2$ to 2$, width U to 1J. Snout 4$ to 4* in head 
from snout tip; eye 3£ to 4 J, little greater to subequal with snout, little 
greater to subequal with interorbital; maxillary reaches to front eye edge 
to £ in eye, length 3 to 3| in head from snout tip; teeth minute, in narrow 
band in each jaw; interorbital 3 to 3if. level. 

Scales 26 in lateral series medially to caudal base; 9 or 10 between soft 
dorsal and anal origins. Opercles scaly, cheek and predorsal naked. Row 
of fine papillae each side of snout, around suborbitals, along lower edges of 
mandible, along preopercle, 2 rows horizontally on cheek, and oblique row 
over opercle. Scales with 12 or 13 basal radiating flutings; 11 or 12 apical 
denticles graduated shorter medially; circuli fine. 

D. V - 1, 8, third spine 2\ to 2? in total head length, soft dorsal height 2\ 
to 2$; A. I, 8, fin height 2-J to 2£; caudal \ \ to l 1 }, convex behind; least depth 



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NATCKAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA 



249 




263 to 278. Brachygobius xanthozona (variation). 



250 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF 



I Vol. LXXXIX 



of caudal peduncle 2 to 2^; pectoral lj? to 1£, rays I, 14; ventral I, 5, fin 14 
to In. Vent close before anal, with rather broad papilla. 

Pale yellowish to whitish. Head more or less dotted with dark gray to 
blackish. Usually blackish transverse band on top of head behind eyes, 
sometimes extended down below eyes on cheek. Broad black transverse 
band connects spinous dorsal with belly at postventral region, sometimes 
crossing to meet its fellow. Second broad black band connects last half of 
soft dorsal and anal. Third broad black band at caudal base. Variation 
may be seen by reference to the accompanying figures. 

Nineteen, 10 to 28 mm., Bangkok; one, 28 mm., Medan, Sumatra, March 
1934. A beautiful littly goby with greatly contrasted color pattern. 

Thaigobiella H. M. Smith, with its genotype T. sua H. M. Smith, is a 
synonym of the present species. The genotype of Braehygobius was long 
made known (1849) as Gobius xanthozona Bleeker, from Surabaija, east 
Java. 

Bathygobius fuscus (Ruppell).* Figure 260 (Paknam). 

Four, 42 to 64 mm., Rayong; one, 90 mm., Paknam. Differs from 
Herre's grouping in coloration, greating suggesting Rhinogobius baliuroides 
(Bleeker). 

Tukagobius ccellatus, new species. Figure 261. 

Depth 5± to 5f ; head 3 to 3-J, width 1A to If. Snout 3 : \ to 34 in head; 
eye 5-\ to 5^, If to llf in snout, greatly exceeds bony interorbital; maxillary 
reaches f to £ in eye, length 24 to 3 £ in head; lower jaw slightly included; 
lips broad, smooth, thick, fleshy ; tongue spatulate. slightly convex in front ; 
teeth small, conic, simple, strong, uniform, in 4 or 5 rows in front of each 
jaw which narrow posteriorly; interorbital 6 to 1\ in head, low, nearly level. 
Gill rakers 3 + 5, short, low, pointed, knoblike, about f of gill filaments, 
which f of eye. 

Scales 43 to 45 -f- 4 or 5 in median lateral series; 15 to 17 transversely 
between soft dorsal and anal origins; 18 to 22 predorsal scales forward to 
occiput. Breast scaly. Median naked strip, from behind ventrals to vent. 
Caudal base scaly. Head naked, with very fine, inconspicuous and mostly 
short rows of papillae, best indicated by means of the accompanying figure. 
Scales with 9 to 16 radiating basal striae; 33 to 50 apical denticles; circuli 
fine basally, coarser to obsolete apieally. 

D. VI -I, 10, 1 or I, 11, 1, third spine 1* to 2 in head, first branched ray 
2 to 24; A. I, 9, 1, seventh branched ray 2 to 24; caudal 1J to If, convex 
behind; least depth of caudal peduncle 2i£ to 3; pectoral 14 to If, rays 16; 
ventral I, 5, front edge of ventral disk as broad bilobate flap, fin length 1$ 
to 1J. Vent little nearer anal origin than tips of depressed ventrals, with 
rather long conic papilla f of eye. 

Brown, with 7 or 8 transverse ill defined saddles across middle of back; 
these variously distinct, variably wide or narrow, or even as, double 
transverse bands, and usually with more or less mottled or marbled appear- 
ance, not extending on lower sides or under surfaces, which uniform whitish. 
Upper surface of head with variable brownish blotches, more or less streaked 
longitudinally. Iris gray, jaws and lips dull brownish. First dorsal 



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251 



brownish, paler basally, and 5 dark blotches on each spine. Soft dorsal 
similar, with paler or whitish upper anterior border. Caudal brownish, 
clouded or blotched with darker to blackish, especially in smaller specimens, 
and dark or blackish blotch at bases of upper rays usually large and distinct. 
Anal dark brown medially, pale basally and with broad whitish lower 
border. Pectoral brownish, with small black, white-bordered ocellus at 
origin and more or less distinct whitish subbasal bar. Ventral whitish. 

A.N.S.P., No. 68,248. Kemrat, Siam. Length 103 mm. Type. Also 
Nos. 68,249 to 68,251, same data, paratypes. Length 78 to 80 mm. 

Known by its coloration, especially the pectoral ocellus and dark blotch 
at the upper basal part of the caudal, though this less distinctive as some- 
times an obscure lower or even median blotch may be present. 

(Ocellatus with eye-like spots.) 

Pseudogobiopsis oligactis (Bleeker). 

Twelve, 28 to 42 mm., Bangkok. I refer these specimens to the account 
by Koumans 1935, he mentioning six specimens of which one the type and 
two others from Bangpakong River, Siam. 

Vaimosa chulae H. M. Smith. Figure 262. 

Depth 5; head 3*, width H. Snout 5± in head; eye 4i, greater than 
snout, twice bony interorbital ; maxillary reaches back little behind eye 
edge, length 2i in head; mandible included in upper jaw; single row of very 
small, simple, curved, short, conic teeth along front edge of upper jaw, 
visible when mouth is closed; front of mandible with 4 large strong conic 
teeth, and set off near middle of each mandibular ramus several other rather 
large teeth; tongue adnate in front to floor of mouth, appearing rounded; 
interorbital width low, depressed. Gill opening lateral, extends forward 
opposite hind preopercle edge. 

Scales 24 -j- 3 in median lateral series; 7 transversely between dorsal and 
anal origins; 11 prcdorsal scales forward to eyes. Opercles scaly, muzzle, 
cheek, interorbital and under surface of head naked. Row of minute close 
set papillae on suborbitals, close to eve. A parallel horizontal row- on check, 
and row along each lower face of mandibular rami. Small scales on chest 
and breast, belly and caudal base also scaly. Scales with 15 parallel slightly 
converging basal striae; 47 apical denticles; circuli fine. 

D. V-I, 7, 1, second spine l : j in head, second dorsal height 1 J ; A. I, 7, 
1, fin height H; caudal 1, convex behind; least depth of caudal peduncle 2£; 
pectoral L 1 ,, rays 15; ventral I, 5, with even, entire membranous border in 
front, fin H. Vent little nearer anal origin than tips of depressed ventrals, 
papilla flattened, pointed, .1 of eye. 

Pale brown, each scale on body with dark basal pocket, and 6 ill defined 
dark saddle-like blotches down middle of back, with 5 still paler alternating 
blotches axial along side. Head with various dark spots. Iris gray. Jaws 
dotted with gray and branchiostegal region with blackish gray. First dorsal 
with gray brown, large blackish blotch on last 2 membranes. Second dorsal 
pale, with 5 dark longitudinal bands. Caudal grayish with 5 darker 
transverse bands and black spots, about size of pupil at bases of upper rays. 
Pectoral pale, dusted with brownish, and blackish blotch above and another 
below basally. Ventral rather dark gray, outer border whitish. 



252 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF | VOL. LXXXIX 

One, 41 mm., Tachin. Known by its coloration, obtuse muzzle, large 
scales and fin formula. It somewhat resembles V. piapensis Herre from the 
Philippines, but with greatly larger mouth and different coloration. 

Vaimosa spilopleura H. M. Smith. Figure 279. 
One, 46 mm., Tachin. 

Glossogobius giuris (Buchanan-Hamilton). 

Seven, 92 to 172 mm., Bangkok; one, 205 mm., Paknam; one, 103 mm., 
Tachin. 

Ctenogobius caninus (Valenciennes). 
Two, 85 to 93 mm., Tachin. 

Ctenogobius viridipunctatus (Valenciennes). Figure 280. 
Five, 48 to 114 mm. Tachin. 

Ctenogobius masoni (Day). Figure 281 (Paknam). 

Depth 4f to U; head 3 to 34, width H to 1$. Snout 3* to 4 J in head 
from snout tip; eye 5£ to 6J, 1^ to 14, in snout, subequal with interorbital; 
maxillary reaches £ in eye, length 2£ to 2£ in head from snout tip; mandible 
slightly protrudes, broadly convex; tongue broad, rounded in front; teeth 
small, in narrow band in each jaw, with pair of small, curved, wide-set 
canines in each jaw anteriorly and another at middle of each mandibular 
ramus; interorbital 6 to 6f, concave. Gill rakers 6 -f- 12, mostly very short 
points, longest £ of gill filaments, which subequal with eye. 

Scales 24 to 26 + 4 or 5 in median lateral series; 10 or 11 transversely at 
soft dorsal and anal origins, 21 or 22 predorsal scales forward to eye. Few 
small scales on opercle above, head otherwise naked. Row of fine close set 
papillae along suborbitals up over postocular region and back to supra- 
scapular row along upper edge of maxillary; 2 double rows horizontally on 
cheek; several rows on preopercle and opercle; row along each mandibular 
ramus and lower part of preopercle. Small bilobate cutaneous flap on front 
of mandible or chin. Prepectoral and caudal base scaly. Scales with 9 
basal radiating striae; row of 9 or 10 apical denticles; circuli fine, basal, 
coarser apically. 

D. VI- 1, 9, 1, fourth spine 2 to 2i in total head length, second dorsal 
height 1£ to 2; A. I, 9, 1, fin height 1J to 1£; caudal 1 to 1J, ends in blunt 
median point behind; least depth of caudal peduncle 2\ to 2*; pectoral 1^ 
to 1£, rays 17; ventral rays I, 5, with simple, entire, broad membrane in 
front, length 14 to If. Anal papilla pointed, close before anal. 

Body and head pale or dull brown, with pale or pearly spot on each scale. 
Iris gray. Fins all dark to blackish gray, paired fins all little brownish 
basally. 

Four, 49 to 67 mm., Tachin; one, 62 mm., Paknam. 

Ctenogobius vexillifer, new species. Figure 282. 

Depth 4±; head 3J, width \\. Snout 4f in head from snout tip; eye 4», 
impinges on upper profile of head, equals snout, greatly exceeds interorbital; 
maxillary reaches opposite front eye edge, length 34, in head from snout tip; 



NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA 




279. Vaimosa spilopleura. 280. Ctenogobius viridijnmctatus. 
281. Ctenogobius masoni. 282. Ctenogobiu» vexillifer. 



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PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF 



[Vol. LXXXIX 



mandible well protruded in front, with broad fleshy lips; band of small 
pointed teeth in each jaw, with 5 or 6 lower outer little enlarged curved 
canines; tongue, rounded, free in front; interorbital narrow, width about 4, 
of eye, concave. Gill opening extends forward about last half of postocular. 

Scales 27 + 2 in median lateral series ; 1 1 transversely at soft dorsal and 
anal origins, 10 predorsal extending about last § in postocular. Head naked, 
with 4 rows of fine papillae radiating down on cheek and crossed by median 
and terminal rows; row along lower face of mandible and lower part of 
preopercle; row forward from suprascapula ; two rows on opercle. Breast 
and caudal base scaly. Scales with 22 basal radiating striae; 39 or 40 apical 
denticles, graduated little shorter to apex of scale; circuli fine. 

D. VI -I, 10, i, third spine U in total head length, soft fin height 1£; 
A. I, 8, i, fin height 2i; caudal 1, little convex behind; least depth of caudal 
peduncle 2\; pectoral 14,, rays 16; ventral rays I, 5, front membrane entire, 
rather broad, fin length 1§. Anal papilla flat, pointed, close before anal fin. 

Brown generally, under surfaces scarcely paler. Back with 5 variable 
blackish-brown saddle-like blotches, variously mottled paler and darker, and 
alternating with as many dark blotches along lower half of side. Head 
marked with dark to blackish brown blotches, arranged as 5 inclined bars 
along lower side of head. Dorsals grayish medially with blackish brown, 
broadly pale marginally. Caudal with 6 or 7 transverse blackish brown 
bands; in basal half several reticulated to form rather broad band; 2 pale 
round spots, smaller than eye, at caudal base. Anal gray, each membrane 
over great basal portion blackish. Pectoral gray, with 2 blackish blotches 
basally, upper larger and preceded by conspicuous white spot. Ventrals 
gray black, margin of disk whitish. Iris gray. 

A.N.S.P., No. 68.252. Bangkok, Siam. Length 48 mm. Type. 

Apparently related to C. hongkongensis (Seale) 1910 in its squamation,. 
though with less extended scaly predorsal region made up of fine scales. 
The physiognomy is also quite different, the projecting mandible subvertic- 
ally protruded in front, a ladder of papillae on the cheek, the front dorsal 
spines extended and the coloration quite different. 

(Vexillum banner + few to bear, with reference to the first dorsal fin.) 

Cryptocentrus maudae, new species. Figure 283. 

Depth 65; head 4, width 1$. Snout 5 in head from snout tip; eye 5f, 1£ 
in snout, greater than interorbital; maxillary reaches opposite % in eye, 
length 3 in head from snout tip; lips broad, fleshy, smooth, entire; bands of 
finely villiform teeth in jaws, with pair of wide set canines anteriorly in 
each, besides middle of each mandibular ramus with well-hooked canine 
pointing posteriorly; interorbital i of eye, level, and little below level of 
upper edges of eyes. Gill opening extends forward opposite hind edge of 
preopercle. Gill rakers 6 + 12, lanceolate, § of gill filaments or ^ of eye. 
Inside gill opening below on shoulder girdle rather broad deep notch. 

Scale- 90 - 4 in median lateral -eric-; 33 transversely about anal origin; 
predorsal naked. Rather long and slightly elevated convexity, with swollen 
appearance on predorsal immediately before dorsal fin. Head naked, with 
ladder-like arrangement of minute papillae on cheek, row back over post- 



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283. Cryptocentms maudae 284. Cryptocentrus wehrlei. 
285,286. CalUoJiymiis fluvial Ms. 287. Petroscirtes dispar. 
288. Pseudobatrachus cugcncius. 



256 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [VOL. LXXXIX 



ocular, line along lower face of each mandibular ramus and preopercle, 
several bars on opercle; transverse intersection over top of head behind eyes 
with parietal extension back each side of occiput; very inconspicuous vertical 
bars of minute bead-like papillae, well spaced, along sides of body. Chest, 
breast, and prepectoral regions naked. Scales with 14 to 20 radiating striae, 
largelv basal; circuli fine, basal, obsolete apically. 

D* VI, 11, i, fifth spine 1* in total head, soft fin height If; A. I, 10, i, 
fin height 2£; caudal 3 in rest of fish, broadly expanded, ovoid; least depth 
of caudal peduncle 2% in total head; pectoral 1}, rays 15; ventral rays I, 5, 
with broad, entire connecting membrane in front, fin 1J in total head length. 
Anal papilla rather large, fleshy, truncate, little extruded. 

Largely brownish, with very numerous, little contrasted, close set, small 
paler spots, crowded to form obscure reticulated appearance over anterior 
half of body. Thirteen dark to blackish transverse bands, most distinct on 
tail and several more or less paired. Iris gray. Jaws with obscurely 
defined darker blotches. Fins pale to light gray. Spinous dorsal with gray 
black blotches on spines, and smaller variable spots on membranes. Each 
dorsal ray with 6 variable blackish brown blotches. Anal with contrasted 
black sigmoid bands. Caudal with about 10 transverse series of dark to 
blackish blotches. Pectoral with 6 dark transverse variable bars. Ventral 
dark gray, with whitish spots. " 

A.N.S.P., No. 68,253. Bangkok, Siam. Length 148 mm. Type. 

Only known from the above example, which appears unique in its colora- 
tion, dorsal and anal not reaching caudal and its small paired fins. 

(Named for Miss Maude de Schauensee, daughter of Mr. and Mrs. 
Rodolphe Meyer de Schauensee.) 

Cryptocentrus wehrlei, new species. Figure 284. 

Depth 4£; head 3, width If. Snout 4^ in head; eye 4*, l^ in snout, 
greater than interorbital; maxillary reaches behind eye, length 2f in head; 
lips broad, fleshy, smooth, entire; band of fine, uniform, villiform teeth in 
each jaw; tongue with slight medial notch in front; interorbital width 2 in 
eye, level. Gill opening lateral, extends forward in last half of postorbital 
region. 

Scales very small, largely uniform, 73 + 6 in median lateral series; 21 
transversely, 22 predorsal forward j| of postocular region of head. Breast 
and caudal base scaly. Head and prepectoral region naked. Ladder of 
minute papillae on postocular region and cheek; row of papillae along lower 
face of each mandibular ramus and lower part of preopercle; several bars of 
papillae on opercle. Scales with 18 or 19 basal radiating striae; circuli 
moderate, obsolete apically. 

D. VI- 12, 1, third spine H in head, soft dorsal height If; A. 11, 1, fin 
height 2; caudal 1, with obtuse median point behind; least depth of caudal 
peduncle 3f; pectoral If, rays n, 17; ventral I, 5, fin 1}. Vent short, 
flattened, close before anal. 

Pale brown, general color largely uniform. Back with 6 dark brown 
saddles, first, second, fourth and fifth most distinct. Also large dark 
rounded blotch size of eye at caudal base. Dark blotch below eye. Eye 
gray. Two dark bars on side of snout, and 5 broken, parallel dark lines on 



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257 



side of head behind eye. First dorsal gray, paler below. Second dorsal 
pale to transparent, with brown line on each membrane between and 
parallel. Anal pale, with 4 dark parallel longitudinal bands, outermost or 
border dark gray. Ventral dark gray. 

A.N.S.P., No. 68,254. Bangkok, Siam. Length 90 mm. Type. 

Greatly like Crypt ocentrus leonis H. M. Smith, but that species said to 
have scales " about 125 in longitudinal series from upper angle of branchial 
aperture and about 30 in transverse series between origin of second dorsal 
and anal." On " predorsal region scales to a point half way between gill 
opening and eyes, the scales small, about 33 in median line." In C. wehrlei 
about 22 scales on predorsal. Smith's species further differs in " Entire 
body a uniform reddish-brown without any markings," whereas C. icehrlei 
has five dark cross bands. C. leonis was based on a specimen 135 mm. long. 
In general coloration, though without the dark oblique lines on the side of 
the head, Biat luzonicus Seale is somewhat suggestive. 

(For the late Richard W. Wehrle, of Indiana, Penna., who obtained many 
collections of fishes for the Academy.) 

Apocryptodon malcolmi H. M. Smith. 

Eight, 145 to 177 mm., Bangkok; two, 103 to 143 mm., Tachin. A re- 
examination of the types of Boleophthalmus smithi Fowler 1934, show them 
synonymous with the present species, and wrongly referred to Boleophth- 
almus. The Bangkok and Tachin materials listed above, show a more 
definite color pattern than my drawing of the type. The dark blotches 
along the bases of the dorsal fins are all extended obliquely forward to a 
dark, lateral, median axial blotch. A gray streak extends down from the 
lower eye edge until opposite the hind end of the maxillary. Lower eyelid 
free in all the specimens, 

Apocryptodon edwardi, new species. 

This species was also wrongly referred to Boleophthalmus, as Boleopth- 
almus taylori Fowler 1934, in these Proceedings, p. 159, figure 128, based on 
No. 60019 A.N.S.P. from Bangkok. As it is now necessary to place it in 
Apocryptodon Bleeker 1874, where it is precluded by A. taylori Herre 1927, 
I have substituted the above name, based on the designated haplotype. The 
present collection contains an additional specimen, 205 mm. long, from 
Tachin. 

(For Prof. Edward H. Taylor of the University of Kansas.) 

TAENI0IDIDAE 

Taenioides angullaris (Linnaeus). 
Three, 113 mm.. Bangkok. 

TRYPAUCHENIDAE 

Trypauchen vagina Schneider. 

Three, 166 to 198 mm., Tachin. 



258 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [VOL. LXXXIX 

CALLIONYMIDAE 

Callionymus fluviatilis Day.* Figures 285 (preopercular spine), 286. 

Depth 8jr to 9^; head 34 to 3f, width 1 to 1J. Snout 3 to 3* in head 
from snout tip; eye 2£ to 34, greater than snout in small specimens to 1± 
in snout with age, greatly exceeds narrow interorbital ; maxillary extends | 
in eye, length 2] to 2 : \ in head from snout tip; lips narrow forward, lower 
laterally broad and fleshy; interorbital ^ of eye, little concave; preopercular 
spine nearly long as eye, with outer basal, short, antero-basal retrose spine, 
and besides strong terminal denticle 2 or 3 strong curved spines on inner 
edge. 

Skin smooth. Lateral cutaneous ridge distinct, high along back, finally 
reaches caudal base medially. 

D. IV - 10, 1, second spine 21, to 2 : \ in head from mandible tip, soft fin 
height 2^ to 3i; caudal 1J to 11, little convex behind ; least depth of caudal 
peduncle 4^ to 6; pectoral 1£, rays 16; ventral rays I, 5, fin 1$ to \\ in total 
head length. Vent close before anal, with small, conic papilla. 

Pale brown above, mottled with darker brown, numerous variable small 
spots, specks and dots. Row of dark spots along upper edge of cutaneous 
lateral keel, variable, best seen as viewed above. Iris gray. Under surfaces 
of head and body uniform whitish. Fins largely pale to translucent, rays 
and spines of dorsals with dark spots, blackish on spines of first dorsal. 
Four dull transverse bars on caudal, fading out below. Pectoral specked 
with brown. Several rows of rather large brown spots on ventral. 

Six, 37 to 50 mm., Bangkok. Agrees with Day's description. He gives 
u First dorsal black, or only spotted, second with four or five rows of spots. 
Upper half of caudal spotted. Anal colourless." Described from the 
Hoogly at Calcutta, and said to reach 75 mm. in length. 

ECHENEIDIDAE 

Leptecheneis naucrates (Linnaeus). 

Two, 232 to 234 mm., Bangkok; two, 206 to 238 mm., Rayong; fourteen, 
119 to 265 mm., Paknam. 

BLENNIIDAE 

Pctroscirtes dispar, new species. Figure 287. 

Depth 5.^; head 3J, width 1^. Snout 4^ in head; eye 3£, greater than 
snout, greatly exceeds interorbital; mouth cleft reaches § in eye, length 44 
in head; teeth firmly erect, close set, pointed, with 2 pairs of canines in 
mandible of which anterior pair shorter and posterior pair greatly longer; 
interorbital narrow, width '± of eye. Gill opening with distinct fold down 
across isthmus, only free below to bases of upper pectoral rays, its length 
34 in head. 

Skin smooth. Hind nostril in small tube. Head and body without 
ridges, keels or cirri. 

D. X, 20, fins scarcely notched, spines and rays flexible, first fin height 
2.^ in head, second fin height If; A. I, 21, fin height 2; caudal \\, convex 
behind; least depth of caudal peduncle 24; pectoral 1$, rays 14; ventral 
rays 2, fin 1} in head. Vent with convex, low, fleshly papilla. 



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259 




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260 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF 



[Vol. LXXXIX 



Head and body very light brown, belly and under surfaces whitish. 
Five transverse dark brown bands on head, with some spots on bran- 
chiostegal region. Two rows of dark brown spots along each side of back. 
Side of body with 12 dark brown bars transversely, first 6 inclined back- 
ward, and others forward. Iris gray. Fins translucent, soft dorsal with 
submarginal gray band, anal with dark brown submarginal band, and 2 dark 
bars from base on caudal besides dark lower border to fin. Pectoral with 
dark median spot, and much larger dark brown subbasal blotch. 

A.N.S.P., No. 68, 255. Bangkok, Siam. Length 29 mm. Type. 

Closely related to Petroscirtes masyae H. M. Smith, based on 2 speci- 
mens 53 to 59 mm. long from the Chantaboon estuary. My specimen differs 
so strikingly in coloration that it appears to me distinct. P. masyae is 
described with 10 or 11 dark green cross bars on the back which meet at 
the median dorsal line. Smith describes 5 longitudinal dark green lines on 
the back and sides (in no way present in my specimen), the upper and 
longest immediately below the cross bars, extending from head to under 
posterior dorsal rays, other lines progressively shorter, fourth and fifth con- 
fluent behind pectoral and extending about half length of body. The head 
is described with 3 dark brown cross bands. 

{Dispar unlike, as the dark lateral bars diverge.) 

BATRACHOIDIDAE 

Pseudobatrachus eugeneius, new species. Figure 288. 

Depth 4; head 3, width 1. Snout 5i in head from snout tip; eye 6, H 
in snout, If in interorbital ; maxillary extends little behind eye, expansion 
1J in eye, length 2i in head from snout tip; lips thick, fleshy; mandible well 
protruded; teeth small, strong, short, conic, in 3 or 4 series in front of jaws; 
interorbital 4 in head from snout tip, level; opercle ends in 2 strong spines 
and another strong one below. Gill opening before pectoral base, length 
3f in head. 

Skin rather thin and loose, smooth. Eye with 2 flaps above, hind one 
long as eye, and arch of 7 short flaps on suborbitals ; short scattered flaps on 
top of broad head ; 5 flaps along each side of chin ; several fringed flaps over 
expansion of maxillary, with 2 on end of latter largest; preopercle fringed, 
with 4 large flaps, also some filaments on opercles. Short inconspicuous 
skinny points scattered on body. 

D. II, 21, spines short, erect, posterior longer or long as eye, soft fin 
height 3 in total head; A. 16, fin height 3; caudal If, convex behind, con- 
nected by basal membrane with last dorsal and anal rays; pectoral If, rays 
15; ventral rays I, 2, fin If. Vent close before anal, with short fleshy, 
pointed papilla. 

Light brown, with 4 irregular, large, darker, marbled areas, the whole 
variegated with darker and light cloudings. Iris gray. Dark bar down 
from lower hind eye edge. Under surfaces of body uniformly pale drab to 
whitish. Fins all very light or pale brown; soft dorsal with 6 obliquely 
parallel dark bars, anal with 6 dark bars but inclined opposite to those on 
soft dorsal; caudal with 7 dark transverse bands, those basally narrower; 
paired fins with narrow irregular dark cross bars. 



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292. 293. Stephanolepis choirocephalus. 294, 295. Lagoccphalus oblongus. 

296. Lagoccphalus sceleralas. 



262 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF | VOL. LXXXIX 

A.N.S.P., No. 68,256. Rayong, Siam. Length 218 mm. Type. 

An interesting species evidently related to P. trispinosus (Giinther) . It 
differs in coloration, the dorsal and anal connected with the caudal, pro- 
portions, and apparently with more filaments on the head. P. dussumieri 
(Valenciennes) is shown with a rude figure having a greatly broader 
interorbital. 

(For the late Eugene Smith, an aquarist interested in the fishes about 
New York City, to whom I am indebted for details and materials from his 
region.) 

Coryzichthys gangene (Buchanan-Hamilton). 

One, 160 mm., Paknam. Caudal atrophied and small. 

TRIACANTHIDAE 

Triacanthus brevirostris Schlegel. Figure 289. 

Four, 130 to 143 mm., Paknam. Soft dorsal 23 or 24; A. 17 or 18. 

Triacanthus oxycephalus Bleeker. Figure 290. 

Four, 31 to 98 mm., Paknam. Soft dorsal 23 to 25; A. 17 to 19. 

Triacanthus strigilifer Cantor. Figure 291. 

Fourteen, 116 to 205 mm., Rayong. Soft dorsal rays 20 to 22; A. 15. 

MONACANTHIDAE 

Monacanthus chinensis (Bloch). 

Two, 70 to 73 mm., Paknam; seven. 113 to 164 mm., Rayong. 

Stephanolepis choirocephalus (Bleeker). Figures 292, 293 (head above). 

Depth lif; head 3£, width 2. Snout 14, in head; eye 2j|, 2 in snout, 1 in 
interorbital; mouth small, level with pectoral origin; interorbital elevated 
convexly. Gill opening small, about j of eye. 

Skin finely roughened. No spines on caudal peduncle. No lateral line. 

D. 11-28, first spine 1£ in head, each hind edge with row of 9 antrorse 
strong denticles, second fin height 2; A. 29, fin height 2^; caudal lyV, convex 
behind; least depth of caudal peduncle 23,; pectoral 1*, rays 15; pubic spine 
divided by hinge, end with spine hooked back each side, and followed by low 
membrane with row of very slender spines, of which only tips slightly 
protrude. 

Dull drab, with slightly darker mottling. Rounded blackish spot, nearly 
large as eye, on middle of side. Several dark blotches along lower profile of 
head. Various dark blotches at bases of dorsal and anal. Fins pale, caudal 
with 3 dark transverse bands. Iris gray. 

One, 71 mm., Paknam. Apparently closer to this species than any other 
known, though Bleeker's figure of " Monacanthus choirocophatus " appar- 
ently quite inaccurate, as he shows the gill opening above the origin of the 
pectoral and its upper portion approaching very close to the eye. Though 
the color pattern of its tail is somewhat similar, the posterior transverse 



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263 




264 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [VOL. LXXXIX 

dark hand is shown as marginal, not submarginal as in my specimen. More- 
over 2 dark lateral blotches are shown above and behind the pectoral. His 
figure shows 29 soft dorsal rays and the anal with 28, his description giving 
28 and 30 respectively. His later figure of Paramonacanthus choiroccphalus 
is also crude, though with a single dark median lateral blotch. This figure 
differs in the spinescent outer section of the hinged pubic spine. 

Alutera monoceros (Linnaeus).* 
One, 213 mm., Rayong. 

TETR0D0NTIDAE 

Lagocephalus oblongus (Bloch).* Figures 294, 295 (head above). 
One, 158 mm., Rayong. 

Lagocephalus sceleratus (Gmelin).* Figure 296. 

One, 48 mm., Rayong. 
Lagocephalus lunaris (Schneider).* 

One, 35 mm., Tachin; one, 35 mm., Pitsanulok; six, 42 to 61 mm., 
Rayong; three, 77 to 105 mm., Faknam. 

Dichotomycter fluviatilis (Buchanan-Hamilton).* Figure 297. 
Four. 28 to 40 mm., Tachin. 

Tetrodon immaculatus Schneider.* Figure 298. 

Four, 58 to 83 mm., Kemrat. These show the interorbital space and top 
of the head flat though both Gunthcr and Day describe it as very broad and 
convex, or slightly convex. Day, likewise Bleeker,.have figured the inter- 
orbital as somewhat raised above the eye. 

Tetrodon leiurus Kleeker.* Figures 299 (head above), 300. 

Depth (contracted! 3i; head 24, width lj. Snout 3 : \ in head; eye 5, 1$ 
in snout, 3 in interorbital; lips broad, thick, fleshy, feebly though distinctly 
plicate; mouth below eye or about on level with middle of pectoral base; in- 
terorbital l'k in head, low and flat. Oill opening oblique, length 4i in head. 

Head ami body largely spinescent, exec])! smooth muzzle, concealed 
axillary region behind pectoral, and caudal peduncle. Lateral line not 
evident. 

D. 11, 11, fin height 2£ in head; A. 1, 9, fin height 2\\ caudal H, convex 
behind; least depth of caudal peduncle 3J; pectoral 3$, rays 23, base of fin 
exceeds its length. 

Hack dark drab brown, sides below paler and under surfaces whitish, 
Whole back and sides with numerous, lame, close set darker blotches, most 
on back subequal with orbit and one midway on side between dorsal and 
anal origins large and black. Iris gray. Fins all drab. 

One, 81 mm., Pitsanulok. 



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ZOOLOGICAL RESULTS OF THE GEORGE VANDERBILT AFRICAN 
EXPEDITION OF 1934. PART VII,— REPTILES 
AND AMPHIBIANS 

by Arthur Loveridge. 

The herpetological material on which this report is based, forms part of 
the zoological collections obtained by the George Vanderbilt trans-African 
Expedition of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, an expedi- 
tion made possible by the generosity of Mr. Vanderbilt. 

Detailed information regarding the localities from which the specimens 
were obtained, will be found in Part I of this series in which Mr. J. A. G. 
Rehn deals with the itinerary. 1 His article is accompanied by a map. It 
might be as well to state here, however, more precisely the whereabouts of 
three Belgian Congo localities that furnished many reptiles. The first of 
these is Njiana Farm which lies between Bunia and Irumu in the Kibali- 
Ituri District; the second, Saidi's Village, is on the Irumu-Avakubi road, 
ten miles west of Epulu River Ferry and also in the Kibali-Ituri District. 
Ekibondo's Village on the other hand is between Dingba and Dungu, Uele 
District. The following abbreviations have been employed for the larger 
political areas: B.C. for Belgian Congo. C. for Cameroons. F. E. A. for 
French Equatorial Africa. K. C. for Kenya Colony. U. for Uganda Pro- 
tectorate. 

All localities have been arranged in order of the itinerary and conse- 
quently across the continent from east to west. The modernized rendering 
•of each type locality is given following the citation. 

After the scientific personnel had sailed from Africa a few specimens 
were added, presumably from Kribi but not properly labeled. It has been 
deemed best to indicate such with the addition " label detached " to avoid 
error. The same applies to a few individuals, probably from Kitala, whose 
linen tags became undecipherable in transit. 

The collection consists of 428 reptiles representing 66 species and 155 
amphibians of 29 species. It will be noted that all the more important 
venomous snakes — four species of cobra, two forms of mamba, and the three 
large puff adders — were encountered. The chief importance of the collection 
lies in the material from French Equatorial Africa, a region from which but 
few specimens have reached any American museum. Now that they are 
made available to taxonomists these specimens will prove valuable as 
supplying a long-felt want to those engaged in comparative studies. 

1 1936, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 88, pp. 1-14. 

(265) 



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The only taxonomic changes involved in the present report are the 
synonymizing of Eremias nitida garambensis Schmidt with E. n. quadri- 
nasalis Chabanaud, an unfortunate necessity in view of Chabanaud's name 
which was based on an aberrant individual displaying four nasals on one 
side of the head only. Ahaetulla heterolepidota Giinther, with its synonyms 
gracillima Giinther, gracilis Sternfeld and bequaerti Schmidt can no longer 
be regarded as distinct from the very variable Chlorophis irregularis 
(Leach). 

Some notes on stomach contents, breeding condition and parasites are 
included. In this connection I wish to acknowledge my appreciation of my 
colleagues, Dr. G. M. Allen (mammals), the late Dr. W. M. Wheeler (ants), 
Mr. Nathan Banks (insects), and Dr. J. H. Sandground (nematodes), for 
identifying certain prey or parasites as noted in the text. Mr. H. W. Parker 
of the British Museum has kindly compared the tree frog of the genus 
Megalixalus with the type of immaculatus in his care. 

List of Species Collected 

testudinidae 

Kinixys erosa (Schweigger) 
Kinixys homeana Bell 

PELOMEDL'SIDAE 

Pelusios nigricans nigricans (Donndorff ) 
Pelusios gabonensis (Dumeril) 

TYPHLOPIDAE 

Typhlops punctatus punctatus (Leach) 

BOIDAE 

Python sebae (Gmelin) 
Calabaria rcinhardtii (Schlegel) 

COLUBRIDAE (COLUBRINAE) 

Natrix olivacea olivacea (Peters) 

Hydraethiops melanogaster Giinther 

Bothropthalmus lineatus lineatus (Peters) 

Boaedon lineatus Dumeril & Bibron 

Boaedon olivaceus (Dumeril) 

Lycophidion capense capense (Smith) 

Mehelya capensis (Smith) 

Chlorophis irregularis (Leach) 

Philothamnus semivariegatus semivariegatus Smith 

Gastropyxis smaragdina (Schlegel) 

Hapsidophrys lineata Fischer 

Thrasops jacksonii jacksonii Giinther 

Grayia smythii (Leach) 

Prosymna bocagii Boulenger 

Scaphiophis albopunctatus Peters 



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COLUBRIDAE (DASYPELTINAE) 

Dasypeltis scaber (Linnaeus) 

COLUBRIDAE (BOIGINAE) 

Boiga pulverulenta (Fischer) 

Boiga blandingii (Hallo-well) 

Crotaphopeltis hotamboeia hotamboeia (Laurenti) 

Psammophis sibilans (Linnaeus) 

Psammophis punctulatus Dumeril & Bibron 

Thelotornis kirtlandii (Hallowell) 

Dispholidus typus (Smith) 

Elapops modestus Giinther 

COLUBRIDAE (ELAPINAE) 

Elapsoidea giintherii Bocage 

Naja haje haje (Linnaeus) 

Naja melanoleuca Hallowell 

Naja nigricollis nigricollis Reinhardt 

Dendraspis jamesoni jamesoni (Traill) 

Dendraspis jamesoni kaimosae Loveridge 

VIPERIDAE 

Causus resimus (Peters) 

Bitis arietans (Merrem) 

Bitis gabonica (Dumeril & Bibron) 

Bitis nasicornis (Shaw) 

Atheris squamigera (Hallowell) 

Atractaspis irregxdaris (Reinhardt) 

GEKKONIDAE 

Hemidactylus fasciatus Gray 
Hemidactylus brookii Gray 

AGAMIDAE 

Agama agama agama (Linnaeus) 
Agama agama lionotus Boulenger 
Agama atricollis Smith 

VARANIDAE 

Varanus exanthematicus (Bosc) 
Varanus niloticus (Linnaeus) 

LACERTIDAE 

Algiroides ajricanus Boulenger 
Eremias nitida quadrinasalis Chabanaud 

SCINCIDAE 

Mabuya maculilabris (Gray) 
Mabuya perrotetii (Dumeril & Bibron) 
Mabuya quinquetaeniata obsti Werner 
Mabuya quinquetaeniata scharica Sternfeld 



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Mabuya varia varia (Peters) 
Mabuya striata (Peters) 
Riopa jemandi (Burton) 
Riopa sundevalii (Smith) 

ANELYTROPIDAE 

Feylinia currori elegans (Hallowell) 

CHAMAELEONTIDAE 

Chamaeleo senegalensis Daudin 
Chamaeleo gracilis gracilis Hallowell 
Chamaeleo bitaeniatus bitaeniatus Fisher 
Chamaeleo bitaeniatus hdhnelii Steindachner 
Chamaeleo cristatus Stutchbury 

PIPIDAE 

Xenopus miilleri (Peters) 
Xenopus fraseri Boulenger 
Xenopus tropicalis (Gray) 

BUFONIDAE 

Bufo superciliaris Boulenger 

Bufo regularis regularis Reuss 

Bufo regularis subsp. ? 

Bufo camerunensvi camerunensis Parker 

Bufo funereus Bocage 

Bufo vittatus Boulenger 

POLYPEDATIDAE 

Lcptopelis aubryi (Dumeril) 
Megalixalus sp. 

Hyperolius pleurotaenius (Boulenger) 
Hyperolius concolor (Hallowell) 
Hyperolius rossii (Calabresi) 
Hyperolius schubotzi Ahl 
Hyperolius nasutus Giinther 

HANIDAE 

Astylosternus diadematus Werner 

Rana goliath Boulenger 

Rana crassipes Buchholz & Peters 

Rana occipitalis Giinther 

Rana ornata (Peters) 

Rana fuscigula chapini Noble 

Rana oxyrhynchus oxyrhynchus Smith 

Rana mascareniensis venusta Werner 

Rana galamensis galamensis Dumeril & Bibron 

Rana albolabris Hallowell 

Arthroleptis poecilonotus Peters 

Phrynobatrachus ? acutirostris Nieden 

Hemisus marmoratum guineensis Cope 



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Species and Localities 
TESTUDINIDAE 

Kinixys erosa (Schweigger) . 

Testudo erosa Schweigger, 1814, Prodr. Monog. Chelon., p. 52: No locality. 

9 9 (A.N.S.P., 20769-70). Saidi's Village, B. C. 7-9. ix. 34. 
Young (A.N.S.P., 20474). Ekibondo's Village, B. C. 1. x. 34. 
$ S (A.N.SJP., 20766-7) . Nola, F. E. A. 31. x. & 1. xi. 34. 

Variation. No nuchal except in No. 20767; anterior extremity of 
plastron projecting beyond carapace; posterior part of carapace sloping. 

Measurements. The S (A.N.S.P., 20766) measures 230 mm. ; the largest 
9 (A.N.S.P., 20767) 208 mm. The young one 65 mm. long, by 52 mm. 
broad, by 26 mm. deep. 

Kinixys homeana Bell. 

Kinixys Homeana Bell, 1827, Trans. Linn. Soc. London, 15, p. 400, pi. xvii, f. 2: 
West Africa. 

$ (A.N.S.P., 20768). Near Saidi's Village, B. C. 9. xi. 34. 
Variation. A nuchal; anterior extremity of plastron not projecting 
beyond carapace; posterior part of carapace descending vertically. 
Measurements. $ , 170 mm. 

PELOMEDUSIDAE 

Pelusios nigricans nigricans (Donndorff). 

Testudo nigricans Donndorff, 1798, Zool. Beytr. des Linn. Natur., 3. p. 34: No locality. 

9 (A.N.S.P., 20780). Near Saidi's Village, B. C. 9.xi.34. 
Measurements. 9 , 160 mm. 

Pelusios gabonensis (Dumeril). 

Pentonyx gabonensis Dumeril, 1856, Rev. Mag. Zool. (2), 8, p. 373: Gaboon, French 
Equatorial Africa. 

1 hgr. (A.N.S.P., 20454) . Saidi's Village, B. C. 5. ix. 34. 

2 yng. (A.N.S.P., 20397-8) . Nola, F. E. A. 28. x. 34. 

Measurements. The largest is only 100 mm. long, by 73 mm. broad, by 
40 mm. deep. 

TYPHL0PIDAE 

Typhlops punctatus punctatus (Leach). 

Acontias punctatus Leach, 1819, in Bowdich, Miss. Ashantee, p. 493: Fantee, Gold 
Coast. 

1 (A.N.S.P., 20297) . Njiana Farm, B. C. 29. viii.-2. ix. 34. 
4 (A.N.S.P., 20290, 20347, 20500, 20785). Ekibondo's Village, B.C. 
22-30. ix. 34. 

1 (A.N.S.P., 20779) . Nola, F. E. A. 5. xi. 34. 

2 (A.N.S.P., 20348, 20764) . Gounguru, F. E. A. 7. xi. 34. 

3 (A.N.S.P., 20697, 20707, 20713) . 30 km. e. of Kribi, C. 19-28. xi. 34. 



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Variation. Midbody scale-rows 26-32; prefrontal rather less, or slightly 
more than twice the size of a supraocular, separated from (Nos. 20500, 
20697), or narrowly (Nos. 20297, 20785), or broadly (Nos. 20347, 20707) in 
contact with the nasal which is only semidivided in all specimens; eye dis- 
tinguishable; diameters are included in the length from 20 (largest but one) 
to 41 (smallest) times. 

Coloration. All are of the typical punctatus type of pigmentation except 
Nos. 20348, 20697 and 20779 which agree with congestus Dumeril & Bibron. 
The latter had no type locality but occurs together with the typical form of 
coloring at Kribi and elsewhere in the Cameroons. 

Measurements. The largest (A.N.S.P., 20785), possibly a $ , measures 
655 (645 + 10) mm.; the largest 9 (A.N.S.P., 20779) 600 (585 + 15) mm.; 
the smallest (A.N.S.P., 20764) 165 mm. 

Breeding. On November 11, the latter held numerous developing ova 
measuring about 20 X 11 mm. 

Diet. Termites in one examined. 

B0IDAE 

Python sebae (Gmelin). 

Coluber Sebae Gmelin, 1788, Syst. Nat., ed. 13, p. 1118: "America". 
9 (A.N.S.P., 20784). Ekibondo's Village, B. C. 27. ix. 34. 

Variation. Midbody scale-rows 90; ventrals 277; anal single; sub- 
caudals 66; labials 14. The body has been skinned out neatly. 

Calabaria reinhardtii (Schlegel). 

Eryx reinhardtii Schlegel, 1848, Bijdr. tot de Dierk., 1, p. 2, pi. — : Gold Coast. 

9 (A.N.S.P., 20508). Ekibondo's Village, B. C. 27. ix. 34. 
9 9 (A.N.S.P., 20756, 20758). Possiblv Kribi, label detached. 
6 (A.N.S.P., 20663) . 30 km. e. of Kribi, C. 24-29. xi. 34. 

Variation. Midbody scale-rows 32-34; ventrals 228-233; anal entire; 
subcaudala 22-26; labials 8, the third and fourth, or fourth only, entering 
the orbit ; preocular 1 ; postoculars 2. 

Measurements. The $ (A.N.S.P., 20663) measures 627 (575 + 52) 
mm.; the largest 9 (A.N.S.P., 20508) 800 (730 + 70) mm. 

Parasites. Two ticks were attached to the snake from Ekibondo's 
Village. 

C0LITBRIDAE 

Natrix olivacea olivacea (Peters). 

Coronella olivacea Peters, 1854, Monatsb. Akad. Wiss. Berlin, p. 622: Tete, Mo- 
zambique. 

2 (A.N.S.P., 20182, 20814). Kitala, U. 8-15. viii. 34. 

Variation. Midbody scale-rows 19; ventrals 146; anal divided; sub- 
caudals 53; labials 8, the fourth and fifth entering the orbit; preocular 1; 
postoculars 3 ; temporals 1 + 2. 



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Measurements. The larger juvenile (A.N.S.P., 20182) measures 183 
(146 + 37) mm. 

Hydraethiops melanogaster Giinther. 

Hydraethiops melanogaster Giinther. 1872, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (4), 9, p. 28, pi. 
iii, fig. G: Gaboon, French Equatorial Africa. 

3 (A.N.S.P., 20665, 20700-1). 30 km. e. Kribi, C. 24-28. xi. 34. 
1 (A.N.S.P., 20764). Probably Kribi, label detached. 

Variation. Midbody scale-rows 23 ; ventrals 147-148 ; anal divided ; sub- 
caudals 44-56; labials 10-11, the fourth, fifth and sixth, or fifth and sixth, 
or sixth and seventh, or fifth, sixth and seventh entering the orbit; preocular 
1; postoculars 1-2; temporals 1 + 2. 

Measurements. The larger $ (A.N.S.P., 20701) measures 466 (372 + 
94) mm.; the larger 9 (A.N.S.P., 20764) 523 (430 + 93) mm. 

Bothropthalmus lineatus lineatus (Peters). 

Elaphis (Bothropthalmus) lineatus Peters, 1863, Monatsb. Akad. Wiss. Berlin, p. 
287: Guinea. 

Bothropthalmus melanozoslus Jan, 1863, Elenco, p. 62, and 1867. Icon. Gen., 20, 
pi. v. Gold Coast. 

9 ( A.N.S.P., 20336) . Fort Sibut, F. E. A. 13. x. 34. 

Variation. Midbody scale-rows 23; ventrals 192; anal entire; sub- 
caudals 70; labials 8, the fourth and fifth entering the orbit; preoculars 2; 
postoculars 2; temporals 2 + 3. 

Coloration. This is an interesting, apparently undescribed color variant 
of a common West African species. Instead of the five light, longitudinal, 
dorsal lines, it has only a red, hair-like, vertebral line on the dorsum with 
traces of a lateral one on either side of the tail. This results in its pre- 
senting a strongly distinct appearance from that of the typical form as 
figured by Jan, and which has a transcontinental range from the Gold Coast 
eastward to Uganda. 

To the south occurs a uniformly, or almost uniformly, colored race, B. I. 
brunncus Giinther of Fernando Po, with which I would unite infuscatus 
Buchholz & Peters, modestus Fischer and olivaceus Miiller all of which 
were described from the Cameroons. 

Measurements. Total length 898 (733 + 165) mm. 

Boaedon lineatus Dumeril & Bibron. 

Boaedon lineatus Dumeril & Bibron, 1854, Erpet. Gen., 7, p. 363: Gold Coast. 

S (A.N.S.P., 20183). Kitala, U. 8-15. viii. 34. 

$ 9 (A.N.S.P., 20148, 20296). Njiana Farm, B. C. 29-31. viii. 34. 

9 (A.N.S.P., 20509). Vube, B. C. 16-21. ix. 34. 

$ (A.N.S.P., 20343) . Fort Sibut, F. E. A. 14-18. x. 34. 

S (A.N.S.P., 20679). Batangafo. F. E. A. 7-13.xii.34. 

S 2 (A.N.S.P., 20708-9). 30 km. e. Kribi, C. 19-28. xi. 34. 

$ (A.N.S.P., 20815). Probablv Kribi, label detached. 



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Variation. Midbody scale-rows 20-31; ventrals 200-229; anal entire; 
subcaudals 47-63 ; labials 8-9, the fourth and fifth, fifth and sixth or fourth, 
fifth and sixth entering the orbit; preoculars 1-2; postoculars 2; temporals 
1 -f- 2 or 1 + 3; parietal shields longer than the distance between the 
frontal and end of the snout. 

Measurements. The largest specimen, a $ (A.N.S.P., 20148) measures 
854 (742+ 112) mm. 

Diet. One stomach examined, held a gecko {Hemidactylus brookii). 

Boaedon olivaceus (Dumeril). 

Ilolnropholis olivaceus A. Dumeril, 1856, Rev. Mag. Zool. (2), 8, p. 466: Gaboon, 
French Equatorial Africa. 

5 $ S (A.N.S.P., 20275, 20504, 20744, 20747-8). Saidi's Village, B.C. 
3-16. ix. 34. 

2 $ S (A.N.S.P., 20246, 20335). Nola, F.E.A. 27. x.-2. xi. 34. 

Variation. Midbody scale-rows 27-29; ventrals 191-208; anal entire; sub- 
caudals 41-53; labials 7-10, usually 8, the third and fourth, third, fourth 
and fifth, fourth and fifth, or fifth, sixth and seventh entering the orbit; 
preocular 1, loreal entering the orbit below the preocular in both the Nola 
snakes; postoculars 2; width of frontal contained from li to 14, times in its 
length, the latter equalling its distance from the end of the snout except in 
No. 20747 where it equals its distance from the rostral. 

Measurements. The largest $ (A.N.S.P., 20744) measures 733 (642 + 
91) mm. 

Diet. Stomachs of two examined, held mice. 

Lycophidion capense capense (Smith). 

Lycodon capensis A. Smith, 1831, S. Afr. Quart. Journ., 1, p. 18: Kurrichane, i.e. 
Rustenberg district, Transvaal. 

6 (A.N.S.P., 20301). Njiana Farm, B. C. 29-31. viii. 34. 

Variation. Midbody scale-rows 17; ventrals 211; anal entire; sub- 
caudals 42; labials 7, the third, fourth and fifth entering the orbit; pre- 
ocular 1; postoculars 2; temporals 1 + 2; parietals longer than the distance 
between the frontal and end of the snout. 

Measurements. Total length 477 (415 + 62) mm. 

Mehelya capensis (Smith). 

Heterolepis capensis A. Smith, 1847, Illus. Zool. S. Africa, Rept., pi. lv: Eastern 
districts of Cape Province, Union of South Africa. 

1 (A.N.S.P., 20715) . Batangafo, F. E. A. 16-19. x. 34. 

Variation. Midbody scale-rows 15; ventrals 232; anal entire; sub- 
caudals 37+; labials 7, the third and fourth entering the orbit; preocular 1; 
postoculars 2 ; loreal 1 ; temporals 1 + 2. 

Measurements. Length from snout to anus 1225 mm., tail mutilated. 



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Chlorophis irregularis (Leach). 

Coluber irregularis Leach, 1819, in Bowdich, Miss. Ashantee, p. 494: Ashanti, Gold 
Coast. 

Ahaetulla helerolepulota Giinther, 1863, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (3), 2, p. 286: 
Africa. 

$ $ (A.N.S.P.. 20338-9) . Fort Sibut, F. E. A. 13. x. 34. 
9 (A.N.S.P., 20711). 30 km. e. Kribi, C. 24. xi. 34. 

Variation. Midbody scale-rows 15; ventrals 158-177; anal divided; 
subcaudals 109-118; labials 9, the fourth, fifth and sixth entering the orbit; 
preocular 1; postoculars 2; temporals 1 + 1. 

I fail to see sufficient grounds for regarding heterolepidotus (Giinther) as 
distinct, nor even maintaining the latter as a race in view of their ranges 
being practically coextensive. Boulenger (1915, pp. 204-205) gives that of 
irregularis as " Senegambia and Uganda to Angola and Southern Rhodesia " 
while for heterolcpidotus, he says, " Tropical Africa from the Gold Coast to 
Angola, eastwards to the Coast of Zanzibar." 

He distinguishes them as follows: 

Preocular in contact with or narrowly separated from frontal; ventrals 150- 
182; subcaudals 90-133 irregularis 

Preocular separated from frontal; body very slender anteriorly; ventrals 
175-190; subcaudals 115-190 heterolcpidotus 

Now it will be noted that in the key to this genus in the Catalogue of 
Snakes, Boulenger (1894, 2, p. 92) gives the subcaudals as 115-135, the 
ventrals as 175-190. Owing to an error in transcription, 190 has been sub- 
stituted for 135 at some later date, and this high number faithfully copied 
by Boulenger, Schmidt and others though unsupported by the literature. 

The preocular is rather narrowly separated from the frontal in the three 
snakes listed above, they also conform to irregularis in the counts for both 
ventrals and subcaudals, on the other hand the Kribi snake at least is very 
slender anteriorly. Both types were collected in Gbanga, Liberia by Dr. 
G. M. Allen, while in Uganda I have taken series of these snakes from one 
locality (Mount Debasien) with the preocular in contact or separated from 
the frontal and the temporals cither 1^-1 or 1 + 2. As the preocular 
character has proved inconstant in other members of the genus it is ex- 
tremely doubtful whether it is of any value in separating irregularis from 
heterolcpidotus. 

Philothamnus semivariegatus semivariegatus Smith. 

Philothamnus semivariegatus A. Smith, 1849, 111. Zool. S. Africa. Rcpt., pis. lix, lx, 
lxiv: Bushman's flats and Kurrichane, i.e. Rustonborg district, Transvaal. 

5 9 (A.N.S.P., 20292, 20299). Njiana Farm, B. C. 29-31. viii. 34. 

Variation. Midbody scale-rows 15; ventrals 187; anal divided; sub- 
caudals 126-135; labials 9, the fourth, fifth and sixth entering the orbit; 
preocular 1 ; postoculars 2: temporals 2 + 2. 



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Measurements. <J measures 767 (515 + 252) mm.; and 9 , 798 (544 + 
254) mm. 

Diet. One stomach examined, held a 9 gecko (Hemidactylus brookii). 

Gastropyxis smaragdina (Schlegel). 

Dendrophis smaragdina Schlegel, 1837, Essai Phys. Serp., 2, p. 237: Gold Coast. 
t (A.N.S.P., 20710). 30 km. e. Kribi, C. 24. xi. 34. 

Variation. Midbody scale-rows 15; ventrals 156; anal divided; sub- 
caudals 148; labials 8, the fourth and fifth entering the orbit; preocular 1; 
postocular 1 ; loreal 1 ; temporals 1 + 2. 

Measurements. Total length 870 (540 -f 330) mm. 

Hapsidophrys lineata Fischer. 

Hapsidophrys lineatus Fischer, 1856, Abhand. Nat. Ver. Hamburg, 3, p. Ill, pi. ii, 
fig. 5: Elmine, Gold Coast. 

9 (A.N.S.P., 20337). Saidi's Village, B. C. 13. ix. 34. 

Variation. Midbody scale-rows 15; ventrals 160; anal entire; sub- 
caudals 104, without keels; labials 9, the fifth and sixth entering the orbit; 
preocular 1; postoculars 2; temporals 2 + 2. 

Measurements. Total length 702 (455 + 247) mm. 

Thrasops jacksonii jacksonii Gunther. 

Thrasops Jacksonii Gunther, 1895, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (6), 15, p. 528: Kavirondo, 
Kenya Colony. 

S (A.N.S.P., 20789). Probably Kitala, label detached. 

Variation. Midbody scale-rows 19; ventrals 203; anal divided; sub- 
caudals 143; labials 8, the fourth and fifth entering the orbit; preoculars 2; 
postoculars 3-4; temporals 1 + 1. 

Measurements. Total length 1453 (1000 + 453) mm. 

Grayia smythii (Leach). 

Coluber Smythii Leach, 1818, in Tuckey, Explor. River Zaire, App. p. 409: Boma 
(Embomma), Belgian Congo. 

9 (A.N.S.P., 20786). Kitala, U. 14.viii.34. 

9 (A.N.S.P., 20345). Fort Sibut, F. E. A. 15. x. 34. 

Variation. Midbody scale-rows 17; ventrals 159-164; anal divided; sub- 
caudals 87+ -89; labials 7, the fourth entering the orbit; preocular 1; 
postoculars 1-2; temporals 2 + 2 or 2 + 3, the lower anterior longer than 
its distance from the loreal. 

Measurements. The larger 9 (A.N.S.P., 20786) measures 1365 (1310 + 
55) mm. 

Breeding. On August 14, the latter held numerous developing eggs still 
only about 20 X 10 mm. 



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Prosymna bocagii Boulenger. 

Prosymna Bocagii Boulenger, 1897, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (6), 19, p. 278, fig.: Zongo, 
Ubangi Rapids, Belgian Congo. 

9 (A.N.S.P., 20763). Probably Batangafo or 30 km. east Kribi. Not 
collected before leaving Nola. 

Variation. Midbody scale-rows 15; ventrals 167; anal entire; sub- 
caudals 17 pairs; labials 6, the third and fourth entering the orbit; pre- 
ocular 1, the prefrontal also entering the orbit; postoculars 2; temporals 
1 + 2. 

It differs only from the type in having two subcaudals less, an additional 
postocular, an additional anterior temporal, and being 43 mm. longer in 
"body length, that of the tails being identical. 

Measurements. Total length 383 (355 + 28) mm. 

Scaphiophis albopunctatus Peters. 

Scaphiophis albopunctatus Peters, 1870, Monatsb. Akad. Wiss. Berlin, p. 645, pi. i, 
f. 4: Kita, French West Africa. 

9 (A.N.S.P., 20510). Ekibondo's Village, B. C, 29. ix. 34. 
Yng. (A.N.S.P., 20702). 30 km. e. Kribi, C. 19-28. xi. 34. 

Variation. Midbody scale-rows 23; ventrals 212-216; anal divided; sub- 
caudals 50-59; labials 5; suboculars 3; preocular 1; postoculars 2; temporals 
4 + 5. 

Measurements. The 9 measures 1195 (1020+ 175) mm. 

C0LUBRIDAE (Dasypeltinae) 
Dasypeltis scaber (Linnaeus). 

Coluber scaber Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, p. 223: Indiis, i.e. Africa. 

S (A.N.S.P., 20298) . Njiana Farm, B. C. 29-31. viii. 34. 

9 (A.N.S.P., 20342 ). Fort Sibut, F. E. A. 14-18. x. 34. 

9 (A.N.S.P., 20333). Nola, F.E.A. 27.x. 34. 

S 9 (A.N.S.P., 20664, 20712). 30 km. e. Kribi, C. 24. xi. 34. 

Variation. Midbody scale-rows 22-27; ventrals 206-240; anal entire; 
subcaudals 49-67; labials 7, the third and fourth entering the orbit; pre- 
ocular 1, except on left side of No. 20664 where there are 2; postoculars 2; 
temporals 2 + 3, 2+4, 3 + 6 or 4 + 4; sides of frontal sloping; diameter 
of eye from A to $ the length of the head. 

Coloration. The snakes from Njiana Farm and Fort Sibut are of the 
rhombic type, the Nola specimen is uniform brown {=palmarum Leach). 

Measurements. The larger $ (A.N.S.P., 20712) measures 523 (460 + 
<63) mm.; the largest 9 (A.N.S.P., 20664) 898 (763 + 135) mm. 



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COLUBKIDAE (Boiginae) 

Boiga pulverulenta (Fischer). 

Dipsas pulverulenta Fischer, 1856, Abhand. Nat. Ver. Hamburg, 3, p. 81, pi. iii,. 
fig. 1: Edina, Grand Bassa County, Liberia. 

S 9 (A.N.S.P., 20666, 20669). 30 km. e. Kribi, C. 24-29. xi. 34. 
9 (A.N.S.P., 20751). Probably Kribi, label detached. 

Variation. Midbody scale-rows 19; ventrals 249-261; anal entire; sub- 
caudals 108-114; labials 8-9, the third, fourth and fifth or fourth, fifth and 
sixth entering the orbit; preocular 1, except on right side of No. 20751 
where there are 2; postoculars 2; loreal 1; temporals 2+2. 

Measurements. The $ (A.N.S.P., 20666) measures 1057 (834 + 223) 
mm. ; the larger 9 (A.N.S.P., 20751) 1125 (885 + 240) mm. 

Boiga blandingii (Hallowell). 

Dipsas Blandingii Hallowell, 1844, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, p. 170: Liberia. 

9 (A.N.S.P., 20504). Saidi's Village, B. C. 12-14. ix. 34. 

Variation. Midbody scale-rows 23; ventrals 263; anal entire; sub- 
caudals 127; labials 9, the fourth, fifth and sixth entering the orbit; pre- 
oculars 2 ; postoculars 2 ; temporals 2 + 2. 

Measurements. Total length 1990 (1540 + 450) mm. 

Parasites. A tick is present on the scales. 

Crotaphopeltis hotamboeia hotamboeia (Laurenti). 

Coronella hotamboeia Laurenti, 1768, Syn. Rept., p. 85: India orientali, i.e. Africa. 
$9 (A.N.S.P., 20147, 20159). Kitala, U. 15. \ iii. 34. 
$ (A.N.S.P., 20295). Njiana Farm, B. C. 29-31. viii. 34. 
9 (A.N.S.P., 20332). Ekibondo's Village, B. C. 27. ix. 34. 
$ (A.N.S.P., 20726). Nola, F. E. A. 5. xi. 34. 

Variation. Midbody scale-rows 19; ventrals 156-176; anal entire; sub- 
caudals 31-44; labials 8, the third, fourth and fifth, or fourth and fifth 
entering the orbit; preocular 1, well separated from the frontal; postoculars 
2; temporals 1 + 2. 

The Kitala female occupies an intermediate position between hotamboeia 
and the closely related degeni (Boulenger) described from Entebbe, nine 
miles from Kitala. Its loreal is a trifle longer than deep, this is not the case 
with the male, however, which is a typical hotamboeia. 

Coloration. The upper labials of No. 20332 are wholly black. 

Measurements. The largest $ (A.N.S.P., 20726) measures 293 (257 + 
36) mm.; the larger 9 (A.N.S.P., 20332) only 167 (90 + 77) mm. 

Psammophis sibilans (Linnaeus). 

Coluber sibilans Linnaeus (part), 1758, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, p. 222: Asia (errore). 

$ (A.N.S.P., 20130). Kitala, U. 15. viii. 34. 
Yng. (A.N.S.P., 20150) . Njiana Farm, B. C. 29-31. viii. 34. 
$ 9 (A.N.S.P., 20340-1). Fort Sibut, F. E. A. 13. x. 34. 



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Variation. Midbody scale-rows 17; ventrals 164-175; anal divided; sub- 
caudals 86-102; labials 8, the fourth and fifth entering the orbit; rostral 
well visible from above; loreal If times as long as deep; preocular 1; post- 
oculars 2; temporals 2 + 2 or 2 -j- 3. 

Coloration. The labials of the Fort Sibut snakes are speckled with 
black, while their ventrals exhibit sharply defined lateral stripes. The two 
eastern snakes have whitish labials with obsolete dusky spots and their 
ventrals are only blotched. 

Measurements. The larger $ (A.N.S.P., 20130) measures 856 (630 + 
226) mm.; the 9 (A.N.S.P., 20341) 629 (453 + 176) mm. 

Diet. The Kitala snake had swallowed two shrews, though these are 
partially digested, Dr. G. M. Allen has been able to identify them as 
■Crocidura turbo zaodon. 

Parasites. Two nematodes (Kalicephalus sp.) were present in the 
stomach of this snake. 

Psammophis punctulatus Dumeril & Bibron. 

Psammophis punctulatus Dumeril & Bibron, 1854, Erpet. Gen., 7, p. 897: Arabia. 

9 9 (A.N.S.P., 20211, 20703). Athi River Crossing, K. C. 26. vii. 34. 

Variation. Midbody scale-rows 17; ventrals 190-193; anal divided; 
subcaudals 14H — 160; labials 9, the fifth and sixth entering the orbit; pre- 
ocular 1 ; postoculars 2; loreal 1 ; temporals 2 + 2 or 2 -f 3. 

Measurements. The larger 9 (A.N.S.P., 20703) measures 1532 (972 + 
560) mm. 

Breeding. The latter is gravid with about 10 eggs measuring approxi- 
mately 40 X 15 mm. 

Thelotornis kirtlandii (Hallowell). 

Leptophis Kirtlandii Hallowell, 1844, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, p. 62: 
Liberia. 

9 (A.N.S.P., 20289). Epulu River Ferry, B. C. ix. 34. 
$ (A.N.S.P., 20506). Saidi's Village, B. C. 7. ix. 34. 
$ (A.N.S.P., 20231). Vube, B.C. 18. ix. 34. 

Variation. Midbody scale-rows 19; ventrals 169-174; anal divided; 
-subcaudals 151-153; labials 8, the fourth and fifth entering the orbit; pre- 
ocular 1; postoculars 3; temporals 1 + 2. 

Measurements. The largest, a $ (A.N.S.P., 20231) only measures 1236 
(781 + 455) mm. 

Dispholidus typus (Smith). 

Bucephalus typus A. Smith, 1829, Zool. Journ., 4, p. 441 : Old Latakoo, South Africa. 
9 9 (A.N.S.P., 20137-8). Njiana Farm, B. C. 15. viii. 34. 

Variation. Midbody scale-rows 19; ventrals 185-186; anal divided; sub- 
caudals 104-] — 107; labials 7, the third and fourth entering the orbit; pre- 
ocular 1 ; postoculars 3 ; temporals 1 + 2. 



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Measurements. The larger $ (A.N.S.P., 20137) measures 1082 (810 + 
272) mm., but tip of tail is missing. 

Elapops modestus Giinther. 

Elapops modestus Giinther, 1859, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (3), 4, p. 161, pi. iv, fig. C: 
West Africa. 

9 ( A.N.S.P., 20276 ) . Saidi's Village, B. C. 13. ix. 34. 

Variation. Midbody scale-rows 15; ventrals 154; anal entire; sub- 
caudals 38; labials 7, the third and fourth entering the orbit, sixth in contact 
with parietal; preocular 1; postoculars 2; temporals 1+3. 

Coloration. A broad, but only faintly distinct, nuchal collar. 

Measurements. Total length 401 (350 + 51) mm. 

C0LUBRIDAE (Elapinae) 

Elapsoidea giintherii Bocage. 

Elapsoidea Giintherii Bocage, 1866, Jorn. Acad. Sci. Lisboa, 1, p. 70, pi. i, figs. 3-3b: 
Cabinda, Portuguese Congo; Bissao, Portuguese Guinea. 

9 (A.N.S.P., 20346). Fort Sibut, F. E. A. 14-18. x. 34. 

Variation. Midbody scale-rows 13; ventrals 153; anal entire; sub- 
caudals ?; labials 7, the third and fourth entering the orbit; preocular 1; 
postocular 2; temporals 1 + 2. 

Coloration. Above, uniformly black; below, white, each ventral lightly 
edged with dusky brown. It would appear, therefore, to correspond with 
the color form named moebius by Werner (1897, Verh. Zool. Bot. Ges. Wien, 
47, p. 400: Kete, Togoland) which Boulenger (1919, p. 294) referred to the 
synonymy of giintherii. Time will show whether or not this form may have 
a geographical distribution warranting its being given subspecific rank. 
The type of moebius was dark brown above, light yellowish below. 

Measurements. Snout to anus 525 mm., tail missing. 

Naja haje haje (Linnaeus). 

Coluber Haje Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat., ed 10, 1, P- 225: Lower Egypt. 
1 (A.N.S.P.. 20782 ) . Kasenyi, B. C, 29. viii. 34. 

Variation. Midbody scale-rows 21; ventrals 211; anal entire; sub- 
caudals 60+ tip of tail missing; labials 7, the sixth largest but separated 
from the orbit; preocular 1; postoculars 3-2; suboculars 2. 

Naja melanoleuca Hallowell. 

Naie haie var. melanoleuca Hallowell, 1857. Proc\ Acad. Xat. Sci. Philadelphia, p. 
61 : Gaboon, French Equatorial Africa. 

S (A.N.S.P., 20781). Kitala, U. 15. viii. 34. 

$ (A.N.S.P., 20746). Saidi's Village, B. C. 5.ix.34. 

Variation. Midbody scale-rows 19; ventrals 209-216; anal entire; sub- 
caudals 64-65; labials 7, the third and fourth entering the orbit. 

Measurements. The larger $ (A.N.S.P., 20781) measures 1895 (1570 + 
325) mm. 



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Naja nigricollis nigricollis Reinhardt. 

Naja nigricollis Reinhardt, 1843, Dansk. Vidensk. Selsk. Skrift, 10, p. 269, pi. iii, 
figs. 5 & 7: Guinea. 

$ (A.N.S.P., 20511). Ekibondo's village, B.C. 29.ix.34. 

Variation. Midbody scale-rows 25; ventrals 194; anal entire; sub- 
caudals ?; labials 6, the third deepest and entering the orbit; preoculars 2; 
postoculars 3; temporals 3 + 4 on right, 2 + 3 on left. 

Coloration. Above, black shading to olive on the head; below, throat 
white, followed by 13 black ventrals, then 7 white, or almost so, rest of 
undersurface black becoming paler on the tail. 

Dendraspis jamesoni jamesoni (Traill). 

Elaps Jamesoni Traill, 1843, in Schlegel, Essay Phys. Serpents (Eng. trans.), p. 179, 
pi. ii, figs. 19-20: "South America." [errore.] 

$ (A.N.S.P., 20757). Possibly Batangofo, or 30 km. e. of Kribi, C. 

Variation. Midbody scale-rows 19; ventrals 218; anal divided; sub- 
caudals ?; labials 8, the fourth entering the orbit; preoculars 3; postoculars 
3; subocular 1. 

Coloration. Tail mottled, each scale having a light centre characteristic 
of the western form. 

Dendraspis jamesoni kaimosae Loveridge. 

Dendraspis jamesoni kaimosae Loveridge, 1936, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, 49, p. 
64: Kaimosi, Kakamega, Kenya Colony. 

$ 9 (A.N.S.P., 20503, 20783). Ekibondo's Village, B. C. 22-29. ix.34. 

Variation. Midbody scale-rows 17; ventrals 217-224; anal divided; sub- 
caudals 99-109; labials 8, the fourth entering the orbit; preoculars 3; post- 
oculars 3; subocular 1. 

The specimen from Ekibondo's, coming as it does from the area of inter- 
mediates, has the subcaudal count of the typical form but the caudal colora- 
tion of the eastern race. 

Coloration. Tail uniformly black. 

VIPERIDAE 

Causus resimus (Peters). 

Heterophis resimus Peters, 1862, Monatsb. Akad. Wiss. Berlin, p. 277, pi. — . f. 4; 
Gebel Ghule, Senaar, Anglo-Egyptian Sudan. 

3 (A.N.S.P., 20262, 20752-3). Vube, B. C. 17-19. ix. 34. 

Variation. Midbody scale-rows 19; ventrals 138-145; anal entire; sub- 
caudals 17-18; labials 6-7, excluded from orbit; preoculars 2; postoculars 2; 
temporals 2 + 3 and 2 + 4. 

Measurements. Larger perfect $ (A.N.S.P., 20753) measures only 409 
(380 + 29) mm. 



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Bitis arietans (Merrem). 

Vipera arietans Merrem, 1820, Vers. Syst. Amphib., p. 152: Cape of Good Hope. 
2 young (A.N.S.P., 20300, 20302). Njiana Farm, B.C. 29-31. viii. 34. 

Variation. Midbody scale-rows 31; ventrals 136-141; anal entire; sub- 
caudals 18-18; labials 12-14. 

Bitis gabonica (Dumeril & Bibron). 

Echidna Gabonica Dumeril & Bibron, 1854, Erpet. Gen., 7, p. 1428, pi. lxxx b: 
Gaboon, French Equatorial Africa. 

1 (A.N.S.P., 20180) . Kitala, U. 17. viii. 34. 

2 (A.N.S.P., 20773, 20775). Saidi's Village, B. C. 8-12. ix. 34. 

2 ( A.N.S.P., 20394, 20776) . Ekibondo's Village, B. C. 22-23. ix. 34. 
2 (A.N.S.P., 20741, 20743) . One is from Gounguru, F. E. A. 8. xi. 34. 

Variation. Midbody scale-rows 35-40; ventrals 128-139; anal entire; 
subcaudals 20-31, occasionally a few single; labials 12-15. 

Measurements. The largest, a $ (A.N.S.P., 20743) measures 1460 
(1300+ 160) mm. 

Bitis nasicomis (Shaw). 

Coluber Nasicomis Shaw, 1802, Nat. Miscell., 3, pi. xciv: Interior of Africa (from 
the master of a Guinea vessel). 

4 5 5,329 (A.N.S.P., 20507, 20742, 20745, 20749-50, 20777-8). 
Saidi's Village, B. C. 4-10. ix. 34. 

Variation. Midbody scale-rows 34-40; ventrals 120-136; anal entire 
except in No. 20777 where it is divided; subcaudals 17-29; labials 15-18. 

Measurements. The largest $ (A.N.S.P., 20742) measures 900 (820 + 
80) mm.; and largest 9 (A.N.S.P., 20745) 1040 (960 + 80) mm. 

Diet. A 418 mm. female held two rodents in its stomach. These have 
been identified by Dr. Glover M. Allen as Mastomys coucha subsp. and 
Leggada ? minutoidcs. 

Atheris squamigera (Hallowell) . 

Echis squamigera Hallowell, 1854, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, p. 193: Near 
the Gaboon River, French Equatorial Africa. 

$ ( A.N.S.P., 20334) . Nola, F. E. A. 27. x. 34. 

Variation. Midbody scale-rows 21; ventrals 158; anal entire; sub- 
caudals 60; labials 10; circumocular scales 14 ; interocular scales 8. 
Measurements. Total length 627 (520 + 107) mm. 

Atractaspis irregularis (Reinhardt). 

Elaps hregularis Reinhardt, 1843, Dansk. Vidensk. Selsk. Skrift., 10, p. 264, pi. iii, 
figs. 1-3: Gaboon, French Equatorial Africa. 

Young ( A.N.S.P., 20294) . Njiana Farm, B. C. 29. viii-2. ix. 34. 

Variation. Midbody scale-rows 25; ventrals 229; anal divided; sub- 
caudals 26 pairs; labials 5, the third and fourth entering the orbit; pre- 
ocular 1 ; postocular 1 ; temporals 1+3. 

Measurements. Total length 293 (273 + 20) mm. 



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GEKKONIDAE 

Hemidactylus fasciatus Gray. 

Hemidaciylus jasciatus Gray, 1831, Zool. Miscell., p. 58: No type locality. 
$ (A.N.S.P., 20692) . 30 km. e. Kribi, C. 22. xi. 34. 

Variation. Upper labials about 10; femoral pores 16-17; enlarged sub- 
caudals about half width of tail. 

Measurements. Total length 126 (68 + 58) mm. 

Hemidactylus brookii Gray. 

Hemidactylus brookii Gray, 1844, Zool. Erebus & Terror, pi. xv, fig. 2: Australia 
and Borneo. 

9 (A.N.S.P, 20175). Kasenyi, B.C. 21.viii.34. 

Variation. Upper labials 7; transverse rows of enlarged, keeled scales 
across body 16. 

Measurements. Total length 92 (48 + 44) mm. 

Enemies. Geckos of this species were recovered from the stomachs of 
a house snake (Boaedon lineatus) and a spotted wood snake {Philothamud 
s. semivariegatus) at Njiana Farm, B. C. 

AGAMIDAE 

Agama agama agama (Linnaeus). 

Lacerta agama Linnaeus 1758. Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 1, p. 207: " America." [errore.] 
Agama colonorum Daudin, 1930, Hist. Nat. Rept., 3, p. 356: " l'Amerique meridi- 
onale ", etc. 

17 (A.N.S.P., 20798-20813). Probably Kitala, U., but label detached. 
3 (A.N.S.P., 20174, 20177, 20179) . Kasenvi, B. C. 21-29. viii. 34. 

1 (A.N.S.P., 20304) . Saidi's Village, B. C. 3-16. ix. 34. 

25 (A.N.S.P., 20226-30, 20232-3, 20263-9, 20281-8, 20395-6, 20501). 
Ekibondo's Village, B. C. 22-24. ix. 34. 

31 (A.N.S.P., 20234, 20379, 20406, 20411. 20412-20, 20422-5, 20428-31, 
20443, 20446-8, 20482-6, 20491) . Fort Sibut, F. E. A. 13-17. x. 34. 

2 (A.N.S.P., 20399, 20724) . Nola, F. E. A. 28. x. 34. 
2 (A.N.S.P., 20739-40) . Berberati, F. E. A. 4. xi. 34. 

8 (A.N.S.P., 20322-6, 20328-9, 20380) . Goungouru, F. E. A. 7-8. xi. 34. 

9 (A.N.S.P., 20650, 20652, 20658-60, 20690-1, 20693). 30 km. e. Kribi, 
C. 22-24. xi. 34. 

22 (A.N.S.P., 20617-33, 20635, 20637-9). Batangafo, F. E. A. 7-13. 
xii. 34. 

Variation. For purposes of the following statistics only thirteen lizards 
were selected from Belgian Congo localities, thirteen from French Equatorial 
Africa, all from Cameroon. 

Midbody scale-rows 61-83, average 70.7, it is interesting to observe that 
both the extremes, 61 (No. 20659) and 83 (No. 20690) are females from 
east of Kribi; preanal pores 8-12, average 11 for forty-six males. 



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Coloration. The throats of the males bear a dark network, rarely 
wholly black, except in the case of the Fort Sibut series which are immacu- 
late with the exception of No. 20486 which is black spotted with white. It 
may be that two color forms are represented for which one of the many 
names in the synonymy might be available. 

Measurements. Probably the largest $ (A.N.S.P., 20809) measures 316 
(123 + 193) mm., and largest 9 (A.N.S.P., 20806 ) 235 (95 + 140) mm., 
but the tip of the tail is missing. 

Agama agama lionotus Boulenger. 

Agama lionotus Boulenger, 1896, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, p. 214, pi. viii: southeast 
of Lake Rudolf, Kenya Colony. 

19 (A.N.S.P., 20168-73, 20195, 20198-204, 20206-10) . Athi River Cross- 
ing, K. C. 19-25. vii. 34. 

Variation. Midbody scale-rows 74-84, this range holding good for either 
sex, the series being composed of ten males and nine females; preanal pores 
12-16, average 14 for ten males. 

Coloration. The red throat and blue abdomen, characteristic of this 
race, may still be distinguished. 

Measurements. The largest $ (A.N.S.P., 20168) measures 268 (118 + 
150) mm., but the tip of the tail is missing; largest 9. (A.N.S.P., 20199) 
measures 224 (86 + 138) mm., two others in the series have the same length 
from snout to anus but their tails are mutilated. 

Agama atricollis Smith. 

Agama atricollis A. Smith, 1849, Illus. Zool. S. Africa, Rept., App. p. 14: Natal, 
South Africa. 

14 (A.N.S.P., 20131-6, 20140, 20163, 20165, 20212-6). Kitala, U. 15. 
viii. 34. 

2 (A.N.S.P., 20149, 20157). Njiana Farm, B. C. 1. ix. 34. 
1 (A.N.S.P., 20704). 30 km. e. of Kribi, C. 19-28. xi. 34. 

Variation. Ventral scales obtusely keeled or almost smooth ; males with 
two or three rows of large preanal pores, the posterior one composed of from 
9-11 pores, average 10 for ten males; females with a single row (except for 
No. 20163 where there are two) of from 7-11 small pores, average 9 for 
seven females. 

Measurements. The largest $ (A.N.S.P., 20216) only measures 303 
(113 + 190) mm.; the largest 9 (A.N.S.P., 20149) measures 210 (90 + 120) 
mm. but the tip of the tail is missing. 

Breeding. The latter, taken at Njiana on September 1, is gravid with 
six eggs measuring 24 X 13 mm. 

VARANIDAE 

Varanus exanthematicus (Bosc). 

Lacerta exanthematica Bosc, 1792, Actes Soc. Hist. Nat. Paris, p. 25, pi. v, fig. 3: 
Senegal. 



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1 (A.N.S.P., 20714) . Batangafo, F. E. A. 7-13. xii. 34. 

Measurements. Total length 530 (290 + 240) mm. 

Varanus niloticus (Linnaeus). 

Lacerta nilotica Linnaeus, 1766, Syst. Nat., ed. 12, 1, p. 369: Egypt. 

2 (A.N.S.P., 20787-8) . S. end of Lake Baringo, K. C. 20. vi. 34. 
1 (A.N.S.P., 20352) . Ekibondo's Village, B. C. 29. ix. 34. 

1 (A.N.S.P., 20344) . Fort Sibut, F. E. A. 14-18. x. 34. 
1 (A.N.S.P., 20790) . Label detached. 

Measurements. The largest (A.N.S.P., 20788) measures 980 (390 + 
590) mm. In view of the frequency with which one hears statements as to 
the unusualness of encountering young Nile Monitors, it might be stated 
that one from each of the three localities listed above is very young, that 
from Fort Sibut measuring 280 (40 + 240) mm. 

LACERTIDAE 

Algiroides africanus Boulenger. 

Algiroides africanus Boulenger, 1906, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 2, p. 570, fig. 96; 
Entebbe, Uganda. 

1 (A.N.S.P., 20270). Saidi's Village, B. C. 9. ix. 34. 

Variation. Midbody scale-rows 22; lamellar scales beneath fourth toe 
17; femoral pores 16-17; the adpressed hind limb only reaches as far as the 
shoulder. 

Eremias nitida quadrinasalis Chabanaud. 

Eremias quadrinasalis Chabanaud, 1918, Bull. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris, 24, p. 108: 

Shari-Chad district, French Equatorial Africa. 
Eremias nitida garambensis Schmidt, 1919. Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., 39, p. 511, 

figs. 18-19: Garamba, Uele district, Belgian Congo. 

2 (A.N.S.P., 20636, 20649) . Batangafo, F. E. A. 7-13. xii. 34. 

Synonymy. It seems probable that Schmidt's description of garambensis 
had been written before the appearance of Chabanaud's quadrinasalis, 
though the latter antedates it by nine months. 

The importance of the four nasal plates on the right side of the head in 
the single known example of quadrinasalis, are largely nullified by its 
having only 3, one of which is semidivided, on the left, as 'well as the erratic 
division of head plates to which the species is subject as shown by Schmidt's 
careful analysis of variation in his type series of thirty-four lizards. 

The two specimens listed above, are from a locality — Batangafo — , which 
is at most only some 200 miles southeast of the vague type locality of 
quadrinasalis a species with which they appear to agree in all essentials. 

I have compared them with a paratype (M.C.Z. 13354) of garambensis 
with which they agree in color pattern as in morphological characters except 
that one having 69 dorsals exceeds by 5 any of Schmidt's thirty-four Congo 
garambensis. 



284 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [VOL. LXXXIX 

Boulenger (1921, p. 227 ) by lumping garambensis with nitida in his key r 
has masked the true position which may be expressed thus: 

4 known nitida from Nigeria have 42-51 dorsals across midbody. 
3 " quadrinasalis from F.E.A. 62-69 
34 " garambensis from B. C. 62-64 " 

The number of lamellae under the fourth toe is 21-24, 24-26 and 22 for our 
para type of garambensis, no range given in the description. I feel justified, 
therefore, in regarding garambensis as a synonym of the unfortunately 
named quadrinasalis. 

Variation. Longitudinal dorsal scale-rows 62-69; transverse ventral 
scale-rows 6; femoral pores 14-15; subdigital lamellae on fourth toe 24-26. 

Measurements. $ (A.N.S.P., 20636) measures 205 (63 + 142) mm. 

SCINCIDAE 

Mabuya maculilabris (Gray). 

Euprepis maculilabris Gray, 1845, Cat. Lizards Brit. Mus., p. 114: West Africa. 

1 (A.N.S.P., 20293) . Njiana Farm, B. C. 29. viii-2. ix. 34. 

3 (A.N.S.P., 20259, 20719, 20722). Vube, B. C. 17-18. ix. 34. 

4 ( A.N.S.P., 20217, 20219-21 ) . Ekibondo's Village, B. C. 22. ix. 34. . 
14 (A.N.S.P., 20236-7, 20245, 20401-5. 20407, 20432-5, 20444). Fort 

Sibut, F.E.A. 13-17. x. 34. 

1 (A.N.S.P., 20400) . Nola, F. E. A. 28. x. 34. 

3 (A.N.S.P., 20327, 20392-3). Gounguru, F. E. A. 7-8. xi. 34. 

4 (A.N.S.P., 20733-4, 20736, 20738). Berberati, F. E. A. 14. xi. 34. 

4 (A.N.S.P., 20662, 20695-6, 20698). 30 km. e. Kribi, C. 24-28. xi. 34. 
1 (A.N.S.P., 20762). Probably Kribi, label detached. 

Variation. Midbody scale-rows 30-34, average 32; scales with 3-9 keels, 
3 in Nos. 20237 and 20432 which I am satisfied are maculilabris and not 
blandingii Hallowell, 1844, of which raddoni Gray, 1845, is a synonym; 
supranasals in contact in twenty-one, separated in twelve; prefrontals in 
contact in thirteen, separated in twenty-two, they are separated in only 
four of the Sibut series; supraoculars 4; supraciliaries 5-7; frontoparietals 
and interparietal distinct except in No. 20293 where they are fused, this 
skink is also unique in exhibiting a forked tail of which the original and 
reproduced portion are of equal length, viz. 45 mm.; ear lobules frequently 
indistinct ranging from 0-5. 

Measurements. The largest 2 (A.N.S.P., 20722) measures 193 (80 + 
113) mm.; and $ (A.N.S.P., 20393) 210 (70 4- 140) mm. 

Breeding. On November 7-8, this large female held small developing 
ova, while on September 22, 1934 another (A.N.S.P., 20217) held 8 spherical 
eggs, 7.5 mm. in diameter. 

Diet. Grasshoppers, ants and termites. 

Parasites. Indeterminate, because female, oxyurids were present in a 
skink from Ekibondo's Village. 



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28.5 



Mabuya perrotetii (Dumeril & Bibron). 

Euprepes Perrotetii Dumeril & Bibron, 1839, Erpet. Gen., 5, p. 699: Senegal. 

4 (A.N.S.P., 20359, 20427, 20437, 20492). Fort Sibut, F.E.'A. 13-18. 
x.34. 

2 (A.N.S.P., 20759, 20761). Goungouru, F. E. A. 8. xi. 34. 

3 (A.N.S.P., 20735. 20759, 20761). Berberati, F. E. A. 14.xi.34. 
2 (A.N.S.P., 20640, 20642). Batangafo, F. E. A. 7-13.xii.34. 

1 (A.N.S.P., 20661 ) . 30 km. e. of Kribi, C. 24-29. xi. 34. 

Variation. Midbody scale-rows 32-34; supraciliaries 6-7, usually 6; first 
supraocular in contact with, or separated from, the frontal. 

Coloration. The flanks of these skinks still retain a very delicate shade 
of mauve pink. 

Measurements. The largest (A.N.S.P., 20359) measures 292 (140 4- 
152) mm.; a sexed 9 (A.N.S.P., 20642) 280 (120+ 160) mm. 

Breeding. Four gravid females (Nos. 20640, 20642, 20759, 20761) held 
the following: (T) 24 eggs measuring 12 X 7 mm.; (2) 24 eggs measuring 
13 X 8 mm.; (3) 20 eggs measuring 13 X 8 mm.; (4) 16 eggs measuring 
13 X 8 mm. respectively. 

Diet. Stomachs examined, held (1) hawkmoth caterpillar, large grass- 
hopper; (2) caterpillar, woodlouse; (3) three caterpillars, termites, and a 
spider. 

Mabuya quinquetaeniata obsti Werner. 

Mabuya obsti Werner. 1913, Mitt. Nat. Mus. Hamburg. 30, p. 43: Kwa Mtoro, 

Central Province. Tanganyika Territory. 
Mabuya quinquetaeniata hildebrandtii Sternfeld (not of Peters), 1917, Wiss. Ergebn. 

Zweiten Deutsch. Zent.-Afrika-Exped. 1910-1911, 1, p. 438, pi. xxiv, fig. 3: Teita, 

Kenya Colony. 

4 $ $ (A.N.S.P., 20194. 20196-7, 20205). Athi River Crossing, K. C. 
19-25. vii. 34. 

Variation. Midbody scale-rows 43-44; supralabials anterior to sub- 
ocular 4; supraciliaries 5-7. Sexing of these skinks, as well as those of the 
following race, is by color pattern only and has not been checked by 
dissection. 

This series from near Kibwezi comes from the great area of intermediates 
between typical quinquetaeniata of Egypt with 35-42 midbody scale-rows, 
and q. margaritifer of Mozambique with 42-44. For lengthy discussion see 
my remarks (1929, pp. 71-73 and 1936, p. 315.) 

Mabuya quinquetaeniata scharica Sternfeld. 

Mabuia quinquetaeniata scharica Sternfeld, 1917, Wiss. Ergebn. Zweiten Deutsch. 
Zent.-Afrika-Exped. 1910-1911, 1, p. 436, pi. xxii, figs. 1-4, pi. xxiv. figs. 4, 7, 8: 
Shari River and Upper Ubangi, French Equatorial Africa. 

4 6 6,3 9 9 (A.N.S.P., 20349-51, 20373-4, 20376, 20502). Ekibondo's 
Village, B. C. 22-29. ix. 34. 



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10 $ 6 , 5 9 9 (A.N.S.P., 20235, 20238, 20408. 20421, 20426, 20440-2, 
20449, 20452, 20487-90 ) . Fort Sibut, F. E. A. 12-20. x. 34. 

4 <$ 6, 2 9 9 (A.N.S.P., 20641, 20643-7). Batangafo, F.E.A. 7-13. 
xii. 34. 

Variation. Midbody scale-rows 34-40, average 36; labials anterior to 
the subocular 4, except in three specimens where there are 5 on one side 
only ; supraciliaries 5-7, average 5.8. 

The recognition of this race appears justifiable on the grounds that the 
throat of the males is usually uniformly jet black, young males may show 
flecks or spots like those of the typical race. M. q. scharica probably 
averages larger than the typical race. 

Measurements. The largest $ (A.N.S.P., 20452) measures 263 (108 + 
155) mm., and 9 (A.N.S.P., 20376) 235 (100 + 135) mm. 

Breeding. One female (No. 20350) examined is gravid, the ten spherical 
ova measuring about 9 mm. in diameter. 

Diet. Stomach examined held a large hairy caterpillar, chrysomelid 
beetle, Orthoptera, termites. 

Mabuya varia varia (Peters). 

Euprepes (Euprepis) varius Peters, 1867, Monatsb. Akad. Wiss. Berlin, p. 20: Tete, 
Mozambique. 

2 ( A.N.S.P., 20728-9) . Near Kijabe at 8,200 feet, K. C. 30. vi. 34. 
1 (A.N.S.P., 20730) . W. Mt. Kenya at 7,800 feet, K. C. 9. vii. 34. 

Coloration. One of the Kijabe skinks (No. 20729) is almost uniformly 
brown, anteriorly there is a faint indication of the light dorso-lateral streaks, 
but both the lateral and vertebral lines are absent. 

Measurements. The largest (A.N.S.P., 20728) measures only 147 (57 + 
90) mm. 

Mabuya striata (Peters). 

Tropidolepisma striatum Peters, 1844, Monatsber. Akad. Wiss. Berlin, p. 36: Mo- 
zambique. 

3 (A.N.S.P.. 20160-1. 20706). Kitala, U. 8-15. viii. 34. 

7 (A.N.S.P., 20152-8) . Njiana Farm, B. C. 29-31. viii. 34. 

Variation. Frontal in contact with frontonasal, the latter being longi- 
tudinally divided in No. 20154 only. 

Riopa fernandi (Burton). 

Tiliqua fernandi Burton, 1836, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, p. 62: Fernando Po. 

1 (A.N.S.P., 20378). Ekibondo's Village, B. C. 29. ix. 34. 
1 (A.N.S.P., 20737) . Berberati, F. E. A. 14. xi. 34. 

Variation. Midbody scale-rows 35-38; upper labials 7, the fifth and 
sixth entering the orbit; supraoculars 5. 

Measurements. The larger (A.N.S.P., 20378) measures 270 (125 + 
145) mm. 



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Diet. Stomachs examined held: (1) large slug, mass of termites; (2) a 
small and two large slugs, snail, polydesmid, harvestman spider, black 
cricket. 

Parasites. A nematode was present in one stomach. 

Riopa sundevallii (Smith). 

Eumices (Riopa) sunderallii A. Smith, 1849, Illus. Zool. S. Africa, Rept., App. p. 
11: Natal, South Africa. 

9 (A.N. S.P., 20410) . Fort Sibut, F. E. A. 13-16. x. 34. 
9 (A.N.S.P., 20648). Batangafo, F. E. A. 7-13.xii.34. 

Variation. In the Batangafo skink the frontal is slightly shorter than 
the frontoparietals and parietals together and the right parietal is bordered 
only by small scales (sundevallii) but the left parietal is bordered by a pair 
of enlarged nuchals (guineense). 

Measurements. The larger 9 (A.N.S.P., 20648) measures 158 (82 4- 
76) mm. 

Breeding. While the ova are only slightly enlarged in the Fort Sibut 
skink, they are well-developed in the specimen from Batangafo. 

ANELYTROPIDAE 

Feylinia currori elegans (Hallowell). 

Acontias elegans Hallowell, 1852, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, p. 64: Liberia. 

1 (A.N.S.P., 20765). Probably Kitala, U., label detached. 

Variation. Midbody scale-rows 23; ocular in contact with second labial 
but separated from the third by the postocular as is characteristic of this 
race. 

Coloration. Uniformly black. 

Measurements. Total length 205 (200 + 5) mm. 

CHAMAELEONTIDAE 

Chamaeleo senegalensis Daudin. 

Chamaeleo senegalensis Daudin, 1802. Hist. Nat. Rept., 4, p. 203: Region watered 

by the Senegal and Niger Rivers; Gambia and Guinea. 
Chamaeleon laevigatus Gray, 1863, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, p. 95: 500 miles south 

of Khartoum, Anglo-Egyptian Sudan. 

5 5,4 9,4 voung (A.N.S.P., 20239-41, 20243. 20354, 20360, 20364-5, 
20371-2, 20409, 20445) . Fort Sibut, F. E. A. 16-18. x. 34. 
9 ( A.N.S.P., 20656) . 30 km. e. of Kribi, C. 22-28. xi. 34. 

Variation. Before ascertaining the localities from which these came, I 
endeavoured to sort them according to the key proposed by Werner (1902, 
p. 319) for separating senegalensis from laevigatus. With difficulty they 
fell into two series after which it was found that these both occurred in the 
same locality! Next they were compared with Kenya material as repre- 
sentative of the eastern laevigatus and many found to be inseparable. I 



288 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [VOL. LXXXIX 

conclude, therefore that the alleged differences are conditional and not 
geographic. I consider that in well-nourished chameleons the fatty deposits 
on the nape tend to give prominence to the casque {senegalensis) , while in 
emaciated specimens it subsides more into line with the dorsal crest 
(laevigatas). Actual topotypic examples of senegalensis appear to be 
scarce in collections and have not been available for comparison. 

Measurements. The largest perfect $ (A.N.S.P.) measures 192 197-4- 
95) mm.; largest 9 9 (A.N.S.P., 20371) 200 (115 + 85) mm. 

Breeding. All the four adult females from Fort Sibut ranging from 100 
to 115 mm. in length from snout to anus, are gravid. One examined in 
detail held 45 eggs, each measuring 13 X 7 mm. in alcohol. 

Enemies. It is interesting to observe that the largest female does not 
appear to have been much handicapped by the loss of her left hind leg at 
the knee, the injury being of long standing and completely healed. 

Chamaeleo gracilis gracilis Hallowell. 

Chamaeleo gracilis Hallowell, 1842, Journ. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, p. 342, pi. 
xviii: Monrovia, Liberia. 

Young (A.N.S.P., 20173) . Kasenyi, B. C. 28. viii. 34. 
6 , 9 (A.N.S.P., 20330-1). Vube, B. C. 18. ix. 34. 

1 6,2 9 9 (A.N.S.P., 20375, 20377. 20451). Ekibondo's, B. C. 29. 
ix-3. x. 34. 

4 $ 6, 11 9 9 (A.N.S.P., 20353, 20355, 20357-8, 20361-3, 20306-70, 
20438-50). Fort Sibut, F. E. A. 16-18.X.34. 

6 9 9 (A.N.S.P., 20611-6). Batangafo, F. E. A. 7-13.xii.34. 

4 9 9 (A.N.S.P., 20651,20653-4, 20657). 30 km. e. of Kribi, C. 24-29. 
xi. 34. 

Variation. The six males possess well-developed tarsal spurs which 
distinguishes the typical form from C. g. etiennei Schmidt of the lower Congo 
region. 

Measurements. The largest $ (A.N.S.P., 20375) measures 268 (141 4- 
127) mm.; the largest 9 (A.N.S.P., 20614) 380 (195 + 185) mm. 

Breeding. The largest female in the Kribi series, measuring 245 mm., is 
bloated with spherical eggs measuring 11 mm. in diameter; the others from 
this locality are not so. 

Chamaeleo bitaeniatus bitaeniatus Fischer. 

Chamaeleo bitaeniatus Fischer, 1884. Jahrb. Hamburg. Wiss. Anst., 1, p. 23, pi. ii, 
figs. 7 a-b: Lake Naivasha, Kenya Colony. 

$ (A.N.S.P., 20705). Nanyuki, K.C. 14.vii.34. 

Enemies. The tail of this specimen is truncated from a point 8 mm. 
posterior to the anus, the stump has long since healed. It was taken " in 
grass on ground toward evening." 



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Chamaeleo bitaeniatus hohnelii Steindachner. 

Chamaeleon hohnelii Steindachner, 1891, Sitzber. Akad. Wiss. Wien, 100, part 1, p. 
309, pi. i, fig. 2: Laikipia, Kenya Colony. 

6 (A.N.S.P., 20181). Nanyuki, K.C. 14.vii.34. 
Measurements. Total length 215 (105 + 110) mm. 

Chamaeleo cristatus Stutchbury. 

Chamaeleo cristatus Stutchbury, 1837, Trans. Linn. Soc, 17, p. 361: Gaboon, i.e. 
French Congo. 

$ (A.N.S.P., 20655) . 30 km. e. of Kribi, C. 24-29. xi. 34. 
Measurements. Total length 186 (100 + 86) mm. 

PIPIDAE 

Xenopus miilleri (Peters). 

Dactylethra miilleri Peters, 1844, Monatsb. Akad. Wiss. Berlin, p. 37: Mozambique. 

1 (A.N.S.P., 20667) . Batangafo, F. E. A. 7-13. xii. 34. 
Distribution. Formerly believed to be confined to East Africa, Midler's 

Smooth Clawed Frog has already been recorded from the west by Sternfeld 
(1917, p. 507). 

Variation. Though the naked metatarsal tubercle seems to be better 
developed in the western frogs, it can be matched by individuals from 
Tanganyika Territory. 

Measurements. Length from snout to anus 53 mm. 

Xenopus fraseri Boulenger. 

Xenopus jraseri Boulenger, 1905, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 2, p. 250: West Africa. 

2 (A.N.S.P., 20721, 20723). Nola, F. E. A. 30. x. 34. 

Variation. Parker (1936, p. 156) has reinstated this species, synony- 
mized with tropicalis by Noble (1924, p. 160), recognizable by its smooth 
snout and chin, well-developed lower eyelid, etc. 

Measurements. The larger frog (A.N.S.P., 20721) measures 46 mm. 

Xenopus tropicalis (Gray). 

Silurana tropicalis Gray, 1864, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (3), 14, p. 315: Lagos, Nigeria. 
1 (A.N.S.P., 20720) . Vube, B. C. 18. ix. 34. 

Variation. Differs from the preceding species by the presence of blister- 
like pustules on snout and chin, a rudimentary lower eyelid, etc. 
Measurements. 43 mm. 

BUF0NIDAE 

Bufo superciliaris Boulenger. 

Bufo superciliaris Boulenger, 1887, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, p. 565: Rio del Rey, 
Cameroon. 

9 (A.N.S.P., 20303). Saidi's Village, B. C. 14. ix. 34. 
9 (A.N.S.P., 20468). Ekibondo's, B. C. 29-30. ix. 34. 

Measurements. The larger (A.N.S.P., 20468) measures 133 mm. 

Breeding. The ova are small in both specimens. 



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[Vol. LXXXIX 



Bufo regularis regularis Reuss. 

Bufo regularis Reuss, 1834, Mus. Senckenberg, 1, p. 60: Egypt. 

2 5,5 9,3 yng. (A.N.S.P., 20141-3, 20146, 20162, 20167, 20184, 20186-7, 
20192). Kitala, U. 8-15. viii. 34. 

9 (A.N.S.P., 20176). Kasenyi, B. C. 21. viii. 34. 

1 yng. (A.N.S.P., 20139) . Njiana. B. C. 29. viii. 34. 

5 9 (A.N.S.P., 20224, 20260-1. 20716-7). Vube, B. C. 17-19. ix. 34. 

2 5,29 (A.N.S.P., 20278-80, 20307). Ekibondo's, B. C. 22. ix. 34. 
4 9 (A.N.S.P., 20475-8). Fort Sibut, F. E. A. 16-17. x. 34. 

4 3,59 (A.N.S.P., 20669-77). Batangafo, F. E. A. 7-13.xii.34. 

5 5,6 9 (A.N.S.P., 20247-9, 20479, 20493-9). Nola, F.E. A. 27.x. 
& 2.xi. 34. 

Measurements. The largest 5 (A.N.S.P., 20143) measures 82 mm.; the 
largest 9 9 (A.N.S.P., 20141, 20248) 90 mm. 

Bufo regularis subsp. ? 

25 (A.N.S.P., 20308-21, 20381-91). Gounguru, F. E. A. 6-9. xi. 34. 

Variation. These toads do not appear to be wholly typical ; they appear 
to differ in the more pronounced development of a line of tubercles on the 
posterior side of the fore arm and in a conspicuous lateral line of tubercles. 
These characters are, however, somewhat accentuated by the dessication of 
the material. They appear to be smaller in size, yellowish below and 
deserticolorous above while many exhibit a trace of pink on the flanks, inner 
fore arm, hinder part of tibia and outer edge of foot. 

If they should be worthy of subspecific recognition, it seems possible that 
one of the four names proposed by Rochbrune (1884, pp. 12-18) would be 
available. 

Measurements. No specimens have nuptial asperities. The largest 9 , 
which is non breeding, (A.N.S.P., 20308) measures 61 mm. 

Parasites. Indeterminate 9 9 oxyurids present in one of the series. 

Bufo camerunensis camerunensis Parker. 

Bufo camerunensis camerunensis Parker, 1936, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1, p. 153: 
Oban, Calabar, Nigeria. 

9 (A.N.S.P, 20689) . 30 km. e. of Kribi, C. 22. xii. 34. 

Affinities. Compared with a paratype in the Museum of Comparative 
Zoology. This is the common spinose-flanked toad which has long been 
known as polycerus Werner, but which Parker states is distinct from that 
species which is a synonym of tuberosus Giinther. 

Measurements. 70 mm. 

Bufo funereus Bocage. 

Bufo funereus Bocage, 1866, Jorn. Sci. Lisboa, 1, p. 77: Duque de Braganqa, Angola. 

4 9 (A.N.S.P., 20225, 20250, 20252, 20273). Saidi's, B. C. 9-14. ix.34. 

3 9 (A.N.S.P., 20277, 20291, 20306). Ekibondo's, B. C. 22. ix. 34. 



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Measurements. The largest 9 (A.N.S.P., 20225) measures 66 mm., the 
rest of the series are but slightly smaller. 

Bufo vittatus Boulenger. 

Bufo vittatus Boulenger, 1906, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, p. 573, fig. 98: Entebbe, 
Uganda. 

9 (A.N.S.P., 20191). Kitala, U. 7-17. viii. 34. 

Distribution. Through the courtesy of Dr. Carl, I have been able to 
■examine the Biharamulo toad referred to taitanus Peters by Dr. Roux (1910, 
p. 103). The specimen is a vittatus as I suspected, doubtless the Jinja toad, 
recorded in the same paper, is also a vittatus. In that event, the Kitala toad 
is the fifth known Uganda example of this rare species. Kitala is but nine 
miles from the type locality. 

If the Egyptian toads are conspecific, however, Flower (1933, p. 842) 
•quotes Nicoll as saying that it swarms near Simbellawin, Daqahlia Province, 
Lower Egypt. It has also been recorded from Ramleh, Alexandria. 

Measurements. 33 mm. 

Breeding. The ova are developing. 

Diet. The stomach is distended with small beetles of many species. 

POLYPEDATIDAE 

Leptopelis aubryi (Dumeril). 

Hyla aubryi A. Dumeril, 1856, Rev. Mag. Zool. (2), 8, p. 561: Gaboon. 

1 ( A.N.S.P., 20718) . Nola, F. E. A. 27. x. 34. 
Measurements. 45 mm. 

Megalixalus sp. 

9 (A.N.S.P., 20725). Nola, F. E. A. 27.x. 34. 

Affinities. The Museum of Comparative Zoology having no material of 
M. immaculatus Boulenger of Spanish Guinea or of lindholmi Andersson of 
Cameroon, I submitted this frog to Mr. H. W. Parker who has kindly com- 
pared it with the type of immaculatus. He writes: " I find that your speci- 
men is very different. It is longer headed with a more prominent and 
narrower snout. M. immaculatus is definitely a broad-headed species as 
figured by Boulenger; but the figure is not quite accurate with regard to the 
digital webbing. Actually the type, and six others which I have examined, 
have more than is shown, but slightly less than in Anderson's figure of 
lindholmi. Your 20725 has the outer fingers half-webbed, the tubercles on 
the two outer fingers double; the distal tubercle of the fourth toe double, and 
the tibio-tarsal articulation (of the adpressed hind limb) reaching the 
anterior border of the eye." 

Coloration. Above, violet brown with scattered fine black spots only 
noticeable with a lens, in the centre of the back a light-edged brown blotch 



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of irregular outline; a dark brown band, light-edged above, from snout along 
flanks, its lower edge undulating; exposed parts of limbs light brown 
punctate with black like the dorsum. Below, pure white. 
Measurements. 36 mm. 

Hyperolius pleurotaenius (Boulenger). 

Rappia pleuroiaenia Boulenger, 1906, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (7), 17, p. 322: Zima, 
Cameroon and Benito River, French Congo. 

9 (A.N.S.P., 20453). Ekibondo's, B. C. 3. x. 34. 

Affinities. This frog has been compared with some of the Lang-Chapin 
series from Medje, Belgian Congo, identified by Noble (1924, p. 258) as 
pleurotaenius and is unquestionably conspecific. No topotypic examples are 
available for comparison. This female is normal in exhibiting the light 
lateral band which is edged with darker both above and below. 

Measurements. 24 mm. 

Hyperolius concolor (Hallowell). 

Ixalus concolor Hallowell, 1844, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 2, p. 60: Liberia. 
$ (A.N.S.P., 20474). Ekibondo's, B. C. 1.x. 34. 

Affinities. Undoubtedly conspecific with the Congo frogs referred to 
concolor by Noble ( 1924, p. 254) with some of whose series it has been 
compared. On the other hand, it does not match topotypic Liberian ex- 
amples (M.C. Z. 11945, 12021-2) so closely. 

Measurements. 32 mm. 

Hyperolius rossii (Calabresi). 

Rappia rossii Calabresi, 1925, Atti. Soc. ltal. Sci. Nat. Milano, 64, p. 121, fig.: 
Upper Uele region region. Belgian Congo. 

9 (A.N.S.P., 20166). Kitala, U. 8-15. viii. 34. 

Coloration. Above, uniformly grayish white thickly flecked with darker. 
Below, creamy white sparsely spotted with orange on breast and belly. 
These spots are characteristic of the species. 

Measurements. 28 mm. 

Hyperolius ? schubotzi AM. 

Hyperolius schubotzi Ahl, 1931, Mitt. Zool. Mus. Berlin, 17, p. 63: Kisenji, Lake 
Kivu, Belgian Ruanda-Urundi. 

9 (A.N.S.P., 20731 ) . Kasenyi, B. C. 25. viii. 34. 

Affinities. This frog is apparently closely related to striolatus Peters,* 
• but on geographical grounds one might expect them to be distinct. I have 
compared it with a topotype of stuhlmanii Ahl from the south end of Lake 
Edward which is in the same group. Without a series it is almost impossible 
to know the exact status. Lake Edward lies between Kisenji, Lake Kivu 
and Kasenyi, Lake Albert, but schubotzi has page precedence over stuhl- 
manni should they prove to be the same. 



1937] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA 293 

Coloration. Above, grayish white thickly peppered with dusky spots 
each of which is composed of fine black specks. Below, uniformly white. 
Measurements. 25 mm. 

Hyperolius nasutus Giinther. 

Hyperolius nasutus Giinther, 1864, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, p. 482, pi. xxxiii, fig. 3: 
Duque de Braganca, Angola. 

9 (A.N.S.P., 20732). Kitala, U. 8. viii. 34. 
Measurements. 22 mm. 

KANIDAE 

Astylosternus diadematus Werner. 

Aslylosternus diadematus Werner, 1898, Verh. Zool.-Bot. Ges. Wien, 48, p. 200, figs.: 
Victoria, Cameroon. 

3 (A.N.S.P., 20683-5) . 30 km. e. of Kribi, C. 22. xi. 34. 
Measurements. The largest (A.N.S.P., 20683) measures 52 mm. 

Rana goliath Boulenger. 

Raim goliath Boulenger, 1906, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (7), 17, p. 317: Efulen, Came- 
roon. 

9 ( A.N.S.P., 20772) . 30 km. e. of Kribi, C. 22. xi. 34. 
Measurements. 220 mm. 

Rana crassipes Buchholz & Peters. 

Rana crassipes Buchholz & Peters, 1875, Monatsb. Akad. Wiss. Berlin, p. 201 : Abo, 
Cameroon. 

1 cS , 4 9 (A.N.S.P., 20680-2, 20686. 20688). 30 km. e. of Kribi, C. 
22.xi.34. 

Measurements. The $ (A.N.S.P., 20680) measures 64 mm., the largest 
9 (A.N.S.P., 20681) 63 mm. 

Rana occipitalis Giinther. 

Rana occipitalis Giinther. 1858, Cat. Batr. Sal. Brit. Mus., p. 130, pi. xi: "Africa; 
West Africa; Gambia." 

9 9 (A.N.S.P., 20480-1). Fort Sibut, F. E. A. 16-17.X.34. 
Juv. (A.N.S.P., 20678) . Batangafo, F. E. A. 7-13. xii. 34. 

Measurements. The larger 9 (A.N.S.P., 20480) measures 141 mm. 
Breeding. Both females carry much ova. 

Rana ornata (Peters). 

Pyxicephalus omatus Peters, 1878, Monatsb. Akad. Wiss. Berlin, p. 207, pi. ii, f. 7: 
Teita, Kenya Colony. 

9 ( A.N.S.P., 20668) . Batangafo, F. E. A. 7-13. xii. 34. 

Measurements. 58 mm. 

Rana fuscigula chapini Noble. 

Rana chapini Noble, 1924, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 49, p. 214, f. 6a: Batama, 
Belgian Congo. 



294 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [VOL. LXXXIX 

9 (A.N.S.P., 20255). Saidi's Village, B. C. 11-14. ix.34. 
Measurements. 60 mm. 

Diet. The stomach contents consisted of numerous millipedes, curcu- 
lionid beetles, head of a bee, and some ants which the late Dr. W. M. 
Wheeler has identified as Odontomachus assiniensis Emery var. furvior 
Wheeler. 

Rana oxyrhynchus oxyrhynchus Smith. 

liana oxyrhynchus A. Smith, 1849, Illus. Zool. S. Africa, Rept., pi. lxxvii, fig. 2, 
2a-2c: Kafirland and region of Port Natal. 

9 (A.N.S.P., 20151). Njiana Farm, B. C. 29-31. viii. 34. 

Measurements. 58 mm. 

Rana mascareniensis venusta Werner. 

Rana venusta Werner, 1907, Sitz. Akad. Wiss. Wien, 116, part 1, pp. 1889 and 1892, 
pi. iv, f. 11: Entebbe, Uganda; Mongalla and Lagos. 

1 i 3 9 (A.N.S.P., 20144, 20189, 20190, 20193). Kitala, V. 8-15. 
viii. 34. 

9 (A.N.S.P., 20271). Saidi's Village, B. C. 9-10. ix.34. 
Measurements. All are small, the largest 9 (A.N.S.P., 20271) being 
only 52 mm. 

Rana galamensis galamensis Dumeril & Bibron. 

Rana galamensis Dumeril & Bibron, 1841, Erpet. Gen., 8, p. 367: Galam Lakes, 
Senegal. 

4 9 (A.N.S.P.. 20145, 20164, 20185, 20188). Kitala, U. 15. viii. 34. 
9 (A.N.S.P., 20242) . Fort Sibut, F. E. A. 16. x. 34. 

Variation. Three joints of the fourth toe are free of web while on R. g. 
bravana from the East Coast it is nearer two joints. 

Coloration. The thighs, with one exception, are spotted rather than 
streaked. 

Measurements. The largest 9 (A.N.S.P., 20164) measures 68 mm. 

Rana albolabris Hallowell. 

Rana albolabris Hallowell, 1856. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 8, p. 153: 
West Africa. 

5 5,29 (A.N.S.P., 20251, 20253-4, 20256-8, 20272). Saidi's Village, 
B.C. 11-14. ix.34. 

2 $ (A.N.S.P., 20222-3) . Vube, B. C. 19. ix. 34. 

3 $ 16 9 (A.N.S.P., 20218, 20305, 20453, 20456-65, 20467, 20469-73). 
Ekibondo's, B. C. 22. ix-1. x. 34. 

2^,59 (A.N.S.P., 20687, 20791-6). 30 km. e. Kribi, C, 22. xi. 34. 

Measurements. The largest $ (A.N.S.P., 20471) measures 65 mm., the 
9 (A.N.S.P., 20472) 75 mm. This exceeds by 2 mm. the maximum given 
by Noble (1924, p. 217) for his large series from the Belgian Congo. 



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295 



Arthroleptis poccilonotus Peters. 

Arthroleptis poecilonotus Peters, 1863, Monatsb. Akad. Wiss. Berlin, p. 446: Boutry, 
Ashanti, Gold Coast. 

1 (A.N.S.P., 20727) . 30 km. e. Kribi, C. 19-28. xi. 34. 

Measurements. 22 mm. 

Phrynobatrachus ? acutirostris Nieden. 

Phrynobatrachus acutirostris Nieden, 1912, Wiss. Ergeb. Deut.-Zentral-Afrika Exp. 
1907-08, 4, p. 173, figs, la-c: Rugege Forest, Belgian Ruanda-Urundi. 

$ (A.N.S.P, 20466). Ekibondo's Village, B. C. 29-30. ix. 34. 

Affinities. This frog is in such poor condition, flattened and rubbed, 
that it is not possible for me to assign it to any species with any degree of 
certainty. It appears to be very close to acutirostris but lacks the definite 
demarcation between dorsal and lateral coloring as described for that 
species. It lacks the striking light band of albotaeniata Witte, being uni- 
form brownish above, mottled on sides, throat black. 

Its toes are webbed almost to the tips with the exception of the fourth 
which has the terminal joint free; tips of toes dilated into disks; the tibio- 
tarsal articulation of the adpressed hind limb reaches to the nostril or to the 
end of the snout; snout about one and a half times the length of the orbital 
diameter. 

Measurements. 32 mm. The length of the 9 type of acutirostris was 
46 mm., females being larger than males in this genus. 

Hemisus marmoratum guineensis Cope. 

Hemisus guineensis Cope, 1865, Nat. Hist. Review, p. 100, footnote; presumably 
Guinea (Type in the Vienna Museum). 

? $ (A.N.S.P., 20244) . Fort Sibut, F. E. A. 17. x. 34. 

Measurements. This example of the large, spotted, western form, 

measures 41 mm. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 

BoULENGER, G. A. 

1894. Catalogue of Snakes in the British Museum (Natural History). London, 2, 
pp. i-xi and 1-382, figs. 1-25, pis. i-xx. 

1915. A List of the Snakes of the Belgian and Portuguese Congo. Northern Rho- 
desia, and Angola. Proc. Zool. Soc. London, pp. 193-223, figs. 1-2. 

1919. A List of the Snakes of West Africa, from Mauritania to the French Congo. 
Proc. Zool. Soc. London, pp. 267-298. figs. 1-2. 

1921. Monograph of the Lacertidae. London, 2, pp. i-viii and 1-451. 

Flower, S. S. 

1933. Notes on the recent Reptiles and Amphibians of Egypt, with a list of the 
Species recorded from that Kingdom. Proc. Zool. Soc. London, pp. 735- 
851, map. 



LOVERIDGE, A. 

1929. East African Reptiles and Amphibians in the United States National Mu- 
seum. Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., No. 151, pp. 1-135, pi. i. 

1936. "Scientific Results of an Expedition to Rain Forest Regions in Eastern Africa. 
V. Reptiles." Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 79, pp. 209-337, pis. i-ix. 

Noble, G. K. 

1924. Contributions to the Herpetology of the Belgian Congo based on the Col- 
lection of the American Museum Congo Expedition, 1909-1915. Part III. 
Amphibia. Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 49, pp. 147-347, figs. 1-8, pis. xxiii-xlii. 

Parker, H. W. 

1936. The Amphibians of the Mamfe Division, Cameroons. I. Zoogeography and 
Systematics. Proc. Zool. Soc. London, pp. 135-163, figs. 1-8, pi. i. 

ROCHEBRUNE, A. T. DE. 

1884. Faune de la Senegambie. Reptiles. Paris, pp. 1-221, pis. i-xx. 
Rovx, J. 

1910. Reise von Dr. J. Carl im Nfirdlichen Zentral-Afrikanischen Seengebiet. 
Reptilien und Amphibien. Revue Suisse Zool., 18, pp. 95-103. 

Sternfeld, R. 

1917. Reptilia und Amphibia, in Wiss. Ergeb. der Zweiten Deutschen Zentral- 
Afrika-Expedition 1910-1911, Leipzig, 1, pp. 407-510, pis. xxii-xxiv. 



(296) 



NOTES ON FISHES FROM THE GULF STREAM AND 
THE NEW JERSEY COAST 



by Henry W. Fowler 

During the past year and season the Academy has been the fortunate 
recipient of rare and interesting new fishes from off New Jersey. As many 
establish important records in distribution, or are additions to the fauna 
of the region, they are reported in the present paper. One species believed 
to be new is described and figured. Several little-known or rare forms are 
also noted in detail or figured. 

The off-shore specimens were obtained about 70 miles southeast of Cape 
May, and brought in by the trawlers of the Atlantic Coast Fisheries Cor- 
poration of New York, with their catches of commercial fishes during the 
winter of 1936-1937. Acknowledgment is extended to this organization, as 
well as to the various officers of the boats who permitted us to secure the 
materials for our museum. Mr. Fred McAdams reserved a number of 
specimens, and Mr. Otway H. Brown located others, and kindly forwarded 
them from Cape May. I visited Cape May February 27 (1). March 6 (2), 
March 13 1 3), and examined numerous catches. The numbers in parentheses 
indicate the various localities, and follow with the listed species below. 
Mr. Stewart Springer also sent me several specimens from the same region 
brought into Norfolk, Va. (4). 

Of the shore fishes, materials were received from Young's Pier at At- 
lantic City, April 1936, obtained by R. Dale Benson, Jr. (5) ; Brigantine in 
June (6) and Atlantic City in October (7) by Gordon Hill; various local- 
ities by W. E. Deets. Charles Hied reported and sent a number of interest- 
ing specimens from the Manasquan pounds. Mrs. Arthur Howes kindly 
forwarded this material as well as specimens from Toms River, Seaside 
Park and vicinity. My own notes include a number of trips to Seaside 
Park, April 19 (8), May 17 (9), May 31 (10), July 5 (11), August 22 (12), 
October 11 (13); Barnegat Bay pound, Sep. 13 (14); Beach Haven, May 
24 (15) and October 25 (16) ; Toms River tidal, June 14 (17), Sep. 6 (18), 
and Oct. 4 (19). Mr. C. B. Atkinson sent an interesting collection from 
Ventnor (20). 

Off-shore Fishes 

Squalus acanthias Linnaeus. 2 * 8 

Raja ornata Garman. 2 . 3 

Raja eglanteria Lacepede. 3 

Pomolobus pseudo-harengus (Wilson). 2 

(297) 



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Conger conger (Linnaeus). 1 - 3 
Paralichthys dentatus (Linnaeus) . 1 > 2 - 3 
Paralichthys oblongus (Mitchill). 1 . 8 . 8 

One sent by Mr. Brown is 248 mm. long and has the 4 large dark ocelli 
very conspicuous. 

Gadus callarias Linnaeus. 2 
Phycis chuss (Walbaum). 1 . 2 
Phycis tenuis (Mitchill). 2 
Merluccius biiinearis (Mitchill). 1 . 2 . 8 
Zenopsis conchifer (Lowe). 1 - 4 
Grammicolepis brachiusculus Poey. Figure i. 

A fine example of this rare fish from off Norfolk in 70 fathoms, ob- 
tained in February and sent by Mr. Springer. 

Gephyroberyx darwini (Johnson). Figure 2 (obtained by William Axelson). 

When fresh general color light rose to pink, becoming gray over whole 
abdominal cavity, where more or less purplish tints also appear. Rim of 
eye ball, maxillary, preopercle, opercular edge and mandibles bright scarlet. 
Iris grayish. Spinous dorsal warm gray. Soft vertical fins, as well as 
paired fins scarlet, deepest in color basally and more orange terminally. 
When placed in alcohol general color becomes more violaceous and the rose 
or pink tints turn pale vermilion. Received January 28, 1937, and caught 
by Mr. Axelson on the edge of the Gulf Stream, east by south of the five- 
fathom bank light-ship, about 90 miles from Cape May. 

A much smaller one received from Mr. Brown January 27 differs in no 
important way, likewise a similar specimen from off Cape Henry, obtained 
by Mr. Springer. 

Scomber scombrus Linnaeus. 2 - 3 
Poronotus triacanthus (Peck). 1 . 2 . 8 

In this connection I wish to call attention to the name Stro?nateus 
maculatus Forster 1794 for an Australian fish shown to preclude Stromateus 
maculatus Valenciennes 1833 for a South American stromateid by Whitley 
1935, who renames the latter Stromateus advectitius. This is invalid, as I 
described the last species as Stromateus brasiliensis in these Proceedings 
in 1906. 

Mycteroperca microlepis (Goode and Bean). 

Head of a large example sent by Mr. Brown, caught by Captain Dall- 
mer's smack " Superior " near the mouth of the Chesapeake Bay along the 
edge of the Gulf Stream, in March. 



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1. Grammicolepis brachiusculus. 2. Gephyroberyx darwini. 
3. Anchoviclla epsetus. 



300 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [VOL. LXXXIX 



Centropristis striatus (Linnaeus). 1 * 2 » 8 

Anthias nicholsi Firth. Figure 4. 

Color of back, when fresh, geranium pink to peach-blossom pink, fading 
paler on lower sides and under surfaces. Iris crimson to lake red, with 
lemon yellow ring around pupil. On back, along bases of dorsals, ill- 
defined band of gallstone yellow. Obscurely from upper hind part of eye 
poorly defined band back to suprascapula and below lateral line, where 
broadening out to caudal peduncle. Deep lemon yellow band from lower 
hind eye edge to costal region, and another includes all of preorbital back 
across cheek to upper prepectoral region. On tail most of scales with lemon 
yellow spots, producing obscurely mottled appearance. Lower and under 
sides of body whitish, with median lemon yellow band from symphysis to 
ventrals. Dorsals brilliant rose red or lake red, with upper part of fin 
chrome to lemon yellow, and bright gamboge blotch on each spine basally. 
Soft dorsal more broadly chrome to lemon yellow, this portion of rays ex- 
ceptionally brilliant. Anal like soft dorsal, basally geranium pink and 
nearly outer J of fin very brilliant lemon yellow. Pectoral salmon color. 
Ventral with narrow front edge rose pink, then broadly brilliant chrome 
yellow, and last or two innermost rays pale pink. Caudal largely brilliant 
chrome yellow, outer half of each lobe pink. March 3, from Mr. McAdams. 

Stenotomus chrysops (Linnaeus) . 1 - 2 > 3 
Cynoscion regalis (Schneider). 1 - 2 < 3 

Helicolenus thelmae, new species. Figure 5 (Paratype). 

Depth 2% to 2*; head 2-i to 2f, width 2. Snout, measured to orbit, 4§ 
to 4£ in head from snout tip; orbit 3 to 3^; eye 4, greater than snout or 
interorbital ; maxillary reaches § to i| in eye, expansion H in eye, length 2 
in head from snout tip; teeth villiform, in bands in jaws, on vomer and 
palatines; bony interorbital narrow, deeply concave, width 2f to 2f in 
orbit. Gill rakers 6 -4- 15, lanceolate, slender, 24 in orbit; gill filaments * 
of gill rakers. 

Antero-supraorbital spine large, low, depressed; median supraorbital low, 
obtuse, followed by 2 larger, low, broad-based postero-supraorbitals; then 
pair of similar wide set frontal spines, one each side and low keel forward, 
and well-lowered in interorbital, till opposite front of antero-supraorbital; 
pair of long widely-set parietal keels followed by 2 close-set backwardly 
directed spines posteriorly. Short postocular keel low, ends in short spine 
behind. Suprascapula with 2 short, strong spines, one above the other. 
Pair of strong though rather slender nasal spines. Preorbital with 2 low, 
broad, blunt spines below, little developed. Suborbital stay with low keel, 
spineless, broken in 3 sections of which last across cheek much longest. 
Preopercle with 5 strong spines, second from upper largest. Opercle with 
2 spines. 

Enlarged scales in lateral line 26+2; scales 58 or 59-f counted along 
and close above lateral line; 8 above to spinous dorsal origin, or to soft 
dorsal origin, 17 or 18 below to anal origin, 9 or 10 predorsal forward to 
occiput; 7 or 8 on cheek below suborbital stay. Scales very small on chest 
and breast, little larger on prepectoral region, also small scales on bases of 
vertical fins. Scales with 20 to 30 short, minute, slender apical denticles; 
8 or 9 basal radiating striae; circuli moderately fine. 



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301 





4. Anthias nicholsi. o. H< lirolenm thclmac. 

6. Hcmilripterus americanus. 7. Lcpophidium cervinam. 



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[Vol. LXXXIX 



D. XII, 11, i, third spine 2£ to 2\ in total head length, third ray 2\ to 
A. Ill, 5, i, second spine 2* to 3, first ray 2\ to 2J; caudal H, truncate; 
least depth of caudal peduncle 4 to 4 j ; pectoral 1^ to If, rays n, 8, vm; 
ventral rays I, 5, fin 1£ to If in total head length. 

When fresh brilliant red, pale to whitish on breast and belly. Under 
surface of head, prepectoral region and lower sides pink. Body with suf- 
fused, variable paler areas, appearing like underlaid or pale rosy blotches. 
Edge of maxillary, margin of orbit about eye, and edge of gill opening very 
bright vermilion. Iris rosy pink. Inside month and gill opening whitish. 
Dorsals rosy red, membranes of deeper shade than spines and eighth to 
tenth membranes of spinous fin with dark gray rose blotch. Anal rose red. 
Caudal pale vermilion basally. brilliant orange vermilion over greater ter- 
minal portion. Pectoral vermilion basally, paler terminally. Ventral rose, 
whitish or paler on outer and inner front edges. 

A.N.S.P., No. 68,261. Near Gulf Stream about 70 miles southeast from 
Cape May, New Jersey. March 6, 1937. Length 163 mm. Also No. 
68,262, paratype, same data. Length 155 mm. 

Compared with Mediterranean specimens of Helicolenus dactylopterus 
(Delaroche), 83 to 250 mm. long, that species shows smaller scales on the 
cheek below the suborbital stay, or in 12 to 17 rows counted vertically; 
gill rakers 9+17 or 18. Goode and Bean figure a specimen as H. dactyl- 
opterus from the Gulf Stream, shown as 178 mm. long and which they say 
is " slightly reduced ". It appears much closer to my Mediterranean speci- 
mens, though differs in the absence of scales on its caudal and anal fins 
basally. Both it and my Mediterranean specimens show a spine at the 
end of the second keel of the suborbital stay or nearly opposite the hind 
edge of the eye. This is distinct in the young, though small, as well as in 
the large specimen. In //. thelmae it is not developed, and no scales are 
present on the maxillary, apparently never having been developed. Its 
pattern of color also appears different and distinctive. 

(Named for Mrs. Fred McAdams.) 

Hemitripterus americanus (Gmelin). Figure 6. 

An interesting immature specimen, captured by Captain Fred Lund off 
McCries' Shoal, a few miles off Cape May, and sent by Mr. McAdams, 
May 11. 

Prionotus carolinus (Linnaeus). 2 
Peristedion miniatum Goode and* Bean. 1 . 2 
Antigonia browni Fowler. 

Fine example 140 mm. long from off Cape Henry in 70 fathoms, ob- 
tained in February and sent by Mr. Springer. It agrees in every way with 
the type. 



1937] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA 303 

Tautogolabrus adspersus (Walbaum)- 1, 3 
Lepophidium cervinum (Goode and Bean). Figure 7. 

Depth 12i; head 6£, width 2f. Snout, measured to orbit, 5£ in head; 
orbit 3§; eye 5, 1£ in snout., slightly greater than interorbital; maxillary 
reaches opposite hind pupil edge, length from front end 2j ; in head; teeth 
firmly erect, rigid, in bands in jaws, with outer row in each enlarged though 
even; anteriorly in jaws 7 or 8 rows above and 5 or 6 below; broad band 
of teeth on vomer, and narrow band on each palatine, all of which stronger, 
more obtuse than in jaws and close set; interorbital 5§ in head, little de- 
pressed concavely in front to level posteriorly; suborbital and preorbital 
region more or less cavernous. Gill rakers 3 -j- 6, short, wide-set points. 

Scales more or less uniformly small, well exposed, about 165 in axial 
lateral series between gill opening and caudal base, 30 transversely above 
anal origin. Head scaly, except muzzle and mandible; 10 scales on post- 
ocular to vertical preopercle ridge. Fins scaleless, except small scales on 
pectoral base. Scales cycloid, elongate, with 3 to 9 basal radiating striae; 
circuli fine, coarser medially. 

D. 113, origin over last £ of depressed pectoral, fin height \\ in orbit; 
caudal 10, equals orbit; A. 107, fin height 1} in orbit; pectoral rays n, 18, 
fin If in head; ventral 3, origin opposite front eye edge, of 2 rays. 

Gray brown, paler to semi-translucent below. Along back 22 obscurely 
defined, variable rounded, pale or light blotches. Iris gray, pale yellowish 
ring around pupil. Inside gill opening black, continued forward inside 
mouth along each side of base of tongue as blackish extension. Fins gray- 
ish, confluent verticals becoming blackish posteriorly, anal with blackish 
extending nearly whole extent of margin. 

Near the Gulf Stream, about 70 miles southeast of Cape May, N. J. 
1937. Fred McAdams. Length 230 mm. 

The description by Goode and Bean 1895, and Todd's drawing of figure 
306, are imperfect and render identification difficult. This figure shows the 
greatest depth 8$ (" 10| in total length " in text) ; head length shown 
greater than trunk; pectoral 2± in head; ventral base opposite hind part 
of orbit, orbit 4; confluent dorsal rays 100, caudal 9, anal 85: pectoral 
rays i, 16, length \\ in postocular space. 

Lophius piscatorius Linnaeus. 3 

Shore Fishes 

Carcharias taurus Rafinesque. 6 
Isurus tigris (Atwoocl). 

One 1320 mm. long, mounted, taken off Seaside Park, August 26, 1936, 
shown me by Will Farrows. 

Mustelus canis (Mitchill) . 12 > 13 
Pseudotriakis microdon Capello. 

One 2440 mm. (8 feet) long reported by Mr. Hied as caught in the 
Manasquan pounds in late July 1936. He noted the. low keel-like first 
dorsal fin, a subject of much controversy among the fishermen, also the 



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[Vol. LXXXIX 



color as uniform gray above, paler on the belly. Though this shark was 
shipped to New York to be butchered and no part was saved, the identifi- 
cation rests only on the details given by Mr. Hied. No previous record for 
the western Atlantic appears to have been given, other than that based on 
the Amagansett, Long Island specimen, which I have examined in the U. S. 
National Museum. 

Eulamia plumbeus (Nardo). 13 

One 2440 mm. at Bay Head, Sep. 11, and another a few days later 
2135 mm. long. 

Sphyrna zygaena (Linnaeus). 13 

Photograph sent by Mrs. Howes of example 2440 mm. long, with Lepte- 
cheneis naucrates (Linnaeus) attached. Caught 75 miles southeast of 
Barnegat Light. 

Squalus acanthias Linnaeus. 10 

Raja erinacea Mitchill. 8 . 9 . 10 - 16 

Raja ocellata Mitchill. 8 - 9 

Raja eglanteria Lacepede. 8 - 12 . 13 

Raja laevis Mitchill. 16 

Myliobatus freminvillii Le Sueur. 13 

Rhinoptera bonasus (Mitchill). 13 

Albula vulpes (Linnaeus). 

One of 5 lbs. August 15, 1936 at Ventnor, reported by Mr. Benson. 

Pomolobus mediocris (Mitchill). 10 

Pomolobus pseudo-harengus (Wilson). 5 . 9 . 10 - 15 

Pomolobus aestivalis (Mitchill). 20 

Alosa sapidissima (Wilson). 5 . 15 

Brevoortia tyrannus (Latrobe). 9 . 10 - 12 . 16 > 17 . 1S . 19 

Anchoviella mitchilli (Valenciennes). 18 . 20 

Also obtained at Barnegat in March 1936 by Mr. Deets. 
Anchoviella epsetus (Bonnaterre). 18 Figure 3 (June 21, 1936). 

Two large specimens, 128 to 138 mm. long, from Ventnor, the smaller 
caught on hook and line June 11 and the other picked up on the beach 
June 21, by Mr. Carroll B. Atkinson. Compared with an extensive series 
in the Academy from New Jersey, North Carolina, Florida, West Indies, 
and Brazil, 45 to 128 mm. long, most of the specimens have a broad silvery 
lateral band, at least as wide as the eye and often much broader or deeper. 
In the Ventnor specimens this band is distinctly less than the eye diameter 
in width and the eye 3$ to 4 in head (3i to 3$ in Academy series noted 
above). Mr. Atkinson writes, for two weeks a number were caught and 
they were seen jumping out of the water. Their color when freshly caught 
was very transparent, with a very marked, broad, lateral silvery band. 



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NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA 



305 



Considerable imperfections occur in the published descriptions and 
figures of this species. Jordan and Seale (1926) describe; "belly com- 
pressed, serrulate though in my specimens it has an entire, smooth, 
scaled median ridge; " cheeks triangular, scarcely larger than eye", which 
nearly twice as long in my specimens; " lateral silvery band about as wide 
as the eye "; length " four to six inches." 

Conger conger (Linnaeus). 7 - 10 
Muraena rostrata Le Sueur. 14 - 17 - 19 
Bagre marina (Mitchill). 

One from Manasquan, June 22, 1936, obtained by Mr. Hied. When 
fresh back deep iridescent blue, sides and below silvery white. Barbels 
pinkish. Dorsal gray blue and adipose fin blue black. Caudal bluish, old 
rose tinge on outer edges. Anal deep pink, tinted purplish medially. Pec- 
toral blue above, white below. Ventral pink. [Notes by Mrs. Howes.] 

Umbra pygmaea (De Kay). 17 

Fundulus majalis (Walbaum). 14 . 20 

Fundulus macrolepidotus (Walbaum) . 14 . 17 > 1S - 19 

Fundulus ocellaris Jordan and Gilbert. 

Specimens were seined with the above two species, listed with " 14 ", 
and seem to correspond in most every way with this southern species, re- 
ported from Louisiana, Florida, North Carolina and Chesapeake Bay. I 
have confused other specimens from southern New Jersey with the pre- 
ceding species, assuming them to be a young stage. 

Fundulus diaphanus (Le Sueur). 14 . 17 . »*, 19 
Lucania parva (Baird). 19 
Cyprinodon variegatus Lacepede. 14 . 17 - 18 - 19 
Lophopsetta maculata (Mitchill), 8 - 9 - 10 

Off Barnegat in March, by Mr. Deets. 

Paralichthys dentatus (Linnaeus). 5 . 10 . 18 
Pseudopleuronectes americanus (Walbaum). 7 
Achirus fasciatus (Lacepede) . 7 - 9 - 18 
Microgadus tomcod (Walbaum). 20 
Gadus callarias (Linnaeus). 9 
Phycis regius (Walbaum).'- 10 . 11 
Phycis chuss (Walbaum). 16 
Merluccius bilinearis (Mitchill). 10 

Off Brigantine in January, by Mr. Deets. 
Strongylura marina (Walbaum). 14 
Mugil curema Valenciennes. 20 
Menidia notata (Mitchill) . 14 - 18 
Menidia beryllina (Cope). 18 - 19 



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Membras vagrans (Goode and Bean). 20 
Apeltes quadracus (Mitchill). 19 
Syngnathus fuscus Storer. 20 
Hippocampus hudsonius De Kay. 20 
Scomber scombrus Linnaeus. 10 - 15 
Scomber colias Gmelin. 15 
Euthynnus alleteratus (Rafinesque). 

One 710 mm. long caught off Seaside Park, October 4, 1936, shown me 
by Mr. Farrows. 

Thunnus thynnus (Linnaeus). 

Mounted specimen of 514 lbs. taken off Seaside Park, September 7, also 
shown me by Mr. Farrows. 

Germo alalunga ( Bonnaterre) . 

One caught 75 miles southeast of Barnegat Light in June, reported by 
Mrs. Howes. Mr. Benson reported two of 35 and 43^ lbs. from off Bar- 
negat July 10. These are the first records I have obtained. 

Scomberomorus maculatus (Mitchill). 

Off Sea Isle City, in April, by Mr. Deets. 

Makaira nigricans Lacepede. 

Mounted specimens, one 6 feet 10 inches long and one 7 feet 5 inches, 
taken a mile off Barnegat Light, August 11, shown me by Mr. Farrows. 

Xiphias gladius Linnaeus. 

One of 10 feet at Asbury Park, August 8, 1935, and another from 20 
miles off Brieile, June 9, reported by Mr. Wm. Evans. 

Oligoplites saurus (Schneider). 

One June 14, 1936, taken in Manasquan pound by Charles Hied. Back 
rather narrowly gray, with darker gray markings extending clown on the 
sides. Sides and lower surfaces silvery gray with amber mottling. Dorsals 
amber, tinged with pink basally. Anal white, reddish tinge basally. Caudal 
dark amber, very light posteriorly, upper and lower edges blackish. Pec- 
toral amber. Ventral white, pinkish basally. [Note sent by Mrs. Howes.] 

This interesting tropical American fish is new to New Jersey. A second 
specimen was taken a little later. 

Seriola zonata (Mitchill). 7 

One 190 mm. from Manasquan; one 200 mm. at Ocean City, July 15; 
reported in Barnegat Bay off Waretown, August 15. 

Seriola lalandi Valenciennes. 

Two, 305 mm. long from Manasquan in October. 



1937] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA 307 

Caranx hippos (Linnaeus). 

One 208 mm. from Manasquan. 
Caranx crysos (Mitchill). 

One 248 mm. from Manasquan in September. Dorsal, anal and caudal 
fins dark gray. 

Selene vomer (Linnaeus). 

One August 3, 1936, in Toms River at Cranmore by Alfred Irons; 
young from Ocean Gate, September 12, by Richard Bardsley. 

Trachinotus carolinus (Linnaeus)." 
Pomatomus saltatrix (Linnaeus). 7 . 12 . 15 
Rachycentron canadum (Linnaeus). 

One 953 mm. from Stone Harbor, June 21, 1936, by Mr. Deets. 

Poronotus triacanthus (Peck): 9 . 10 . n - 12 > 15 
Palinurichthys perciformis (Mitchill). 

One 305 mm. caught October 7, 1936. in Back Channel at Brigantine 
by G. H. Pennman. 

Coryphaena hippurus Linnaeus. 

One 1345 mm. August 28, from off Seaside Park, mounted, shown me 
by Mr. Farrows. Speckled with blue spots. 

Perca flavescens (Mitchill). 10 
Pomotis gibbosus (Linnaeus). 5 . 8 
Huro floridana (Le Sueur). 10 
Roccus saxatilis ( Walbaum) A T . *°. " 
Maurice River at Bivalve in April, by Mr. Deets. 

Morone americana (Gmelin) 1S 
Centropristis striatus (Linnaeus) ."- B . 10 . 15 
Lobotes surinamensis (Rloch). 

One 660 mm. taken at Beach Arlington, in 1935, mounted and shown 
me by Mr. Farrows. 

Stenotomus chrysops (Linnaeus). 0 . 10 . 11 . 15 
Cynoscion regalis (Schneider). 5 - 10 . 15 
Bairdiella chrysura (Lacepede). 20 
Leiostomus xanthurus Lacepede. 7 
Micropogon undulatus (Linnaeus). 5 . 7 > 20 
Menticirrhus saxatilis (Schneider). 5 . 15 
Pogonias cromis (Linnaeus). 7 . 20 
Myoxocephalus octodecimspinosus (Mitchill). 8 
Prionotus carolinus (Linnaeus). 7 - 0 . 11 . 12 
Prionotus strigatus (Cuvier). 0 - 10 
Cyclopterus lumpus Linnaeus. 



One 270 mm. obtained at North Wildwood, April 2, 1936, by Captain 
Fred Miller, sent by Mr. Deets. One 355 mm. reported at Young's Pier in 
the spring by Mr. Benson. 

Tautoga onitis (Linnaeus). 7 
Gobiosoma bosc (Lacepede). 18 
Enchelyopus anguillaris (Peck). 

Large example from Brielle, received from Mr. Deets in April. 

Ammodytes americanus De Kay. 20 
Opsanus tau (Linnaeus). 7 
Balistes carolinensis Gmelin. 7 
Stephanolepis hispidus (Linnaeus). 

One 117 mm. long from Manasquan, in June. D. I, 32; A. 32. 

Sphoeroides maculatus (Schneider). 7 . 9 ' 10 » 12 > 13 - 14 - 10 
Chilomycterus schoepfi (Walbauin) . 7 . 13 > 14 
Mola mola (Linnaeus). 

One off Shark River in late May, of 400 lbs., reported by Mrs. Howes. 
One 250 lbs. from 30 miles off Atlantic City, July 19, reported by Mr. 
Benson. 



(30S) 



Copyrighted material 



A COLLECTION OF HAYTIAN FISHES OBTAINED BY 
MR. STANLEY WOODWARD 



by Henry W. Fowler. 

During February of 1936 Mr. Woodward, a Trustee of the Academy, 
visited Port-au-Prince and arranged with Mr. Andre Audant of the " Ser- 
vice National de la Production Agricole et de I'Enseignement Rural to 
form a collection of Haytian fishes for the Academy museum. Accordingly 
upward of a thousand specimens were secured and preserved in alcohol. 
Some are new records, or of importance geographically and many desiderata 
to our collections, besides one which is described as new to science. I wish 
to thank Mr. Woodward for his interest and care, in securing this valuable 
addition to the collection of fishes. Altogether 112 species are represented. 

CLUPEIDAE 

Harengula sardina Poey. 

Harengula macrophthalma (Ranzani). 

Opisthonema oglinum (Le Sueur). 

ENGRAULIDAE 
Anchoviella epsetus ( Ronnaterre) . 
Cetengraulis edentulus (Tinier). 

SYNODONTIDAE 

Synodus intermedius (Agassiz). 

POECILIIDAE 

Gambusia beebei Myers. 

Abundant at Boucan, Gabriel, April 19, 1936, also with the next two 
species. 

Limia ornata Regan. 
Limia nigrofasciata Regan. 

HEMIRAMPHIDAE 

Hemiramphus brasiliensis (Linnaeus). 

BOTHIDAE 

Syacium micrurum Ranzani. 

CYNOGLOSSIDAE 
Symphurus plagusia (Schneider). 

FISTTJLAB IIDAE 

Fistularia tabacaria Linnaeus. 

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PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF 



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AUL0ST0MIDAE 

Aulostomus maculatus Valenciennes. 

SYNGNATHIDAE 
Hippocampus punctulatus Guichenot. 

SPHYRAENIDAE 

Sphyraena guachancho Cuvier. 

MUGIIIDAE 

Mugil curema Valenciennes. 

POLYNEMIDAE 

Polydactylus virginicus (Linnaeus). 

H0L0CENTRIDAE 
Holocentrus adscensionis (Osbeck). 

SCOMBEIDAE 

Scomberomorus regalis (Bloch). 

TRICHIURIDAE 

Trichiurus lepturus Linnaeus. 

STROMATEIDAE 

Seserinus paru (Linnaeus). 

CARANGIDAE 

Oligoplites saurus (Schneider). 
Decapterus punctatus (Agassiz). 
Caranx bartholomaei Valenciennes. 
Caranx hippos (Linnaeus). 
Caranx latus Agassiz. 
Blepharis crinitus (Mitchill). 
Vomer setapinnis Mitchill. 
Selene vomer (Linnaeus). 
Chloroscombrus chrysurus (Linnaeus). 
Trachinotus glaucus (Bloch). 

CENTR0P0MIDAE 

Centropomus undecimalis (Bloch). 
Centropomus ensiferus Poey. 

AMIIDAE 

Astrapogon stellatus (Cope). 

SERRANTDAE 

Cephalopholis fulvus ruber (Schneider). 
Cephalopholis fulvus punctatus (Linnaeus). 
Serranus striatus (Bloch). 



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311 



Serranus guttatus (Linnaeus). 
Serranus morio (Valenciennes). 
Hypoplectrus unicolor (Walbaum). 
Prionodes tabacarius (Cuvier). 
Diplectrum radiale (Quoy and Gaimard). 
Eudulus dispilurus (Giinther). 
Rypticus coriaceus (Cope). 

PRIACANTHIDAE 

Priacanthus arenatus Cuvier. 

LUTJANIDAE 

Lutjanus griseus (Linnaeus). 
Lutjanus synagris (Linnaeus). 
Lutjanus jocu (Schneider). 
Lutjanus analis (Cuvier). 
Ocyurus chrysurus (Bloch). 
Rhomboplites aurorubens (Cuvier). 

POMADASYIDAE 

Haemulon plumieri (Lacepcde). 
Haemulon macrostomum Giinther. 
Haemulon flavolineatum (Desmarest). 
Haemulon bonariense Cuvier. 
Bathystoma rimator (Jordan and Swain). 
Anisotremus virginicus (Linnaeus). 

SPARIDAE 

Calamus arctifrons Goode and Bean. 
Archosargus unimaculatus (Bloch). 

SCIAENLDAE 

Odontoscion dentex (Cuvier). 

Stellifer colonensis Meek and Hildebrand. 

Ophioscion woodwardi, new species. 

Depth 3i to 3^; head 3£ to 3i, width 2\ to 2h Snout 3£ to 3$ in head; 
eye 3£ to 4§, 1 to 1£ in snout, 1 to 1J in interorbital; maxillary reaches 
^ to ^ in eye, length 2f to 2f in head; bands of fine villiform teeth in jaws, 
narrowing posteriorly in width; lower face of mandible with 5, rather large, 
close-set pores; interorbital 3J to 4$, low, broadly convex; hind preopercle 
edge with 11 or 12 firm denticles, of which 2 lowest little enlarged. Gill 
rakers 10 + 14, lanceolate, slender, If, in gill filaments, which 2\ in eye. 

Scales 51 to 53 along and close above lateral line to caudal base; tubular 
scales 42 or 43 + 24 to 26 in lateral line, last extend medially on caudal 
nearly or quite to its tip; 7 above, 9 below; 35 or 36 predorsal forward to 
snout end. Cheek with 3 rather large scales between eye and preopercular 
ridge. Scales on chest, prepectoral region and breast small. Basal sheath 



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of soft dorsal 1 or 2 scales wide. Anal with low basal scaly sheath. Caudal 
finely scaled basally. Scales with 12 to 13 basal radiating striae; 27 to 30 
apical denticles, with 5 or 6 series of basal elements transversely; circuli 
fine, above and below coarse, apically absent. 




Ophioscion woodwardi. 



" D. XI, 28, i or 29, i, fourth spine If to 1* in head, first branched ray 
2± to 2§; A. II, 7, i, second spine 2 ; ^ to 2|, first ray 1£ to 1£; caudal 1J to 
1^, cuneate behind or with infero-median rays little longest; least depth of 
caudal peduncle 3J to 3*; pectoral 1£ to 1$, rays n, 15 to n, 17; ventral 
rays If to 1^ in head. 

Back very pale or light olivaceous, sides and lower surfaces bright sil- 
very white. On back and sides each row of scales, their courses oblique 
and crossing lateral line, with pale olivaceous median spot, thus forming 
obscure or faint lines. Superimposed along course of lateral line at upper 
costal region, about 11 or 12 slightly darker, parallel and less inclined short 
faint bars; not reaching far above lateral line or below level of pectoral. 
Iris whitish. Opercle dark gray. First dorsal whitish basally, each mem- 
brane gray black terminally, due to closely-set dark dots. Soft dorsal 
whitish, each membrane with dark gray bar terminally and close before 
each ray. Pectoral and caudal grayish. Ventral and anal whitish, each fin 
pale yellowish medially. 

A.N. S.P., No. 68,257. Port-au-Prince, Haiti, 1936. Andre Audant. 
Collection of Stanley Woodward. Length 134 mm. Type. 

A.N.S.P., Nos. 68,258 to 68,260. Same data. Paratypes. Length 103 
to 112 mm. 

Distinguished chiefly by its increased fin rays, proportions, long caudal, 
moderately protruding snout, and apparently related to the Pacific coast 
Ophioscion simuhis Gilbert and 0. imiceps (Jordan and Gilbert). 
(Named for Mr. Stanley Woodward.) 

Eques punctatus Schneider. 
Eques lanceolatus (Linnaeus). 



]937] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA 

GERRIDAE 

Eucinostomus gula (Cuvier). 
Gerres cincreus (Walbaum). 
Diapterus rhombeus (Cuvier). 

MULLIDAE 

Pseudupeneus maculatus (Bloch). 
Pseudupeneus martinicus (Cuvier). 

MALACANTHIDAE 

Malacanthus plumieri (Bloch). 

EPHIPPIDAE 

Chaetodipterus faber (Broussonet) . 

CHAETODONTLDAE 
Chaetodon capistratus Linnaeus. 
Pomacanthus paru (Bloch). 
Angelichthys ciliaris (Linnaeus). 

HEPATIDAE 

Hepatus caeruleus (Schneider). 
Hepatus bahianus (Castelnau). 
Hepatus hepatus (Linnaeus). 

SCORPAENIDAE 

Scorpaena quadricornis Cuvier. 

TRIGLIDAE 

Prionotus punctatus (Bloch). 

CICHLIDAE 

Cichlasoma adspersum (Giinther). 

P0MACENTR1DAE 
Pomacentrus adustus (Troschel). 
Pomacentrus fuscus Cuvier. 

Pomacentrus leucostictus (Muller and Troschel). 
Abudefduf marginatus (Bloch). 

LABRIDAE 

Lachnolaimus maximus (Walbaum). 
Halichoeres garnoti (Valenciennes). 
Halichoeres caudalis (Poey). 
Halichoeres radiatus (Linnaeus). 
Thalassoma bifasciatum (Bloch). 

CALLYODONTIDAE 

Cryptotomus ustus (Valenciennes). 
Cryptotomus beryllinus Jordan and Swain. 



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[Vol. LXXXIX 



Sparisoma abildgaardi (Bloch). 

Sparisoma chrysopterum (Schneider). 

Callyodon croicensis (Bloch). 

Callyodon emblemmaticus (Jordan and Rutter). 

ELEOTRIDAE 

Dormitator maculatus (Bloch). 

GOBIIDAE 

Chonophorus taiasica (Lichtenstein) . 
Gobius oceanicus Pallas. 

MONACANTHIDAE 

Monacanthus ciliatus (iVlitchill). 
Monacanthus oppositus Poey. 
Cantherines pullus (Ranzani). 
A 1 uterus scriptus (Osbeck). 

OSTRACIONTIDAE 
Lactophrys triquetcr (Linnaeus). 
Lactophrys bicaudalis (Linnaeus). 
Lactophrys tricornis (Linnaeus). 

TETRODONTIDAE 

Lagocephalus laevigatus (Linnaeus). 
Sphoeroides spengleri (Bloch). 

DIODONTIDAE 

Diodon holacanthus Linnaeus. 

ANTENNARIIDAE 

Antennarius tigris Poey. 

ONCOCEPHALIDAE 

Oncocephalus nasutus (Valenciennes). 
Halicutichthys aculeatus (Mitchill). 



FAUNAL WORKS 

Beebe, William, and John Tee-Van. 1928. The Fishes of Port-au-Prince Bay, Haiti. 
Zoologica, Sci. Contrib. N.Y. Zool. Soc. vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 1-279, many outline 
text figures. 

Fowler, Henry W.. 1910. A new albuloid fish from Santo Domingo. Proc. Acad. Nat. 
Sci. Phila. vol. 62, pp. 651 to 654, 1 fig. 
1919. Notes on Tropical American Fishes, Hayti. I.e., p. 149 (with bibliographic 
references). 

1928. Fishes from Florida and the West Indies, Haiti. I.e., vol. 80, pp. 456 to 462. 

Myers, George S.. 1928. The Existence of Cichlid Fishes in Santo Domingo. Copeia, 
No. 167, June 28. 1928. pp. 33 to 36. 



Copyrighled material 



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NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA 



315 



1931. Poeciliid fishes of the genus Mollienisia in Hispaniola, with notice of a new 
Limia from the Samana Peninsula. Amer. Mus. Novit., N.Y., No. 503, pp. 1 
and 2. 

1935. An Annotated List of the Cyprinodont Fishes of Hispaniola, with descrip- 
tions of two new species. Zoologica, N.Y. Zool. Soc, vol. 10, No. 3, pp. 301 
to 316. 

Nichols, John T., 1915. On Heterandria zonata sp. now and Heterandria versicolor 
(Gunther) from the island of San Domingo. Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., 
N.Y., vol. 34, pp. 603 to 604, figs. 1 to 3. 

Nichols, John T., and George S. Myers. 1923. A new Limia from San Domingo. 
Amer. Mus. Novit., N.Y., No. 79, pp. 1 and 2. 



A SECOND STUDY OF NEW AND LITTLE-KNOWN MADAGASCAR 
GROUSE-LOCUSTS (ORTHOPTERA, ACRIDLDAE, ACRYDIINAE), 
WITH A KEY TO THE SPECIES OF THYMOCHARES 



by James A. G. Rehn. 

In 1929 it was my privilege to publish the descriptions of a number of 
new genera and species of Madagascar grouse-locusts, 1 in which paper was 
also included observations on types of certain Malagasy species, and genera, 
previously described by Dr. J. L. Hancock and now contained in the 
Morgan Hebard Collection, deposited in the Academy of Natural Sciences 
of Philadelphia. 

Since that time other collections of the group from Madagascar have 
been received by Mr. Hebard and by the Academy, and in this paper the 
descriptions of four very distinctive new species included in the more recent 
additions are presented, together with supplementary records of species 
previously described or recorded by me, and a critical discussion of the 
genus Thymochares, to which belong two of the four new species here 
described. 

The genus Procytettix, of which a Madagascar species is here described, 
was previously known only from the Seychelles, while the nearest relation- 
ship of the Malagasy genus Thymochares is here shown to be with the 
Seychellian Coptottigia. 

Metrodorae 

Oxytettix - cataphractus, :i new species. Plate 12, figs. 1 and 2. 

Differing from the genotypic species 0. hastatus (Hancock), 4 with the 
type and original series of which the present form has been compared, in 
the smaller size, less elevated dorsal section of head, more heavily sculp- 
tured dorsum of the pronotum, more pronounced cicatriform character of 
the paired nodes on the dorsum of the caudal process, more definitely un- 
dulate lateral carinae of the pronotum caudad of the humeral angles, the 
less sharply acute character of the sinus of the caudal margin of the lateral 
lobes of the pronotum, the less attenuate and less distinctly compressed 
ultimate sternite (subgenital plate) of the male and in the shorter, stouter, 
much more robust and more deeply sculptured caudal femora. 

1 New and Little-known Madagascar Grouse-locusts (Orthoptcra. Acrididae, Acrvdi- 
inae). Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., LXXXI, pp. 477-519, pis. 17-21. 

2 Substituted by Rehn (Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila.. LXXXI, p. 482, (1929) ), for 
the preoccupied generic name Oxynotus Hancock. 

3 Clad in mail, in allusion to the armored dorsum of the pronotum. 

4 See Rehn, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila.. LXXXI, p. 482, (1929). 

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The two species are quite distinct from one another and their separation 
should in no way be difficult. 

Type. — $ ; Analamazotra, Great Eastern Forest, Madagascar. Octo- 
ber 20, 1930. (Olsoufeiff.) [Hebard Collection, Type no. 1303.] 

Size small: form robust, subdepressed: surface rugose, particularly of 
the pronotal disk and the caudal femora, general surface of head, pronotum 
and much of limbs minutely shagreenous, on dorsum of pronotum impresso- 
cribose between major sculptural features. 

Head with greatest width of vertex, as seen from dorsum, subequal to 
the width of one of the eyes, latero-cephalic margining carinae arcuately 
converging cephalad, narrowly failing to meet the median carina, which 
projects very weakly cephalad of the line of the vertex and extends but a 
short distance eaudad, surface of vertex bifossulate between the eye border 
and latero-cephalic carinae and the median carina, these fossae separated 
from the occiput proper by a transverse series of low shagreenous points; 
in lateral aspect the occipital line is seen to be moderately ascending to the 
vertex, which is not evident in profile, being masked by the eye, fastigio- 
facial angulation of the median carina rounded rectangulate, not projecting 
at all cephalad of the eyes; interantennal protuberance of the frontal costa 
rather marked and strongly arcuate when seen in profile, its curvature 
dorsad starting between the paired ocelli, which are placed very faintly 
ventrad of the middle of the eyes: frontal costa very narrow, linearly sul- 
cate from half way between the vertex and the paired ocelli to the median 
ocellus, margins subparallel, hardly at all diverging ventrad; width of head 
across genae about one and one-tenth the width across the eyes: eyes sub- 
globose, very faintly flattened dorsad. Antennae slightly shorter than the 
caudal femur, composed of twelve articles, those distad of the two proximal 
ones slender and subflagellate, third faintly longer than first, fourth three- 
fifths the length of third, fifth to eighth progressively increasing in length, 
ninth equal to eighth, tenth slightly shorter than ninth, slightly deplanate 
and widened, eleventh as tenth but shorter, twelfth slightly shorter than 
eleventh, aciculate. 

Pronotum relatively short, its aciculate caudal extremity not surpassing 
the apex of the abdomen and distinctly failing to reach the apices of the 
caudal femora, greatest width across spiniform processes of the lateral lobes 
contained one and two-third times in the greatest pronotal length, greatest 
width across humeral angles contained slightly less than three and one-third 
times in the pronotal length: cephalic margin of pronotal disk transverse 
truncate, anterior carinae brief but marked, subparallel, surface of prono- 
tum between shallowly excavate, lateral carinae obsolete between principal 
sulci, humeral angle of same broadly obtuse as seen from dorsum, thence to 
caudal extremity the lateral carinae are distinct and undulate, from briefly 
cephalad of the humeral angles bordered mesad by a distinct but fluctuating 
parallel carination: median carina of pronotum continuous and evident 
throughout but less marked immediately cephalad than elsewhere, in profile 
gently undulate, of even width except that between the principal sulci it is 
more inflated laterad than elsewhere; principal transverse sulci distinct, 
neither severing the median carina; surface of pronotal disk rather deeply 
and rugosely sculptured, in fact almost corrugated, a pair of shallow and 



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rounded fossae plaeed immediately cephalad of the line of the humeral 
angles, a deeply impressed pair, nearer the median carina, briefly caudad 
of the same line, followed by a third deep pair more lateral in position, a 
more shallow fourth pair and finally a preapieal single impression crossed 
by the median carina, the areas between the fossae are elevated cicatriform, 
two between the humeral angles and a following pair being obliquely dis- 
posed sublinear ridges: lateral lobes with the spiniform laterad directed 
processes of the ventro-caudal angles pronounced, very acute, the cephalic 
margin of same, as seen from dorsum, nearly straight oblique, the caudal 
margin of the processes concavo-emarginate, seen in cephalic aspect the 
processes are distinctly deplanate; humeral sinus slightly acute, almost no 
trace of a cannula from the sinus to the humeral angle; scapular area 
relatively broad proximad, regularly narrowing distad, dorsal border formed 
bv the undulate lateral carina. 
No evident tegmina or wings. 

Ultimate abdominal sternite (subgenital plate) with greatest proximal 
width equal to two-thirds of median length on ventral surface, seen in 
ventral aspect the dorso-lateral margins are arcuately convergent to the 
narrow, blunted and very briefly fissate apex; dorsal aspect with the depla- 
nate paired lateral plates shallowly concave. 

Cephalic femora with dorsal carina slightly undulate, in no way lobate; 
median femora with both dorsal and ventral carinae moderately undulate. 
Caudal femora robust, greatest depth slightly greater than a third the 
femoral length; dorsal carina finely serrulate, pregenicular lobe low, rect- 
angulate; dorso-lateral face with the oblique cicatriform ridges ten in num- 
ber, of which the four central ones are much larger than the others and 
distinctly strumose-elevated; pagina with seven oblique shagreenous rugae, 
of which three are more decided and conspicuous than the others; ventro- 
lateral face broad, relatively full, without sculpture: caudal tibiae with 
concavity of extensor surface marked, the same weakly broadening distad, 
elevated lateral borders serrato-dentate and finely serrulate as usual in the 
group: caudal tarsi with proximal and distal articles subequal in length. 

General color cinnamon-brown to dresden brown, washed over much of 
the face, genae, occiput, a portion of pleura, most of abdomen and ventral 
surface of body, ventro-external faces of caudal femora, and clouding of all 
femora and annulation of cephalic and median tibiae and tarsi with black- 
ish fuscous. Eyes light brownish olive, mottled with mummy brown. An- 
tennae distad of proximal article mummy brown, a preapieal area involving 
slightly more than the entire tenth article and very narrow distal borders 
to the others distad of the second, creamy white. Pronotum with its base 
chiefly cinnamon-brown, most of its more impressed areas washed with 
mummy brown, as is also part of the scapular area. Caudal femora with 
internal face blackish, incompletely trifasciate with light ochraceous-buff, 
the pregenicular pale bar nearly complete, certain of the large strumosities 
of the dorso-lateral face indistinctly pencilled with mummy brown; caudal 
tibiae solidly blackish fuscous except for a pregenicular annulus of dresden 
brown; caudal tarsi annulate alternately with dresden brown and blackish 
fuscous similar to the cephalic and median pairs. 

Length of body, 7.47 mm.; length of pronotum. 6.29; greatest width 
across lateral process of pronotum, 3.94 ; length of caudal femur, 4.62. 

The type of this very striking species is unique. 



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Cryptotettix imerina Rehn. 

1929. Cryptotettix imerina Rehn, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., LXXXI, p. 487, pi. 
17. tins. 9-12. I $ ; Madagascar.] 

Analamazotra, Great Eastern Forest; November, 1930; (Olsoufeiff) ; 
one male., one female; [Hebard Cln.]. 

These specimens have been compared with the type. 

Holoccrus lucifer (Servillc). 

1839. Tetrix lucifer Servillc, Hist. Nat. Ins., Orth., p. 758. [ $ ; Madagascar.] 
Analamazotra, Great Eastern Forest; November, 1930; (Olsoufeiff); 

one male, one immature male; [Hebard Cln.]. 

Cayus, Great Eastern Forest; May, 1925; (Lamberton) ; one male; 

[A.N.S.P.J. 

I have already figured this remarkable species and as well as the related 
H. taurus. 5 

Andriana pyramidata Rehn. 

1929. Andriana pyramidata Rohn. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., LXXXI, p. 506, pi. 
20, figs. 7-8. pi. 21, figs. 1-2. [$, $ ; Madagascar.] 

Analamazotra, Great Eastern Forest; November, 1930; (Olsoufeiff); 
two males, four females; [Hebard Cln.]. 

In the original description I discussed the very considerable amount of 
variation in size and coloration found in the original series. The present 
representation fully supports the previous conclusions, in addition the 
minima of both sexes are slightly smaller than those previously given. 
Certain of the present series show a very definite ground color of olive- 
buff, but a single individual, a female, being as dark as brownish fuscous. 

Procytettix hova, new species. Plate 12, figs. 3 and 4. 

^'hen compared with the genotypic species P. fusiformis Bolivar, 7 the 
present form is seen to differ in the somewhat more produced vertex, pro- 
portionately longer pronotum with a regularly low arcuate median crest, 
.smoother and non-gibbulose surface and rectangulate caudal apex of same, 
in the shorter and more robust limbs, particularly the caudal femora, and 
more nearly equal pulvilli of the proximal article of the caudal tarsi. 

Type. — 6 ; Analamazotra, Great Eastern Forest, Madagascar. October 
20, 1930. 1 Olsoufeiff.) [Hebard Collection, Type no. 1304.] 

Size larger than of P. fusiformis; form generally similar but pronotum 
more produced and more arcuate longitudinally. 

Vertex as seen from dorsum with its interocular width faintly greater 
than width of one of the eyes, projection of vertex cephalad of eyes equal 

s Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., LXXXI, p. 493, pi. 19, figs. 2 and 3, (1929). 

°This gonns was described in 1912 by Bolivar (Trans. Linn. Soc. London. 2nd ser., 
Zool., XV. p. 265. pi. XIII. fig. 2). based on P. fusiformis from Mahe. in the Seychelles. 
He then placed the genus after Ocyteltix Hancock. 

7 Idem. T$ ; Forest at summit of Morne Pilot, Mahe. Seychelles.] 



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to slightly more than half of intcrocular width, semi-ovate in outline, the 
margins of projection regularly arcuate convergent to the slightly more 
protuberant median carina, which continued caudad becomes obsolete on 
the occiput, surface of vertex subarcuate in transverse section, in profile the 
line of the occiput is moderately straight ascendent over vertex and sub- 
acutely rounds in a very definitely produced and subacute fastigio-facial 
angle to the facial line, which is thence briefly oblique retreating to very 
shortly dorsad of the paired ocelli, from which point the profile ventrad is 
distinctly but much less decidedly retreating, the portion to the median 
ocellus very low arcuate: frontal costa extending from very briefly dorsad 
of the paired ocelli to the median one, narrow, distinctly sulcate, the margins 
but faintly divergent ventrad: paired ocelli placed on a line between the 
centers of the eye depth: eyes moderately protuberant, their outline as 
seen in lateral view subpyramidical, the greatest width (at ventral fourth) 
but slightly less than greatest length of same: antennae inserted between 
lower fourths of eyes, composed of thirteen articles, those distad of the 
proximal two slender. 

Pronotum as a whole distinctly tectate, in profile the median carina is 
evenly low arcuate throughout, greatest depth from lowest point of lateral 
lobes to highest point of median carina contained two and two-fifth times 
in the pronotal length, the caudal extremity reaching distad to slightly 
caudad of the middle of the caudal femora, and leaving exposed a distal 
section of the abdomen not quite twice as long as the exposed dorsal length 
of the head; greatest width of pronotum across the ventral angles of the 
lateral lobes contained one and three-fourth times in the pronotal length, 
and that across the humeral angles slightly less than two and two-fifth 
times in the same length: cephalic margin of the pronotal disk very weakly 
obtuse-angulate; anterior carinae definitely indicated caudad to the firsi 
transverse sulcus, faintly convergent caudad; lateral carinae continuously 
. indicated from the principal transverse sulcus caudad to the pronotal ex- 
tremity, obtuse-angulate at the but moderately indicated and not at all 
produced humeral angles, thence caudad regularly convergent to the broadly 
arcuate caudal point of the pronotum; median tectate carina entire, not 
severed, as a whole the culminating ridge of the evenly tectate dorsum, but 
the ridge itself faintly more compressed on a line with the first transverse 
carina; surface of dorsum shallowly cribrosc-rtigulose but not deeply sculp- 
tured: lateral lobes of pronotum with ventral margin oblique subarcuate, 
ventro-caudal process at apex narrowly subtruncate. not at all reflexed; 
humeral sinus acutely incised; humero-apical carina between humeral sinus 
and humeral angle distinct, nearly straight oblique; scapular area broad, 
point of greatest width of same very faintly caudad of humeral angle, sub- 
equal to one-third the greatest (dorsal) length of the lateral lobes of pro- 
notum, scapular area regularly narrowing thence distad. ending at the be- 
ginning of the distal arcuation of the dorsal surface where the lateral margin 
of the pronotum joins the lateral carina. 

Tcgmina and wings not evident. 

Ultimate sternite (subgenital plate) distinctly compressed, subcorneal, 
medio-longitudinally carinate ventrad, immediate apex briefly and narrowly 
fissate, concave paired plates of the dorsal surface of the same sternite in 
contact for most of their evident length; ultimate evident tergite (supra- 
anal plate) relatively small, elongate acute trigonal. 



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Cephalic and median femora moderately slender, greatest depth of 
cephalic contained about three and one-third, and of median three times 
in their respective lengths, margins carinate but non-lobate, caudal face of 
cephalic pair unicarinate, cephalic face of median pair bicarinate; cephalic 
and median tibiae subcompressed, subsulcate dorsad, non-lobate: caudal 
femora relatively robust, greatest depth contained two and four-fifth times 
in the femoral length, dorsal carina with the pregenicular lobe distinct, 
slightly acute; dorso-lateral surface with the oblique ridges not deeply 
sculptured, not at all cicatriform; external pagina obliquely and not at all 
deeply patterned; ventro-lateral surface broad: caudal tibiae with six to 
seven definite marginal dentiform spines on the finely serrulate lateral 
canthi: caudal tarsi with proximal article half again as long as distal one, 
pulvilli of distal article of virtually equal length. 

Allotype. — 9 ; same data as type but taken November, 1930. [Hebard 
Collection.] 

The following features are those of difference from the above description 
of the male sex. 

Size slightly larger: form similar to that of male. 

Vertex with width between eyes equal to one and one-quarter times the 
eye width; head otherwise as in male. 

Pronotum with greatest depth proportionately slightly less than in male, 
contained two and nine-twentieth times in pronotal length; carinae, surface 
details and sculpture as in male. 

Ovipositor jaws compressed, narrow, dorsal pair at deepest point nearly 
twice as deep as ventral; dorsal valves with dorsal surface in profile low 
arcuate, narrow, alternately biscriate scrrato-dentate, ventral valves sub- 
arcuate in profile, margins serrato-dentate ; ultimate sternite relatively large, 
subcompressed, scoop-like, distal half of dorsal margin evenly arcuate to 
apex when seen in profile, immediate apex with a small rectangulate, dorsad 
recurved process. Cephalic and median femora slightly less robust and 
more slender than in the male, the greatest depth of cephalic contained 
three and seven-eighth, of median four times in their respective lengths: 
caudal limbs as in male. 

Base color ranging from dull russet (type) to bister on one hand (para- 
type) and drab on the other (allotype), mottled to a variable degree with 
a clove brown pattern of small cloudings and carinal beading which pro- 
duces a " pepper and salt " appearance, particularly in the bister and drab 
females, the male type, which is dull russet, having these overlying pattern 
features much less general or evident. The head in all is more infuscate 
than most of the body, the eyes are snuff brown to cinnamon-brown, the 
antennae buckthorn brown with the two proximal articles as dark as the 
head. In the paratypic female there is an indefinite concentration of clove 
brown posthumerally on the disk which suggests the frequent dark triangles 
there found in certain phases of many species of grouse-locusts. The caudal 
femora have the ventro-lateral face appreciably and quite solidly infuscate, 
while in all the females the carinal dark beading of these limbs is marked. 



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Measurements (in millimeters) 



Length 

of 
body 



pronotum 



Length of 



Greatest 
width of pro- 
notum across 
lateral lobes 



Greatest 
width of pro- 
no turn across 
humeral angles 



Length 

of 
caudal 
femur 



$,type 8.4 

$, allotype 11.5 

9,paratypc ... 11.3 



5.36 
6.88 
5.7 



3.02 
3.36 
3.36 



2.26 
2.52 
2.35 



5.2 

5.78 

5.62 



In addition to the type and allotype I have before me a paratypic 
female bearing the same data as the type. Except for color features noted 
above, and its faintly smaller size, this individual does not differ appre- 
ciably for the allotype. 

The discovery of a species of Procytettix on the island of Madagascar is 
of particular interest, adding as it does to the extensive information now 
available on the intimate relationship and common origin of Madagascar 
and Seychellian types. 



1929. Tliytnorhares Rehn, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., LXXXI, p. 477. 
Examined anew in the light of additional material it is now evident 
that Thymochares is not nearly related to Dcltonotus Hancock, as origi- 
nally stated, the features of resemblance, and apparent affinity, being due 
to the parallelism in general structure which produces compressed, tectato- 
cristate forms in a number of groups of the Acrydiinae. The difference in 
form of the costal region of the face already noted, and certain details of 
the vertex clearly indicate that Thymochares must be removed from the 
Cladonotae. 

It is now clear the Bolivar's monotypic genus Coptottigia, 8 known only 
from the Seychelles, is very definitely the nearest, and in fact a very close, 
relative. However, the description and single figure of Bolivar's genus 
and species leave much to be desired; the pronotum is said to be sub- 
deplanate toward the apex and that section is also described as obtusely 
sinuate, neither of which conditions are seen in Thymochares. The fastigial 
structure and the form of the frontal costa of Thymochares are as figured 
for Coptottigia, but we arc unable to learn anything regarding the general 
form, proportions and surface sculpture of the caudal femora, or the form 
and development of the pronotal scapular area, which is such a striking 
feature in Thymochares. The sole figure of Coptottigia is of the cephalic 
aspect of the insect and this sheds no light on these important characters 
of Thymochares. 

8 Trans. Linn. Soc. London, 2nd ser., Zool., XV, p. 267, pi. 13, fig. 4, (1912). Geno- 
type. — C. crktata, Bolivar, from Silhouette and Mahe, Seychelles (both sexes known). 



Acrvdiiae 



THYMOCHARES Rehn 



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PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF 



[Vol. LXXXIX 



For the present I would prefer to consider Thymochares a near relation 
of Coptottigia, pending physical comparison with the latter. The relation- 
ship of both to Coptotettix appears definite, and until information to the 
contrary is produced they should be placed in the vicinity of that broadly 
distributed genus. 

The genotypic species, T. galeatus, is known to me only from the unique 
type now in the British Museum of Natural History. 

Having examined all the known species of the genus I am presenting 
the following preliminary key for their separation, realizing its incomplete- 
ness as both sexes are known for no one of them. However, the features 
which separate the forms are so decided their recognition should not be 
difficult: 

1. Vertex little, if at all, elevated dorsad of the eyes. Frontal costa nar- 

rower, with margins subparallel. Pronotum with humero-apical carina 
marked but not sublamellate at any point; dorsal surface of pronotum 
not at all fossulate. Caudal femora relatively slender, greatest width 
equal to one-third of length; dorsal carina not lamellato-elevated. . .2 
Vertex distinctly elevated dorsad of the eyes. Frontal costa broader, 
with margins distinctly though gradually diverging ventrad. Prono- 
tum with humero-apical carina marked and distinctly adpressed sub- 
lamellate dorsad of the insertion of the caudal femora; dorsal surface 
of pronotum distinctly excavato-fossulate dorsal of the caudal coxae. 
Caudal femora robust, greatest width equal to two-fifths of length; 
dorsal carina distinctly lamellato-elevated crassipes, new species 

2. Cephalic margin of pronotum but moderately produced over occiput, 

broadly obtuse-angulate when seen from dorsum; scapular area of 
pronotum broader; pronotal crest not evenly arcuate, caudal half more 
straight oblique toward caudal extremity bolivari, new species 

Cephalic margin of pronotum sharply produced over occiput, acute- 
angulate when seen from dorsum; scapular area of pronotum nar- 
rower; pronotal crest evenly arcuate galeatus Rehn 

Thymochares crassipes, new species. Plate 12, figs. 5-7. 

The above key sets forth the more striking differential features of this 
species, which is heavier, more rugose and with much stouter caudal femora 
than either of its relatives. At first glance it might be considered the 
female sex of bolivari, particularly as it is from the same locality, but the 
many features of difference which are distinctly more than sexual in im- 
portance, require its recognition as a distinct species. The fact that T. 
galeatus is known only from the female sex, and that it more nearly re- 
sembles T. bolivari, of which we are acquainted only with the male, would 
indicate that crassipes must be recognized as a distinct species. 

Type. — 9 ; Analamazotra, Great Eastern Forest, Madagascar. Octo- 
ber 20, 1930. (Olsoufeiff.) [Hebard Collection, Type no. 1301.] 



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NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA 



325 



Size large (for genus): form robust, appreciably compressed, median 
crest of pronotum well elevated and cephalad arcuate in profile, without 
normally evident tegmina and wings: surface rugose, with a quite general 
micro-sculpture of elevated shagreenous points. 

Head with width across genae subequal to that across eyes: seen from 
dorsum vertex equals half of total width across eyes, and extends briefly 
cephalad of eyes in a low regular arcuation, the marginal circulation of 
which is broken mesad by the projecting median carina, dorsal surface of 
vertex bifossulate, these extending obliquely caudo-laterad and becoming 
mere narrow but relatively deep sulcations caudad of the eyes, mesad of 
which sulci a low but distinct obliquely transverse carinate node marks on 
each side the cephalic limit of the occiput: seen in lateral aspect the occipi- 
tal line ascends to the median carina, which broadly arcuate over the 
fastigia-facial angle passes without break into the lateral margins of the 
frontal cost a, which latter are low but quite definite and ventrad obliquely 
and evenly become less evident to the median ocellus: frontal costa in 
cephalic aspect produced by a forking of the median carina at a point 
slightly dorsad of the paired ocelli and on a line with the dorsal point of 
the eyes, thence the sublamellate lateral margins of the costa regularly but 
not at all decidedly diverge, enclosing a deeply sulcate costa which reaches 
ventrad to the median ocellus but is to no degree scutellate, its greatest 
width not exceeding four-elevenths of the interocular width of the vertex. 
Antennae inserted between the lower thirds of the eyes and appreciably 
ventrad of the paired ocelli, basal articles only remaining in type. Eyes 
broad trigonal in basal outline, greatest depth to greatest width as 13 to 11. 
seen in dorsal and cephalic aspect moderately prominent. 

Pronotum with greatest width across the caudo-lateral angles of the 
lateral lobes equal to almost half of the pronotal length, width at the usual 
position of the humeral angles faintly less than five-eighths of the width 
across the lobes, in lateral view the greatest pronotal depth, "i.e. from high- 
est point of arcuation of the crest to ventral point of caudo-lateral angles 
of the lateral lobes, equals two-fifths of the pronotal length: arcuation of 
the median carina regular in cephalic half, thence caudad nearly straight 
oblique to apex, highest point of crest at one-third of the length; cephalic 
margin of pronotum obtuse-angulately produced over the occiput; lateral 
carinae, as seen from dorsum, straight convergent to the acute apex of the 
pronotum; humero-apical carinae extending from the sinus of the caudal 
margin of the lateral lobes of the pronotum in a broad arcuation dorsad of 
the caudal coxae, there sublamellate, adpressed, and marking off a broad 
scapular area, the width of which is almost one-third the length of the area, 
ventral margin of scapular area concave in cephalic half, nearly straight 
oblique in caudal half; anterior carinae short, not strongly indicated, sub- 
arcuately convergent caudad; humeral angles subobsolete; lateral lobes 
with sinus of caudal margin acutely excavate, the point of angle and the 
ventral margin of sinus rounded; lateral point of caudo-lateral production 
of lobes rectangulate, usual caudal truncation of area appreciably though 
shallowly concave: surface of dorsum of pronotum, particularly in caudal 
half, with distinct but rounded anastomosing subcarinate irregular welt-like 
ridges, which are chiefly transverse in disposition, on which and in the in- 
tervals between which are scattered low acute tuberculate asperities in 
addition to the much more thickly disposed shagreenous sculpture; paired 



4 



32(3 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [VOL. LXXXIX 

posthumeral fossulations of the disk marked, reaching across the whole 
dorsum on each side of the crest but without defining margins and their 
surface passing evenly into that of remainder of the dorsum. 
No trace of tegmina or wings. 

Ovipositor valves rather strongly compressed, dorsal pair much deeper 
and heavier than ventral, extensor margins of both pairs with teeth sharp 
and definite, apices of ventral valves moderately decurved: ultimate ster- 
nite (subgenital plate) compressed, subquadrate; marginally area at apex 
of same indented and with distad ends of lateral margins narrowly lapping 
over and clasping the lateral borders of the apical area. 

Cephalic and median femora slender, length equal to approximately five 
times the depth, longitudinal carinae distinct, dorsal one almost straight. 
Caudal femora robust, broad, greatest width equal to two-fifths the length, 
least pregenicular depth (including median carina) equal to two-fifths of 
greatest depth; dorsal carina strongly elevated, lamellate, entire except for 
the usual marginal micro-serrulation; dorso-external surface with the usual 
oblique cicatriform nodes quite marked, large and rounded, numbering 
eleven including that at the base of the genicular arch, portions of their 
surfaces glabrous and the remainder with shagreenous points; carinae bor- 
dering lateral pagina dorsad and ventrad marked, well elevated, pattern of 
pagina sharp, made up of seven oblique rugae bearing shagreenous asperi- 
ties; ventro-external surface deeply canaliculate; ventral carina low arcuate, 
lamellate: caudal tibiae slightly but appreciably shorter than the femora, 
lateral margins appreciably lamellate distad, bearing six internal and eight 
external dentiform spines, the excavate dorsal surface broadening in the 
same direction: caudal tarsi incomplete. 

General color prouts' brown, darkening to mummy brown on the genae, 
interocular portion of face, pleura and numerous small areas. scattered over 
the pronotum and limbs, also lightened with many patches or sprinklings 
of ochraceous-buff to buckthorn brown on the pronotum, and particularly 
the crest and scapular area, limbs and abdomen. The caudal femora show 
a rough grouping of three suboblique, transverse narrow pale bands, the 
abdomen shows both lateral and ventral series of pale dotting, while the 
ovipositor jaws are quite pale. The vicinity of the highest arcuation of the 
humero-apical carinae of the pronotum shows several well contrasted quite 
dark patches. Eyes very deep mars brown. 

Length of body, 11.3 mm.; length of pronotum, 10; greatest width of 
pronotum across lateral lobes, 5.08; length of caudal femur, 7.3. 

The type of this striking and distinctive species is unique. 

Thymochares bolivari, 9 new species. Plate 12, figs. 8 and 0. 

The more evident differential features of this species have been given 
in the preceding key to the forms of the genus. It is more nearly related to 
T. galeatus than it is to T. crassipes, but can at once be separated from the 
former by the far less marked cephalic production of the pronotal crest. 

Type. — $ ; Analamazotra, Great Eastern Forest, Madagascar. Novem- 
ber, 1930. (Olsoufeiff.) [Hebard Collection, Type no. 1502.] 

9 In appreciation of the fundamental contributions of Dr. Ignacio Bolivar to our 
knowledge of the Acrydiinae. 



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The following description is in part comparative with the preceding one 
of T. crassipes. 

Size average (for the genus): form as a whole more like that of galea- 
tus than of crassipes, lacking evident tegmina and wings: surface much 
smoother than in crassipes, general surface micro-sculpture far weaker and 
much less evident than in latter. 

Head with width across genae slightly greater than that across eyes 
(as 7 to 6.2) : seen from dorsum vertex at narrowest point is equal to but 
one-third the width across the eyes (as 2.2. to 6.3), except for the median 
carina not reaching as far cephalad as the most extreme point of the ocular 
rotundity, the marginal (angulation of the vertex in its general character 
and incompleteness as in the other species of the genus but its outline more 
flattened arcuate, median carina less definitely projecting, dorsal surface of 
occiput distinctly bifossulate, caudad limiting nodes more linear and more 
straight transverse than in T. crassipes: seen in lateral aspect the occipital 
line is less distinctly ascending than in crassipes, the lesser production of 
the vertex giving to the fastigio-facial area a quite different profile from 
that seen in crassipes, the line from the highest point of the eyes, above 
which it is but narrowly visible, obliquely arcuate, conforming to the cur- 
vature of the eye outline, to the paired ocelli, the outline of the inter- 
antcnnal portion of the frontal costa more definite, more elevated and more 
regularly arcuate, to the median ocellus, than in T. crassipes: frontal costa 
in cephalic aspect narrower, more compressed and its lateral borders very 
faintly divergent ventrad, much less so than in T. crassipes, greatest width 
of costa (ventrad) less than three-tenths of the interocular width of the 
vertex. Antennae inserted between the lower fourths of the eyes; incom- 
plete in type (and paratype). Eyes less trigonal in basal outline than in 
T. crassipes, more bullate, outline more subspherical but the eyes are hardly 
more prominent when seen from dorsum, in lateral view greatest depth is 
to greatest width as 20 to 17. 

Pronotum with greatest width across caudo-lateral angles of the lateral 
lobes very slightly greater than one-half of pronotal length (as 5.8 to 11.2), 
width at the usual position of the humeral angles faintly greater than 
three-fifths the width across the lobes, in lateral view the greatest pronotal 
depth is equal to faintly more than seven-sixteenths of the pronotal length; 
caudal apex of pronotum acute, but distinctly less attenuate than in cras- 
sipes: arcuation of median carina as in T. crassipes but highest point of 
crest is but faintly cephalad of middle of pronotum: cephalic margin of 
pronotum even more weakly obtuse-angulate produced over occiput than 
in T. crassipes, the carina itself advanced very faintly more than the de- 
planate margin; pronotal carinae other than median of the general type 
seen in crassipes except that the anterior are subobsolete, the merest traces 
remaining, the humeral angles are indicated only by a fine carination, and 
the humero-apical carinae, while equally definite and similarly arcuate, are 
not adpresscd sublamellate, as in crassipes, and join the lateral carinae 
appreciably caudad of the point where they fuse in that species, marking 
off a more evenly wide scapular area, the greatest width of which is little 
more than one-sixth the length of the area, this narrowing gradually in both 
directions: lateral lobes with sinus of caudal margin quite narrowly actite 
incised, the point of angle sharper than in crassipes and neither leading 



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PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF 



[Vol. LXXXIX 



margin in any way arcuate: surface of dorsum of pronotum lacking the 
fossae of crassipes, regularly and quite smoothly tectate with a subobsolete 
rugulosity of both inclined surfaces, a single low rounded node-like tubercle 
placed on a line dorsad of the caudal coxae, surface of scapular field ob- 
scurely impresso-punctulate. 
No trace of tegmina or wings. 

Ultimate abdominal sternite (subgenital plate) strongly compressed, 
elongate, narrow, spout-like, the immediate apex narrowly fissate, the small 
lobes laterad of the same moderately acute, dorsal surface of lateral margins 
of sternite markedly deplanate, ventral surface of plate markedly carinate 
medio-longitudinally. 

Cephalic and median femora similar to but more robust than in cras- 
sipes, the length equal to from three times (median) to three and one-half 
times (cephalic) in depth. Caudal femora much more slender than in 
crassipes, agreeing in proportions with those found in galeatus, the greatest 
width but faintly more than one-third the length; dorsal carina much less 
elevated than in crassipes, in no way lamellate; dorso-external surface with 
twelve nodes, somewhat less decided and less deeply sculptured than in 
crassipes; pattern of pagina with seven oblique rugae with less pronounced 
asperities than in crassipes; ventro-external surface not at all canaliculate, 
obliquely deplanate, surface minutely shagreenous; ventral carina low 
arcuate: caudal tibiae slightly shorter than the femora, marginal lamella- 
tions shallower than in crassipes, bearing six to seven spines on the friargins, 
dorsal surface less excavate than in crassipes: caudal tarsi with proximal 
article one and two-fifth length of distal. 

General color ranging from ochraceous-buff washed quite generally with 
mummy brown to dresden brown finely mottled with the darker color. In 
the latter condition the pronotal crest, the humero-apical carinae. the dorsal 
and ventral caudal femoral carinae and the cephalic and median femora 
and tibiae in large part are checked or annulate with mummy brown on the 
base color, in the paler type this being less marked and entirely absent 
from the humero-apical carinae; ventro-lateral surface of the caudal femora 
quite solidly mummy brown and the pagina and dorso-lateral surface of the 
same may or may not be obliquely and irregularlv trifasciate with mummy 
brown. Eyes mars brown. The type shows what is probably a Mcndelian 
color phase in a strongly marked condition, possessing a nearly vertical but 
somewhat irregular narrow stripe of light ochraceous-buff which extends 
across the pronotum from immediately above the cephalic coxae to the 
dorsal crest very briefly cephalad of its highest point. No trace of this is 
to be found in the other specimens examined. 

Length of body, 9.4 mm.; length of pronotum, 6.7; greatest width of 
pronotum across lateral lobes, 3.36; length of caudal femur, 5.45. 

In addition to the type I have before me a paratypic male bearing the 
same data as the type but taken in December, and an immature female, 
bearing the same data as the paratypic male. The latter shows no note- 
worthy feature of difference from the type, and the immature female, which 
is in the instar preceding maturity, agrees with the adult males in every 
essential feature of the species. 



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329 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE 12 

Fig. 1. — Oxytettix calaphraclus, new species. Dorsal view of male (type). Anala- 
mazotra, Madagascar. (X5.25.) 

Fig. 2. — Oxytettix cataphr actus, new species. Lateral view of male (type). Anala- 
mazotra, Madagascar. (X4.5.) 

Fig. 3. — Procytettix hova, new species. Dorsal view of male (type). Analamazotra, 
Madagascar. (X5.25.) 

Fig. 4. — Procytettix hova, new species. Lateral view of male (type). Analamazotra, 
Madagascar. (X4.5.) 

Fig. 5. — Thymochares crassipes, new species. Dorsal view of female (type). Anala- 
mazotra, Madagascar. (X4.6.) 

Fig. 6. — Thymochares crassipes, new species. Lateral view of female (type). Anala- 
mazotra, Madagascar. (X4.6.) 

Fig. 7. — Thymochares crassipes, new species. Face of female (type). Analamazotra, 
Madagascar. (Greatly enlarged.) 

Fig. 8. — Thymochares bolivari, new species. Dorsal view of male (type). Anala- 
mazotra. Madagascar. (X4.5.) 

Fig. 9. — Thymochares bolivari, new species. Lateral view of male (type). Anala- 
mazotra. Madagascar. (X4.5.) 



FURTHER NOTES ON THE GENUS HEMIMERUS (DERMAPTERA, 
HEMIMERINA, HEMIMERIDAE) 

BY JAMES A. G. REHN AND JOHN W. H. REHN. 

Since the appearance of our study of the interesting genus Hemimerus 1 
we have had the opportunity to examine several additional lots of material 
representing four of the known species. One of these is of particular in- 
terest because it contains the previously undescribed male of Hemimerus 
sessor. 

We wish at this time to acknowledge the help of Mr. Gordon Thompson 
of the British Museum of Natural History, Dr. Joseph Bequaert of the 
Harvard School of Tropical Medicine, and Messrs. Nathan Banks and 
Arthur Loveridge of the Museum of Comparative Zoology, who have either 
loaned us material or have supplied us with valuable information. 

Furthermore, Dr. Joseph Bequaert has called our attention to the fol- 
lowing two papers which were overlooked in our previous bibliography. 

1911. Bischoff, Berliner Ent. Zeitschr., LVI, pp. (31)-(32). (A review of Heymons' 
paper and a comparison of the embryological development of Hemimerus with 
that of other insects, particularly some Diptera.) 

1931. Schouteden, Bull. Cercle Zool. Congolais, VII, fasc. 2, p. 30. [In Rev. Zool. 
Bot. Air., XX, fasc. 2, p. 30.] (Notes on insects of the Belgian Congo, men- 
tioning Hemimerus talpoides.) 

In the course of the present work it was thought that it would be help- 
ful if the information concerning the host association of these ectoparasites 
was briefly summarized. 

Practically all of the species of the genus Hemimerus have been recorded 
from Cricetomys gambianus, which is the oldest known species of that 
genus. It is our belief that the host determinations have, in many cases, 
been either field identifications or were made without a careful study of the 
closely related forms, because as far as it is possible to ascertain at the 
present time the only Hemimerus found on Cricetomys g. gambianus is 
H. talpoides. It is to be regretted that in many cases the host has not 
been identified, and as a result there are numerous references in the litera- 
ture to various species of Hemimerus which give the host as Cricetomys sp. 

The known hosts of Hemimerus hanseni are Cricetomys emini, with its 
two races C. emini emini and C. emini proparator, and C. gambianus elgonis. 
It has been recorded likewise from C. gambianus, presumably C. g. gam- 
bianus, but it is our belief that these identifications may be incorrect, or 
inexact. 

1 Rehn and Rehn. A studv of the Genus Hemimerus. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 
LXXXVII, pp. 457-50S. (1936). 

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332 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF 



[Vol. LXXXIX 



The type and only known specimens of H. vicinus are said to be from 
Cricetomys emini. We doubt the validity of this identification, since it 
seems more likely that this specimen was taken from one of the other forms 
of Cricetomys that have been described from Nigeria, possibly a member 
of the gambianus complex. 

Information concerning the hosts of H. vosseleri is very meager, the only 
definite record being from Cricetomys gambianus enguvi. As is the case 
with many of these ectoparasites, its host has also been said to be Crice- 
tomys gambianus without further comment as to subspecies. 

The hosts of Hemimerus sessor are Cricetomys gambianus raineyi, C. 
gambianus elgonis and C. emini, the latter two being recorded for the first 
time in the present paper. We believe that the identification of C. emini 
was probably made in the field or without the presence of other material 
for comparison, and that a subsequent study of the material will show it 
to be a member of the gambianus complex. 

The only record of a specific host for Hemimerus deceptus is of Crice- 
tomys gambianus haagneri. 

The genotype, //. talpoides has been recorded numerous times from 
Cricetomys gambianus. The sole record of this species from under rotting 
wood in Liberia may be explained by its dropping from the host, or by its 
leaving the cooling body of a Cricetomys. 

For //. bouvieri we have very little definite information, the only record 
being from Cricetomys emini which might be considered as a somewhat 
doubtful identification. 

The only known host of Hemimerus advectus is Cricetomys ansorgei. 

This constitutes all the known information concerning the hosts of these 
interesting ectoparasites, and while it is not extensive, we hope that in the 
future it may be possible to secure more information of this character with 
definitely correlated material of the host for critical determination. 

In our previous characterization of the Hanseni Group we said that the 
female sex was not capable of locking the anal orifice, but, as a result of 
the examination of more material, we find that the female is able to close 
the anal orifice in much the same manner as are members of the Talpoides 
Group. The closing, however, is not as complete, nor as readily accom- 
plished, as in the members of that more specialized group. 

Hemimerus hanseni Sharp. 

1895. Hemimerus hanseni Sharp, Cambr. Nat. Hist., V, p. 218, figs. 114-116. 

We have examined two additional lots of this widespread species and 
in these rather large series there is no important variation other than 
that which has previously been noted. 

It is our desire to correct some of the information given in our previous 
paper. We recorded Cricetomys emini as the host of the material from 



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333 



Kaimosi, Kakamega, Kenya Colony, while this should have been Cricetomys 
gambianus elgonis. We wish to thank Mr. Arthur Loveridge for bringing 
this to our attention. 

In a footnote we previously expressed our belief that Lulenga, Kivu, 
was given in error by Dr. Chopard for Lubango. However, Dr. J. Bequaert, 
in a recent letter, has informed us that Lulenga is a " well-known Mission 
of the White Fathers, in 1°25' S., 29 20' E., a few miles north of Burunga ". 

Specimens examined (additional to previously reported series). — 72; 
24 $ , 16 6 , 32 juv. 

Jinja, Uganda; 1934; ("off Cricetomys") ; 13 9, 11 6 , 16 juv. 9, 7 
juv. £ ; [B.M.N.H.J. 

Kampala, Uganda; February 14, 1934; (G.H.E. Hopkins, "off Crice- 
tomys emini proparator ") ; 119, £>£ , 8 juv. 9. 1 juv. 6 ; [B.M.N.H.J. 

Hemimerus vicinus Rehn and Rehn. 

1936. Hemimerus vicinus Rehn and Rehn. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci.. LXXXVII, p. 481, 
figs. 2, 11 and 19. 19; Ife, Nigeria.l 

We have had the opportunity to examine two additional females of this 
species, which apparently were taken with the type. These specimens agree 
in all essential respects with the type. 

Specimens examined (in addition to type). — 2 9 . 

Ife, Nigeria; October 1926; (A. S. Pearse, " Cricetomys emini")] 2 9 ; 
[U.S.N.M.]. 

Hemimerus sessor Rehn and Rehn. Figs, i to 4. 

1936. Hemimerus sessor Rehn and Rehn, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., LXXXVII, 
p. 487, figs. 3, 12 and 23. I 9 ; Mount Gargues, Kenya Colony. 1 

The previously unknown male of sessor is most closely related to vos- 
seleri and deceptus, being in most characteristics practically intermediate 
between these two forms. As is the case with the other members of the 
Talpoides Group the process of the ultimate sternite is directed sinistrad, 
while in the males of the Hanseni and Advectus Groups - this process points 
dextrad. In common with both vosseleri and deceptus the male of sessor 
has the ultimate tergite transverse. From both of these forms sessor differs 
by having the ultimate tergite with its greatest length equal to one-third 
of the proximal or slightly more than one-half of the apical width. The 
process of the ultimate sternite has its dorsal margin almost evenly arcuate 
when seen in profile, being but slightly flattened near its base, instead of 
being evenly arcuate (vosseleri) or with a dorsal lobe in its distal portion 
(deceptus) ; the proximal shoulder of this process is more pronounced than 
in vosseleri and its ventral margin is more concave in its distal portion than 
is the case in that form. The whole process of the ultimate sternite is 
quite different from that found in deceptus. 

2 The male of vicinus, the only member of the Vicinus Group, is as yet, unknown. 



334 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF 



| Vol. LXXXIX 



Allotype. — 6 ; Koich, Gulu District, Uganda. May 27, 1936. (A. M. 
Gwynor; " off Cricetomys ernini.") [British Museum of Natural History.] 

The male of this species, as is the case with all the other forms of the 
genus, differs from the female solely in features of the terminal abdominal 
segments. 

Penultimate tergite broadly transverse, roughly symmetrically trapezi- 
form, greatest width (proximal) equal to approximately two and one-half 
times greatest length; lateral margins evenly and obliquely convergent 
caudad, roundly passing into the subtruncate distal margin, this subtruncate 
portion being equal to slightly more than two-thirds of the proximal width, 
or slightly less than twice the greatest length. In lateral aspect the dorsal 
lines of the penultimate and ultimate tergites are seen to be in practically 
the same plane, which is declivent distad. 

Ultimate tergite, when viewed from the dorsum, strongly transverse, 
greatest length equal to one-third proximal or slightly more than one-half 
apical width; lateral margins evenly and obliquely convergent caudad, 
roundly passing into the weakly rounded distal section/ 1 

Ultimate sternite slightly asymmetrical, but as a whole trigonally pro- 
duced, greatest length, exclusive of median process, equal to slightly more 
than three-fourths the greatest width, which is slightly proximad of the 
base of the produced area; sinistral margin almost straight, dextral weakly 




4 

2 



Figures 1-4. Hemimerus sessor Rehn and Rehn, $ (allotype). Koich, Guilt 
District, Uganda. (All greatly enlarged.) 1. Dorsal view of apex of abdomen. 2. Ven- 
tral view of apex of abdomen. 3. Lateral outline of process of ultimate sternite. 4. 
Outline of parameres. 

and obliquely Insinuate, both portions converging slightly dextrad of the 
median line to form the process which is directed slightly sinistrad; the 
production is curved ventro-sinistrad, peduncle quite short, ovate in section, 
portion of process distad of peduncle compressed, immediate apex narrowly 
rounded, its ventral outline distad of proximal shoulder distinctly concave, 
dorsal margin flattened in basal half, evenly arcuate in distal portion; its 
length, in lateral aspect, equal to slightly less than one-fifth of the greatest 
width of the sternite. 

Cerci as in all the other members of the genus. 

Parameres: see Figure 4. 

Variation. — The only variation observed in the males of this species has 
already been noted under the description of the allotype. 

3 In the allotype and in one of the only other two known males of this species the 
distal margin of the ultimate tergite seems somewhat deformed. In the allotype thi& 
margin is slightly flattened in the dextral half, while in another male this' margin 



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335 



The only significant variation observed in the females here examined is 
in the ventral surface of the ultimate tergite which is usually deplanate but 
occasionally may be weakly convex. Some of the females before us show 
a portion of the area between the actual margin and the submarginal carina 
of the ultimate sternite broken away; this is in all probability due to damage 
while in copula. 

Distribution. — This species, which was originally known only from 
Mount Gargues, Kenya Colony, is now seen to occur in portions .of Uganda 
(Mount Elgon area and Koich and Daga, Alero in the Gulu District). 

Host association. — The original material of this species was found on 
Cricetomys gambianus raincyi, while the material here recorded is stated to 
be from Cricetomys gambianus elgonis and C. emini (vide supra). 

Specimens examined (at this time). — 34; 17 9 , 3 £ , 5 juv. 9 . 4 juv. $ , 
5 juv. sex uncertain. 

Sipi, Mt. Elgon. Uganda; December 18; I A. Loveridge. "from Crice- 
tomys gambianus elgonis"); 1 9 ; [M.C.Z.]. 

Koich, Gulu District, Uganda; May 27, 1936; (A. M. Gwynor. " off 
Cricetomys emini") ; 59 , 1 6 (allotype), 2 juv. $ . 5 juv. sex uncertain; 
[B.M.N.H.]. 

Daga, Alero, Gulu District, Uganda; April 21. 1936; (H. G. E. Hop- 
kins, " off Cricetomys emini ") ; 11 9 , 2$ , 5 juv. 9 ; [B.M.N.H. ]. 

Hemimerus talpoides Walker. 

1871. Hemimerus talpoides Walker, CuLtil. Derm. Salt. Brit. Mus., V. Suppl. p. 2. 

We have had the privilege of examining two additional lots of material 
of this species, and with the exception of a single male they agree in all 
essential respects with our previous characterization of the species. This 
one male, from Kissy, Sierra Leone, has the median portion of the distal 
margin of the penultimate tergite slightly produced, instead of being trun- 
cate. In this same lot of material there was one female which had a portion 
of the margin of the ultimate sternite broken off. 

Specimens examined (at this time). — 45; 16 9 ,33 , 13 juv. 9 . 13 juv. $ . 

Kissy, Sierra Leone; February 1. 1936; (" off Cricetomys gambianus ") ; 
10 9 , 2$, 5 juv. 9, 5 juv. $ ; [G. B. Thompson Collection]. 

Sierra Leone; (" off Cricetomys gambianus ") ; 6 9, 1 $ . 8 juv. 9 . 8 
juv. i, [B.M.N.H.] . 

appears weakly bilobate. But from an examination of the only specimen that has this 
margin perfect we are able to sav that under normal conditions this margin would be 
weakly rounded. This specimen, which is more perfect in this respect, was not chosen 
as allotype because of other damages. The claws of the host rats are apparently 
responsible for a high percentage of damaged tergites in the Hemimeri which we have 
studied. Occasionally a tergite is completely cracked longitudinally but the injury in 
all cases, although evident, had healed and the parts were fully fused. 



ON A NEW SPECIES OF DRONGO FROM SIAM 

BY RODOLPHE MEYER DE SCHAUENSEE. 

Included in the collections of birds which from time to time have been 
arriving at the Academy from Siam are three specimens of a new species 
of drongo. 

I propose to name it for my friend, James Bond, an ardent student of 
West Indian birds. 

Dicrurus bondi, n. sp. 

It is a gray drongo, best characterized by its small size, short tail, and 
complete absence of black on the forehead. 

From Dicrurus leucophaeus mouhoti, the resident gray drongo of the 
district in which bondi was collected, it differs in its very much paler colora- 
tion both above and below, absence of black on the forehead, pale gray 
instead of black outer webs on the outer tail feathers and dusky brownish 
instead of black primaries. In bondi the lower belly and under tail coverts 
are paler than the rest of the under parts, while in mouhoti they are of the 
same color. 

From Dicrurus leucophaeus leucogenys (found in winter with Dicrurus 
bondi), Dicrurus bondi differs in being darker both above and below, in 
having no white on the sides of the head or lores, no black on the forehead, 
the primaries entirely dusky brownish instead of pale gray with the distal 
third black. 

Eight specimens of D. leucophaeus leucogenys from eastern Siam 
measure: 



Wing 


Tail 


Oilmen ' 


$ 148 mm. 


146 mm. 


17.5 mm. 


6 140.5 mm. 


135 mm. 


17 nun. 


6 145.5 mm. 


142.5 mm. 


16.5 mm. 


& 139 mm. 


133 mm. 


16 mm. 


' 146 mm. 


142 mm. 


17.5 mm. 


$ 139 mm. 


133 mm. 


16.5 mm. 


9 138 mm. 


137.5 mm. 


17 mm. 


$ 135.5 mm. 


140 mm. 


16 mm. 



3 Measured from the anterior edge of the nostril. 



(337) 



Seven specimens of Dicrurus leucoyhatus mouhoti from eastern Siam 
measure : 





W T inn' 


1 all 


nultripn - 


$ 


14b mm. 


152 mm. 


18 mm. 


6 


1 A A 

144 mm. 


"I A i \ 

149 mm. 


17 mm. 


$ 


144 mm. 


157 mm. 


18 mm. 


9 


142 mm. 


149 mm. 


18 mm. 


$ 


142.5 mm. 


147.5 mm. 


18 mm. 


9 


140 mm. 


147.5 mm. 


18 mm. 


-: 


143 mm. 


146 mm. 


18 mm. 


9 


139 mm. 


140 mm. 


18 mm. 


specimens of Dicrurus bondi measure: 






Wing 


Tail 


Culmen 3 


$ 


132 mm. 


123.5 mm. 


15 mm. 


$ 


125 mm. 


113.5 mm. 


15.5 mm. 


S 


131 mm. 


121 mm. 


15.5 mm. 



The above three specimens of Dicrurus bondi were collected at Ubol-Khulu 
and Ubol-Chanuman just north of Ubol and south of Khemrat near the 
Mekong River (Lat. 15 N., Long. 115°E.). All three birds are fully adult. 

Type— Adult male, No. 127391 in the collection of The Academy of 
Natural Sciences of Philadelphia; collected by Lucas Bah on January 7. 
1936, at Ubol-Chanuman, eastern Siam. 

Measurements. — Total length, 245 mm.; Wing, 132 mm.; Tail, 123.5 mm.; 
Culmen, 15 mm. 

In a general way this new drongo is reminiscent of Dicrurus I. leuco- 
phacus of Java. Bondi, however, is a very much paler bird both above and 
below, has less sheen on the upper parts, and has the outer remiges pale 
gray instead of black. It is rather surprising to find another species of 
gray drongo in Siam. It is probable that it breeds somewhere in China 
and is but a winter visitor to Siam. 

-• 3 Measured from the anterior edge of the nostril. 



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FIRST PRELIMINARY REPORT ON THE RESULTS OF THE SECOND 
DOLAN EXPEDITION TO WEST CHINA AND TIBET: 
TWO NEW BIRDS FROM TIBET 

by Rodolphe Meyer de Schauensee. 

Among the birds secured on the Second Dolan Expedition the following 
two appear to belong to undescribed races. 

The first is a new race of Crossoptilon crossoptilon for which I propose 
the name of: 

Crossoptilon crossoptilon dolani, subsp. now 

This new Eared Pheasant is a most interesting one. It is the link be- 
tween C. c. crossoptilon (Hodgs.) and C. c. harmani, Elwes. In fact it is 
really an exceedingly pale replica of harmani. A series of eight birds was 
secured; three males and four females at Jyekundo on May 19th and an 
additional female on June 8th, 1935, about three days march due north of 
Jyekundo, on the Yalung river. 

The adult male which I have selected as the type has the same color 
pattern as harmani except that the back of neck is not darker than the 
mantle. 

The description of the bird as compared to harmani is as follows: 

Top of the head black. Chin, throat, fore neck, " ears a bar separat- 
ing the black cap from the gray of the neck, and the belly, white as in 
harmani. 

Entire upper parts, including the hind neck, pale ash-gray . very much 
the color of the lower back of harmani. Tail, with twenty feathers, similar 
to that of harmani, except that the central pair has a less purple, more 
green sheen, and the webbing is rather more decomposed. 

Primaries dusky brown, the outer web pale gray, instead of both webs 
dusky brown as in harmani. Exposed parts of the secondaries pale blue 
gray, not dark gray with a bluish purple sheen as in harmani. 

Chest and sides of body pale gray slightly paler than the upper parts. 
Flanks pale gray, the feathers very decomposed and hair like, white at the 
tips. Thighs ash-gray instead of dark brownish gray as in harmani. Under 
tail coverts very hair like and ash-gray, instead of blackish gray. 

The feathers of the upper parts are very rough to the touch, instead of 
smooth and rather silky, and in this respect C. c. dolani differs from 
harmani and all other races and species of Crossoptilon. 

The measurements are as follows: Wing 328 mm. Culmen 36.5 mm. 
Tail 388 mm. Tarsus 93.5 mm. 

Type, A.N.S.P. No. 126350, adult male, collected at Jyekundo, S. 
Kokonor, (33° N., 96° 45' E.) on May 19th, 1935 by Ernst Schafer. 

Material examined. Crossoptilon c. crossoptilon, eight specimens; C. c. 
harmani, one specimen; C. c. droayini, one specimen; C. c. dolani, eight 
specimens. 

(339) 



The series of C. c. dolani is fairly uniform. The gray on the hind neck 
in two females is not as definite as in the rest of the series, nor in the gray 
on the under parts of the two birds as dark as in the rest. One is from 
Jyekundo and the other is the female collected on June 8. 

In one female from Jyekundo the inner web of the next to the outer- 
most tail feather has a narrow streak of white. 

I take great pleasure in naming this new pheasant for Brooke Dolan II, 
leader of two expeditions to Tibet and Szechwan. 

I am much indebted to the American Museum of Natural History for 
kindly lending me the specimen of C. c. harmani. 

The second new bird is a plover which may be known as: 

Charadrius mongolus schaferi, subsp. nov. 
Adult in breeding plumage. 

Similar to C. m. atrifrons Wagler, but darker above. The orange-rufous 
pectoral band much darker and more definite, in this respect similar to C. 
m. mongolus Pallas. 

Type, A.N.S.P. No. 126220 collected by Ernst Schafer at Camp 104, a 
locality about 100 miles due north of Jyekundo, S. Kokonor, June 13th, 1935. 
Measurements: wing 128 mm., tail 50 mm., culmen 19 mm., tarsus 34 mm. 
Material examined: C. m. schaferi. 

Camp 104, June 13th, 1935, 10 adult males, 5 adult females, four un- 
sexed birds and two fledglings. 

C. m. atrifrons. Seven adult males taken at the following localities: 
Tian-Shan, June 24th; Turkestan, April 9th; Northern Tibet, June; Dasch- 
Kul, Tibet, June; N. Tibet, May; Nan Shan Mts., June; Zeyla. Somaliland, 
April. One female from Kokonor Lake, June. 

As the type of atrifrons is from Bengal, and evidently a migrant bird, 
the name atrifrons is hereby restricted to the breeding population of 
Kokonor lake region. 

Charadrius m. mongolus. Four males and a female from Foochow, 
China taken during April and May; a female from the Riu Kiu Islands, 
collected in June; three males from Japan, May and September, and three 
males from the Behring Islands taken at the end of May. 

Dr. Wetmore has very kindly lent me the type of C. pamirensis described 
by Richmond from Tagdumbash, Pamir, E. Turkestan. This bird has 
nothing whatever to do with C. m. schaferi. It is a pale bird, fitting well 
into the series of C. m. atrifrons of which it probably is a synonym. 

The females of this new race differ from mongolus and atrifrons in 
the same way as do the males. 

I am much indebted to the Museum of Comparative Zoology, the 
American Museum of Natural History, and the United States National 
Museum, for lending me comparative material. 

This new bird is named in honor of Ernst Schafer, its collector. 

(340) 



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SECOND PRELIMINARY REPORT ON THE RESULTS OF THE SECOND 
DOLAN EXPEDITION TO WEST CHINA AND TIBET: 
A NEW RACE OF OCHOTONA 

by Glover M. Allen. 

In studying the mammals brought back by the Second Dolan Tibetan 
Expedition, 1934-1935, a well-marked race of Ochotona erythrotis, which 
responds to the more arid conditions in its paler hues, was found, and is 
named in honor of the organizer and leader of the expedition. 

Ochotona erythrotis brookei, new subspecies. 

Type: An adult male, skin and skull, no. 17606, Acad. Nat. Sciences, 
Philadelphia, from Camp 74, a few miles northwest of Jyekundo, Kham, 
Tibet. Collected April 14, 1935, by Ernst Schafer, of the Second Dolan 
Tibetan Expedition. Original No. 2213. 

Description: A pale member of the erythrotis group, with the sides of 
the head remaining gray instead of rusty in the summer pelage. 

The type and a series of eight additional adults from the same locality, 
are practically indistinguishable from others obtained on the northeast 
border of Tibet, along the uppermost of the Yellow River gorges. They 
are noticeably paler than the series representing the winter pelage of 
Ochotona c. gloveri, with much less of the blackish tipping to the hairs, and 
with paler, nearly white, instead of distinctly buffy subterminal bands. The 
tip of the nose and the backs of the ears (including the proectote) arc 
pale orange rufous, as is also the outer part of the metentote. A suggestion 
of the same pale orange extends back from the muzzle to between the eyes; 
sides of the head distinctly grayish, minutely peppered with black; a con- 
spicuous tuft of long white hairs at the inner base of the ear partly covering 
the opening; sides paling into the grayish white of the belly, the hairs 
throughout with deep slaty bases. Backs of the feet white, the soles thickly 
haired except the small black pad under the tip of each toe. There is a 
small patch of rufous on the back of each ankle, including the heel. The 
nape is whitish. 

The summer pelage differs from that of typical erythrotis, of which 
specimens from Kansu may be taken as representative, in the much more 
restricted development of the red on head and body. A series of seventeen 
old and young taken in early August at or near the type locality, is slightly 
darker across the back but otherwise chiefly differs in the deeper, more 
rufous color of the nose and ears, and in having this color extended from the 

(341) 



end of the muzzle back between the eyes to the bases of the ears. The 
sides of the head from the vibrissae to and including the cheeks remain dark 
gray, due to the mixture of whitish hairs with minute black tips. In com- 
parison with typical erythrotis of Kansu, the rufous of the summer coat is 
thus of very slight extent, instead of covering the whole head and more 
or less of the back. Compared with summer skins of gloveri, in which a 
similar restriction of red takes place, the rufous area is much clearer and 
brighter and the rest of the dorsal coloring is paler. 

The skull is of the group in which the incisive foramina are confluent 
with the anterior palatal foramina, forming thus a long triangular opening, 
narrowed at the front end. The orbit is rather longer than wide and the 
upper profile of the skull is evenly convex. 

Measurements: No measurements of fresh specimens are available. In 
the type specimen, the hind foot with claw measures 36 mm. Its skull, 
though imperfect in the basicranial region, measures: greatest length from 
occiput to front of incisors, 51 mm.; palatal length, 20.5; palatal bridge, 
2.0; length of anterior palatal foramina, 16; zygomatic width, 24.1; width 
of brain case. 19. (i; width outside molars, 15; upper check teeth, 9.2; lower 
cheek teeth, 8.6 ; diameters of orbit, 13.8 x 10.5. 

This is a pallid race of the eastern Tibetan plateau, contrasting with the 
darker subspecies gloveri of the extreme western border of Szechwan. It is 
interesting that both agree in the restriction of the bright rufous in summer 
pelage, to the nose, forehead and ears, whereas in the more northern typical 
race, as figured and described by Biichner, the entire head including the 
cheeks, and the sides of the neck are rufous, with a wash of the same over 
the back. 

While the specimens taken in mid-April near Camp 74 are still in full 
winter pelage, one taken slightly to the northwest, at Cam]) 76, on June 8, 
is beginning to change to summer coat. In this specimen the rufous of the 
nose extends back between the eyes posterior to which is a line where hair 
is being lost. Another individual of the same date has about completed the 
change, while a series from Jyekundo, August 4, is in fully developed 
summer coat. 



(342) 



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STUDIES ON THE FAMILY ACRIDIDAE (ORTHOPTERA) OF VENEZUELA 

by H. Radclyffe Roberts. 

The material here studied is largely the result of incidental collecting 
by specialists of other fields, but it became quite apparent that many new 
forms and interesting records were represented in the collections. Five 
hundred and eighty-six specimens representing 51 species of the family 
Acrididae are recorded and include five genera and ten species now de- 
scribed as new to science. With the exception of a small paper by Ignacio 
Bolivar (see below), there has been no report on the Orthoptera of Venez- 
uela, and it is hoped that the present paper will give a suggestion of the 
richness of the fauna and the interesting work yet to be carried on in 
this region. 

Though a political unit. Venezuela embraces a number of very distinct 
faunistie areas. These areas are well discussed by H. B. Baker and H. 
Pittier. 1 We have material represented from the following general regions: 
the eastern branch of the Andes, known as the Sierra de Merida; the Coast 
Range or Carribean System back of Puerto Cabello; the Orinoco Delta 
and along the Coast of the Gulf of Paria; part of the savanna and forest 
region in the vicinity of the Caura River of the Orinoco System ; and lastly 
the islands off the coast, especially the Dutch West Indies.- Many of these 
regions have their nearest biotic affinities beyond the borders of the country 
rather than between each other, as for example the close relationship of 
the Delta Region to the Guianas, and the Sierra de Merida to the other 
portions of the Andes. Of much interest is the fact that several of the 
species obtained from the savanna country of the Orinoco basin are the 
same or closely related to species only known previously from southern 
Brazil or Argentina, especially when we consider that these two great 
savanna regions are apparently so widely separated. From the higher ele- 
vations of the Andes the most striking and distinctive new forms were 
found. Further collecting in this region and other portions of the Andes is 
greatly needed and should bring to light an abundance of new forms. 

Literature 

Many scattered references on Venezuela are to be found in the older 
literature where new species are described from all over the Neotropical 
Region, but, as mentioned above, Bolivar's short paper is the only con- 

1 Shelford, A Naturalist's Guide to the Americas, pp. 637-648, 1926. 
-We realize that these latter islands are not a political part of Venezuela, but on 
Jhe other hand they are better included here than in any West Indian study. 

(343) 



344 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [VOL. LXXX1X 

tribution entirely on Venezuela Orthoptera. Of much value, however, are 
a number of more recent studies dealing with other regions of northern 
South America and the West Indies that are of considerable help to the 
student working on this region. A few of the more important references 
follow: 

Bolivar, Ann. Soc. Ent. France, (6), X, pp. 137-146, 1890. 

Brunei-, Orthoptera of Trinidad, Journ. N.Y. Ent. Soc, XIV, pp. 135-165, 1906. 
Hebard, Dermaptera and Orthoptera of Colombia, Trans. Amer. Ent. Soc, XLIX,. 
pp. 165-313, 1923. 

Hebard, Acrididae of Panama, Trans. Amer. Ent. Soc, L, pp. 75-140, 1924. 
Hebard, Dermaptera and Orthoptera of Ecuador, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila.,. 
LXXVI, pp. 109-248, 1924. 

Collecting Localities 

In recording the specimens studied, the name of the collector and the 
collection to which it belonged was omitted to avoid much repetition. A 
list of most of the localities is given below with as full data as available. 
The maps of Venezuela made use of in this study are a series of most of the 
states published in Caracas from 1916 to 1920 and edited by Vicente Lecuna. 
I am indebted to Air. M. A. Carriker, Jr. for giving me additional notes as 
to the type of country encountered at his collecting localities which are 
included below. 

Data on collecting localities of M. A. Carriker, Jr. with notes to which, 
collection the material belongs: 

San Esteban, Estado Carabobo, Distrito Puerto Cabello (about 5 miles 
south of Puerto Cabello). Elevation 500 ft. up stream valley with forest 
and coffee. October and November 1910. [A.N.S.P. Coll.] 

Las Quiguas, Estado Carabobo, Distrito Puerto Cabello (further up same 
valley as San Estaben). Elevation 2000 ft. September 1910. [A.N.S.P. 
Coll.] 

Aroa, Estado Yaracuy, Distrito Bolivar. Elevation less than 1000 ft. 
Mountainous country with humid forest. December 1910. [A.N.S.P. Coll.] 

Santa Elena, Estado Merida. Elevation 200 ft,, humid forest. (Can not 
locate on map, but is near the south end of Lake Maracaibo in the foothills 
of the Andes.) August 1922. [Hebard Coll.l 

Guamito, Estado Trujillo. Elevation between 4-5000 ft. Semi-dry 
forest, mostly second growth. (Locality not located on map, but it is south 
of Trujillo.) May 16-20, 1922. | Hebard Coll.] 

Sabana de Mendoza, Estado Trujillo. (On railroad between Trujillo 
and coast.) Almost sea level in dry savanna countrv with scattered scrubbv 
woodland. April 28 to May 3, 1922. [Hebard Coll.] 

Paramo de Rosas, on boundary between Estado Trujillo and Estado 
Lara, Distrito Tocuyo. (Between Anzoategui and Carache on road from 
Tocuyo to Trujillo.) Upper edge of timber line of the lower paramo. Ele- 
vation 10,400 ft. March 1911. [A.N.S.P. Coll.] 



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345 



Anzoategui, Estado Lara, Distrito Tucuyo. (South of Tocuyo.) Ele- 
vation 6000 ft. Subtropical forest country. May 16-20, 1911. [A.N.S.P. 
Coll.] 

La Teta de Niquitao, Estado Trujillo, Cordillera dc Merida. (25 km. 
south of Trujillo.) Elevation 10,000 ft. June 1, 1922. [Hebard Coll.] 

Maripa, Rio Caura, Estado Bolivar. Upper edge of savanna region, a 
good distance up Rio Caura. Elevation less than 500 ft. October 1909. 
[A.N.S.P. Coll.] 

Rio Mato, Estado Bolivar. I Branch to the right of the Rio Caura above 
Maripa.) Continuous humid forest. October and November 1909. [A. N. 
S. P. Coll.] 

Ciudad Bolivar, Estado Bolivar. Low savanna countrv little above sea 
level. September 1909. [A.N.S.P. Coll.] 

Rio Orinoco near San Felix, Estado Bolivar. (Just above head of delta.) 
Much low vegetation, transition forest and savanna. September 15, 1909. 
[A.N.S.P. Coll.] 

The following localities are those of the Francis E. Bond Expedition on 
which Mr. Stewardson Brown was this Academy's representative, and col- 
lected the orthopteran material. A brief account of the itinerary of the 
expedition is contained in Dr. Witmer Stone's report on the birds (Proc. 
Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., LXV, pp. 182-212, 1913). 

Cariaquito, Estado Sucre, Distrito Marino. (Peninsula of Paria on 
south shore near Trinidad, B.W.I.) January and March 15, 1911. 

La Piedrita, Estado Monagas, Distrito Sotillo. (On the Uracoa River.) 
February 16, 1911. 

Cario Vagre. Estado Monagas, Distrito Maturin. (Close to the mouth 
of the Cano Manamo.) January 28, 1911. 

Guinapa River, Estado Monagas, Distrito Maturin. February 1911. 

Buelta Triste, Estado Monagas, Distrito Sotillo. (On the Cano Manimo 
near mouth of the Uracoa. Locality not found on map.) February 20, 1911. 

The following localities are those at which Dr. H. Burrington Baker 
collected orthopteran material in the Dutch West Indies. A rather com- 
plete account of the islands is contained in his paper on the mollusks of the 
region (Occ. Papers Mus. Zool., Univ. Michigan, no. 152, August 1924). 
The Orthoptera were collected for cytological purposes and are in part at 
this Academy and at the University of Pennsylvania Zoological Laboratory. 

Williamstadt, Curaqoa, D.W.I. June 17, 1922. 
Campo Knip, Cura^oa, D.W.I. July 2-8. 1922. 
Aruba, D.W.I. July 22-28. 1922. 
Oranjestadt, Aruba, D.W.I. July 28. 1922. 

Other localities, when mentioned in the text, but not listed above, in- 
clude the collector's name and the collection to which the material belongs. 



34(3 



PROCEEDINGS OK THE ACADEMY OE 



[Vol. LXXX1X 



I wish to take this opportunity to thank the Academy of Natural Sciences 
of Philadelphia and Mr. Morgan Hebard for the privilege of reporting on 
their collections, and also to the Cornell University, the Paris Museum, 
and the Carnegie Museum for the loan of a small amount of material for 
determination or comparative purposes. To Mr. Hebard and Mr. J. A. G. 
Rchn it is with great pleasure that I acknowledge my gratitude for their 
most generous advice and encouragement during the studies and prepara- 
tion of this paper. 

Family ACRIDIDAE 

Subfamily ACRYDIINAE 
Tylotettix pygmaeus, new species. Text-plate, figures i and 2. 

Two species of this genus have been previously known: T. sinuatus 
Morse 1900 from Nicaragua, and T. simplex Hebard 1924 from Panama. 
This new species based on a single female resembles more closely the 
Nicaragua and not the Panama species contrary to what might be expected. 
The Panama species is readily distinguished by having the pronotum rela- 
tively longer, extending to near or slightly beyond the apices of the hind 
femora, and its apex is rather acute, whereas in T. pygmaeus the apex ex- 
tends just beyond the ovipositor valves or barely reaches the proximal 
portion of the genicular lobes of the hind femora, and also the apex is sub- 
truncate, the lateral margins not tapering to a rather acute apex. T. sinu- 
atus is somewhat intermediate in the above respects. The fastigio-facial 
carina is produced strongly cephalad to a similar degree in T. pygmaeus 
and T. sinuatus and to a much less degree in T. simplex. The scutellum 
of the frontal costa between the carinal forks is almost twice as wide in 
T. sinuatus as in T. simplex, whereas T. pygmaeus is rather intermediate in 
this respect. 

Type: — 9; San Esteban, Venezuela. November 1910. (M. A. Car- 
riker, Jr.). [Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., Type no. 5564]. 

Size small, the smallest of the genus and very robust. Dorsal and lateral 
surfaces very irregular and rugose. Lateral carinae of vertex slightly pro- 
jecting beyond the eyes; fastigio-facial carina strongly produced as in T. 
sinuatus; carinal forks of frontal costa divergent to just above the bases 
of the antennae and from thence ventrad running parallel. Pronotum mod- 
erately tectiform, median carina percurrent, arched and weakly cristate 
cephalad of shoulders, slightly arched caudad; cephalic margin very broadly 
obtuse angulate; disk rather strongly rugulose, tapering caudad to its sub- 
truncate apex, which barely extends as far as the genicular lobes of the 
hind femora; inferior caudal angles of lateral lobes of pronotum moderately 
slanting outward, and form a sharp obtuse angle in dorsal aspect; tegminal 
sinus and tegmina absent ; 3 the anterior portion of the scapular area extends 

3 This is the case in all members of this genus. Hebard in describing T. simplex 
should have stated that the legminal sinus was lacking instead of the scapular area 
which of course is well developed. 



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ventrad to a much greater degree than in T. simtatiis and T. simplex. 
Caudal femora much as in the other two species, but relatively shorter and 
more robust. 

Coloration. Dark earthy brown. 

Measurements. Length of body 7.8; length of pronotum 6.8; width be- 
tween apices of angles of pronotal lobes 3.2, length of caudal femur 4.1 mm. 

Amorphopus antennatus Bolivar. 

There is a specimen in the A.N.S.P. Coll., a female from Venezuela, 
recorded by Rehn. 4 

Aliotettix peruvianus (Bolivar). 

1887. Plaratettixl peruvianus Bolivar, Ann. Soc. Ent. Belgique, XXXI, p. 272. [ $ , 

9 ; Pumamarca, Peru.] 
1890. Plaratettix] simoni Bolivar, Ann. Soc. Ent. France, October, p. 138. [ $ , 

9 ; Colonie Tovar, Venezuela.] 

Guamito, Trujillo, Los Andes; V, 16-20. 1922; 1 9 . 

This specimen has the abbreviate pronotum, extending but slightly 
beyond the apices of the caudal femora. Though most of the specimens 
examined from Colombia and Peru are of the elongate type, there are a 
few from Callanga, Peru; and Cincinnati and Vista Nieve, Santa Marta, 
Colombia, recorded by Hebard 5 as A. peruvianus of the abbreviate type. 
Comparing the Venezuela specimen with the others, the vertex is unusually 
broad but we have a specimen from Vista Nieve, Santa Marta, Colombia 
that is equally broad. Incidentally this abbreviate form usually has the 
median carina of the pronotum quite sinuate and also the lateral margins 
of the median femora become more sinuate, as compared with the elon- 
gate type. 

Bolivar described P. simoni from Colonic Tovar, Venezuela which I 
assume to be the same as Tovar shown on maps to the west of Merida in 
the Venezuelan Andes. Though I have not seen the type, I can not find 
any satisfactory character to separate it from A. peruvianus from his de- 
scription of the species, and as the specimen considered above, which comes 
from the same general Andean region, is not separable from the abbreviate 
phase of A. peruvianus, Bolivar's Paratettix simoni is best considered a 
synonym of A. peruvianus. 

Aliotettix cayennensis (Bolivar) 

1887. Plaratettix] cayennensis Bolivar, Ann. Soc. Ent. Belpiquo XXXI. pp. 187, 

270. 273. I Cayenne. 1 
19C6. Aliotettix rhipvumi Bruner, Journ. New York Ent. Soc, XIV, p. 146. 

I Trinidad. 1 

Although no specimens have been recorded from Venezuela of this 
species, it is quite apparent that it will be found in the Northeast portions 
of Venezuela. 

4 Proe. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila.. p. 664, 1904. 

• Hebard. Trans. Amor. Ent. Soc. XLIX. p. 168. 1923. 



348 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF 



[Vol. LXXXIX 



Upon comparing Bruner's paratypes, in addition to other material from 
Trinidad, with material from French Guiana, and also series from British 
Guiana, there appear.-; to be no character to separate them and therefore 
Bruner's species must be considered a synonym. 

A. cayennensis may be distinguished from A. peruviana, a closely re- 
lated species from the Andean regions, by averaging decidedly smaller; the 
fastigial carina projects beyond the anterior lateral margins of the vertex 
and usually projects beyond the eyes from lateral aspect; the median 
femora are not as elongate and the lateral margins are more sinuate. 

Micronotus caudatus (Saussure). 

There is before me a good series belonging to the Paris Museum labelled 
Venezuela, Coll. A. Finot, 1908, and also one female from Valencia, Venez- 
uela from the Hebard collection. This material agrees closely with a series 
from the Guianas, the type locality. 

Paratettix antennatus Hebard. 

1923. Paratettix antennatus Hebard, Trans. Amer. Ent. Soc, XLIX, p. 169. [An- 
dagoya, Antioquia (Choco), Colombia.] 

San Esteban; X-XI, 1910; 29 . Las Quiguas; IX, 1910; 1 9 . 
These three females have the abbreviate form of the pronotum. 

EUMASTACINAE 

Eumastax surinama Burr. 

Las Quiguas; IX, 1910; 7$, 12$, 2 juv. San Esteban; XI, 1910; 
15 $ , 11 9 , 3 juv. Aroa; XII, 1910; 1 $ , 2 9 , 1 juv. 

I have seen no topotypical material from Surinam, or any of the Guianas, 
but the above agree closely with the description and figure. 

PROSCOPINAE 
Prosarthria teretrirostris, Brunncr. 

Sabana Mendoza, Los Andes; IV, 28 to V, 3, 1922; 1 $ juv. 

ACPJDINAE 

Amblytropidia trinitatis Bruner. 

Maripa, Rio Caura; X, 1909; 6 6, 119. Rio Mato; X-XI, 1909; 1 9 . 
San Esteban; XI, 1910; 1 6 . Las Quiguas; IX, 1910; 3 i . Aroa; XII, 
1910; 1 6 . Cariaquito; I, 22, 1911; Is, 2 juv. 

Amblytropidia interior Brurer. 

Maripa, Rio Caura; X, 1909; 1 $ , 2 9. 

These specimens agree very closely with a pair from Chapada, Matto 
Grosso, Brazil, determined by Bruner and kindly loaned by the Carnegie 
Museum. The species may be distinguished by its great slenderness and 
the heavy spination of the hind tibiae. It is larger than A. minor Bruner 
and the genicular lobes of the hind femora are not as sharp as in A. vittata 



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NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA 



349 



Giglio-Tos. One of the above recorded females has a pale subcostal stripe 
on the tegmina. 

Orphulella concinnula (Walker). 

La Piedrita; II, 16, 1911; 6 <J , 8 9 , 13 juv. Buelta Triste; II, 20, 1911; 

1 $ , 1 juv. Rio Mato; X-XI, 1909; 56 , 9 9 . Aroa; X, 1910; 1 9 . 

This species may easily be distinguished from 0. punctata by the evenly 
rounded, nearly truncate posterior margin of the pronotum. 

Orphulella punctata (DeGeer). 

San Esteban; X-XI, 1910; 143, 99, 1 juv. Las Quiguas; IX, 1910; 
3 5,39. Rio Mato; X-XI, 1909; 1$ , 29. Ciudad Bolivar; IX, 1909; 

2 6 , 2 9 . Quiriquire, Monagas; 2 9 , (Helen K. Hodson), [Cornell Univ.]. 

Orphulina balloui (Rehn). 

Ciudad Bolivar; IX, 1909; U. Maripa, Rio Caura; X, 1909; 19. 
Campo Knip, Curagoa; VII, 2, 1922; 5$ , 29. 

Further study is needed to ascertain the relationship of this species and 
O. veteratoria Rehn" from Sao Paulo. Brazil, and O. pulchclla Giglio-Tos 
from Paraguay. 

Staurorhectus longicornis ( iiglio-T<». 

Maripa, Rio Caura; IX, 1909; 8 $ , 1 9 . 1 juv. 

This species has only been known previously from southern South 
America. 

CAURATETTIX, new genus 

This genus is based on a specimen that is quite distinct from any known 
American genus, but is apparently a member of the Scyllinae group. The 
related genera of this part of the Acridinae have been most recently dis- 
cussed by Rehn. 7 In this paper he considers the Scyllinae group as consist- 
ing of the genera Scyllina, Euplectrotettix and Scyllinops. He places the 
genus Psoloessa (= Stirapleura) in a group by itself, the Psolocssae. The 
group Aulocari consists of Agcncotettix, Eupniyodes, Zapata, Drcpanoptera, 
and Aulocara. This latter group is quite distinct from the other two groups. 
In any event this new genus belongs to the genera of the Scyllinae group 
and the nearest approach is toward Euplectrotettix as suggested by the 
more attenuate form of the latter as compared with Scyllina. Rehn in de- 
scribing the genus Scyllinops lloe. eit., p. 228). states, "The broader pro- 
notum and less elongate form will distinguish Scyllinops from both of these 
genera Scyllina and Euplectrotettix." This new genus has the characteristic 
long inner apical spur on the hind tibiae. The most obvious characters 
which separate it from the genera discussed is its attenuate form; strongly 
retreating face; relatively elongate head; lateral foveolae not visible from 

0 Trans. Amer. Ent. Soc. XLIV, pp. 194, 195. 1918. 
• Trans. Amor. Ent. Soc, LIII. pp. 213-240, 1927. 



350 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [VOL. LXXXIX 

above, but little longer than deep; more sharply rounded fastigio-facial 
angle in lateral aspect; and longer lateral lobes of pronotum. I have not 
examined the genotype and unique specimen of Alota boliviana Brunei", 8 
and said to be related to Scyllina. According to the description it is slender 
with an acute fastigio-facial angle, but differs by a number of important 
details. 

It is interesting to note that this new genus has a very close superficial 
resemblance to the Old World genus Eoscyllina Rehn, but it is almost cer- 
tainly a matter of parallel development. The description of the genotype 
follows below. 

Cauratettix gracilis, new species. Plate 13, figures 14 and 15. 

It is unfortunate that we have but one specimen, a female, on which to- 
describe this new species, but do so with no hesitation as it is so unlike any- 
thing known. 

Type. — $ ; Maripa, Rio Caura, Venezuela. March 1909. (M. A. Car- 
riker, Jr.). [Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., Type No. 5559]. 

Size large though smaller than most species of Scyllina; form slender 
elongate; facial angle acute; head elongate and narrow in dorsal aspect; 
median length of the prozona of the pronotum but little shorter than that 
of the metazona; tegmina extend somewhat beyond hind femora; inner" 
apical spur of hind tibiae twice the length of the inner subapical spur. 

Head elongate rather conical; facial angle very acute for the Scyllinae 
group. Antennae shorter than the distance between the posterior margin 
of the pronotum and the fastigium, slightly flattened proximad. Eyes not 
prominent, elongate, length almost twice the width. Frontal costa narrow- 
est just below fastigium, widening only slightly ventrad; transversely convex 
between fastigium and just above median ocellus, lacking lateral carinae; 
slight and broadly rounded carinae extending from median ocellus almost to 
clypeal suture. Lateral or facial carinae not prominent. Projection of fasti- 
gium relatively great beyond eyes, rounding into frontal costa. Fastigium 
with a rounded depression, broader than long, bounded by a very slight 
carina excepting at the posterior margin; lateral foveolae present but not 
sharply defined. Very slight median carina on occipital region. Pronotum 
irregularly iinpresso-punctulate on the disk and irregularly impresso-punc- 
tate on the lateral lobes; median carina well developed and cut only by 
principal sulcus, the prozonal portion but slightly shorter than the meta- 
zonal; the lateral carinae are only slightly suggested, being most definite near 
the anterior margin of the prozona, thence becoming obliterated posteriorly 
on the prozona and replaced by irregular rugae on the metazona; the width 
of the prozonal disk is widest caudad and slightly constricted mesad; the 
lateral margins of the metazonal disk arc moderately divergent caudad, the 
posterior margin is obtuse angulate with blunt vertex. Tegmina long rather 
slender projecting slightly beyond hind femora; the apices of tegmina 
rounded, but with oblique truncation definitely suggested. Hind femora 
relatively long, slender; posterior margin of genicular lobes rounded, but 
approaching the acute condition. The inner apical spur of the hind tibiae 

8 Ann. Carnegie Mus., VIII, (3 and 4), pp. 446, 454, 455, 1913, 12 Rio Machupo, 
Bolivia, type in Carnegie Museum. 



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NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA 



351 



twice the length of inner subapical spur; eleven and twelve spines on the 
outer row of the two tibiae. 

Coloration. General color dull fuscous brown, a pale buffy brown -tripe 
from the vertex of head to caudal margin of pronotum, the stripe on pro- 
notal portion bordered by a fuscous black area. A slight buffy brown stripe 
is present on the prehumera! area of the tegmina. Tibia red becoming 
brownish on the proximal ventral portion, spurs and spines tipped with 
black. 

Measurements. Length of body 34.5; length of antennae 10.; length 
of pronotum 5.5; length of tegmina 28.; length of hind femora 20. mm. 

Scyll.'na pratens's I Brunei"), 

Ciudad Bolivar; IX, 1909; 38 6 , 38 9 , 3 juv. 

This is evidently the low grassland form of northeastern South America. 
The type locality is Pernambuco, Brazil and it is very desirable to obtain 
a topotypic series to be certain of the status of Venezuelan material. 

Scyllina smithi Rehn. 

Maripa, Rio Caura; X, 1909; 16. 1 9 . 

To find this species, described from Chapada, in this northern area for" 
the first time is extremely interesting, suggesting ;t close relationship of this 
grassland area to that of southern Brazil. 

Scyllina cyanipes ( Fabricius). 

Williamstad, Curaqoa, D.W.I. ; VI, 17, 1922; 2 6 . Campo Knip, Cura- 
<;oa, D.W.I. ; VII, 2 & 8, 1922; 7 6,49. Aruba. D.W.I. ; VII, 22-28. 1922; 
26, 2$. Bonaire, D.W.I. ; 2 6 ; tE. Hartert). Bonaire, D.W.I. ; 1923; 
IS , 2 9 ; [Collection of Dr. R. Ebner]. 

Hebard" has worked out the synonymy of this species which occurs in 
the West Indies and northern South America. 

OEDIPODINAE 

Lactista pulchripennis Saussure. 

Ciudad Bolivar; IX, 1909; 13 $, 10 9 . 1 juv. Oranjestad. Aruba, 
D.W.I. ; VII, 28, 1922; 10 6 , 3 9 . 

The specimens from the Island of Aruba are much undersized compared 
with specimens from the mainland. 

IWI'UMXAK 

Paulinia acuminata (iMieer). 

Rio Orinoco near San Felix; IX, 15, 1909; 14 6 , 18 9. Buelta Triste; 
11,20, 1911; 1 9. 

PYRGOMORPHIXAF 

Minorissa pustulata Walker. 1 " 

Rio Mato; X-XI. 1909; 1 9 . 

"Trans. Amer. Fnt. Soc, XLIX, pp. 211, 212. 1923. 
10 Cf. Uvarov, Trans. Ent. Soc. London, p. 283, 1925. 



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I'KOCKKDINO'S OF THE ACADEMY OF 



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Omura congrua Walker. 

Rio Mato; X-XI, 1909; 19. 

C Y RT AC A X TH AC RIN A E 
Agriacris jucunda (Walker). 

1870. Xiphua rti juruiuln Walker. Cat. Derm. Salt. B. M. III. p. 523 (Venezuela]. 

San Esteban; X-XI, 1910; IS , 1 9 . 

These two specimens agree closely with a series from Trinidad except 
the tegmina of the male do not extend to the apex of the abdomen and the 
female lacks any pale tegminal spot. It is highly probable that A. bilu- 
nata 11 is a synonym, and I question whether the type ever came from 
Colombia. Gerstaecker's description of the type gives no valid distinction 
between the two species and though we have four or more species of the 
genus in our large studied and unstudied collections from Colombia we have 
none representing this form of the genus from there. 

Tropinotus 1 - angulatus Stal. 

Cariaquito; I, 1911; 1 9 ; I, 14, 17, 1911; 2 9 ; III, 15, 1911, 1 9. 
Ciudad Bolivar; IX, 1909; 1 9 . Maripa, Rio Caura; X, 1909; 1 $ . 

This genus is badly in need of study or revision as there are some twenty- 
four described species and even from a casual study some of them are 
certainly synonyms. The above recorded material agrees most closely with 
Still's angulatus described from Bahia, Brazil. Comparing the Venezuelan 
material with specimens from the region around Ceara and Natal, eastern 
Brazil, the former is considerably larger but very close in other respects. 
A pair of the above recorded specimens from Cariaquito, that have their 
wings spread, have the disk of the hind wing an orange red color. 

T. rosulcntws (Stall is the form occurring in Colombia and may be dis- 
tinguished by its blunter, less produced vertex and the lateral margin of the 

J' 1873. Xiphoccra biluvala Gerstaecker, Stett. Ent. Zeit.. XXIV, p. 187, 
I Colombia]. 

12 Much confusion has existed concerning the valid name for this genus. I am 
indebted to Mr. Hebard for bringing the facts of the case to my attention. Tropinot us 
Kuhl 1822 (Reptilia) is a nomen nudum, according to Dr. Leonhard Stejneger in 
Caudell. Hois in 1826 used the name Tropidouol us us an emendation of Tropinot us 
Kuhl and associated specific names with the genus for the first time and hence the 
former is a valid name for the group of Reptilia. Kuhl's name however has no status. 
In 1831 Serville used the name Tropinotus for this genus of Orthoptora. which is not of 
course invalidated by Kuhl's name. Stal in 1S7S emended Serville's name to Tropi- 
douol us which is the correct combination of the word, but there is no authority to do 
so under the code of nomenclature and hence this is a synonym of Tropinotus Serville 
as well as a homonym of Tropidonotus Bois. Gistel in 1848 considering Tropinotus 
Serville as invalidated by Tropinotus Kuhl (nomen nudum) erected the name Xyleus 
and also Bolivar in 1906. unaware of Gistel's name, proposed the name Diedronolus 
for the same reason. Caudell in Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus., Vol. 80, Art. 21. p. 3, 1932. 
discussed this matter, but unfortunately did not appreciate that Serville's name was 
perfectly valid and considered the use of Xyleus Gistel as correct. Reference to the 
authors mentioned here may be found in Caudell's paper. It is sincerely hoped that 
this will finally put at rest this unfortunate mix-up. 



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pronotal disk is nut produced to form a sharp angle at its widest point, 
being more rounded. T. strigatus (Bruner) described from Chapada is 
closely related to T. angulatus, but is readily distinguished by the acute 
apices of the tegmina. That species I believe to occur in southwestern 
Brazil, eastern Bolivia and Peru. 

Colpolopha obsoleta (Servilk). 

1831. Tropinotus obaoletus Sew., Ann. ,Sci. Nat., XXII, p. 274. n. 3. LDu cap de 
Bonne-Esperance (in error, in all probability- from Brazil or the Ciuianas)]. 

1875. Colpolopha burmeisteri Stal, Bihang Svensk. Akad. Handl., Ill, (14), p. 27, 
n. 1, I Venezuela I . 

San Esteban; X-XI. 1910; \& , 2 9 . Santa Elena, Merida; VIII. 1922; 
200 ft. (humid forest); 1$, 1$. Aroa; XII, 1910; 3 6, 29. Sabana 
Mendoza, Los Andes; IV, 28 to V, 3, 1922; 1 $ , 2 9. 

Stal described C. burmeistcri from Venezuela, but was apparently un- 
aware of Serville's species. In studying specimens from Brazil, the Guianas 
and Venezuela, J can see no character sufficient to separate the Venezuelan 
material, and therefore place Stal's species in synonomy. It is worth noting 
that specimens from Aroa, Venezuela have the pale proximal area of the 
hind wings extending further distad and its limits more sharply defined or 
less suffused than the rest of the material at hand. This character is rather 
variable however, as indicated by material from other localities. 

Eutropidacris cristata (Linnaeus). 

Maripa, Rio Caura; X, 1909; 1 9. Margarita Island; 1 9 ; [A.X.S.P. 
Coll.]. Las Piedras; 19 ; [A.N.S.P. Coll.]. 

Tropidacris latreillei (Perty). 

Sabana Mendoza, Merida; IV, 28 to V, 3, 1922; 2 9 . San Esteban; X, 
XI, 1910; 1 9 . Quiriquire, Monagas; 3 <3 , 6 9 ; (Helen K. Hodson l ; [Cor- 
nell Univ.]. 

Group Jivari 

Hebard 13 considers this group as separate though closely related to the 
group Pezotettiges (= Platyphymae) of the Old World. The group, as 
considered, consists of the genera Jivarus Giglio-Tos and Urubamba Bru- 
ner 14 and occurs in the higher Andes. These genera are suggestive of the 
Melanopli, but readily distinguished by the presence of a disto-cxternal spine 
on the hind tibiae immediately adjacent to the disto-external pair of spurs, 
which places them in a quite different section of the cyrtacanthacrids. 
Jivarus includes two species J. americanus Giglio-Tos and J. alienus (Wal- 
ker) ia 1870 described from Peru and Ecuador respectively. Bruner erected 
the genus Urubamba to include two species U. aptcra and U. inconspicua 

" Hebard. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., LXXVI, p. 184, 1924. 

14 Bruner, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 44, p. 182, 1913. 

15 Cf. Uvarov. Trans. Ent. Soc London, p. 288, 1925. 



354 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [VOL. LXXXIX 

from Peru. Hebard 13 has described another species from Ecuador, U. ecua- 
dorica. 

Generic diagnosis of the Group Jivari 

A. Fastigio- facial angle in lateral aspect relatively acute. Interocular area 

of vertex longitudinally depressed producing thick low lateral carinae. 
Disk of pronotum smooth, not irregular; transverse sulci very slight 
or obsolete Jivarus Giglio-Tos 

B. Fastigio-facial angle in lateral aspect very slightly acute and facial line 

somewhat convex. Interocular area of vertex very wide and slightly 
con re.v. Disk of pronotum smooth, not irregular; transverse sulci 

obsolete Oreophilacris, new genus 

<C. Fastigio-facial angle not acute and facial line straight, not convex. 
Interocular area of vertex longitudinally sulcate with broad low lateral 
carinae. Prozona of disk of pronotum irregularly convex in lateral 
aspect; three transverse sulci of disk quite pronounced, though not 
deep Urubamba Bruner 

OREOPHILACRIS, new genus 

This genus is erected to contain the genotype and new species O. para- 
monis, based on one male from the Paramo Zone of the eastern branch of 
the Andes. This interesting small short-winged group of grasshoppers will 
undoubtedly have their number of known forms increased when the fauna 
of the higher Andes is better studied. This genus is closely allied to the 
other two genera of the group and I believe that it is best placed between 
these. From the table above can be seen that no one feature readily sep- 
arates all three genera and hence have italicized the most important one in 
each case. Another striking feature of this new genus is the relatively small 
round eyes, the width almost equal to the depth. For additional details see 
description of genotype below. 

Oreophilacris paramonis, new species. Text-plate, figure 7; plate 13, figs. 18-19. 

Type. — 6 ; Paramo de Rosas, Venezuela. Elevation 10,400 ft. March, 
1911. IM. A. Carriker, Jr.). [Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., Type no. 5560]. 

Size small, form relatively robust; brachypterous. 

Head in frontal aspect oval, about width of thorax. Dorsum of head 
and frontal costa in lateral aspect convexly arcuate forming an obtuse blunt 
angle at their juncture. Face moderately retreating, impresso-punctate. 
Frontal costa slightly and broadly sulcate in region of median ocellus, be- 
coming obsolete towards fastigium and clypeal suture; margins of costa 
well defined except just above clypeal suture, but not forming definite cari- 
nae. Fastigium declivent, bluntly triangulate. Fastigium and interocular 
area transversely convex having no impression or carinae. No lateral 
fovcolae. Eyes small, but moderately prominent, their width almost equal 
to their depth. Antennae short, cylindrical, rather heavy. 

Pronotum slightly impresso-punctate; lateral lobes glossy, disk not 
glossy. Lateral lobes only cut by the transverse sulcus anterior to the 
principal one and cut slightly by one close to the anterior margin. Pronotal 



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disk lacks sulci and median carina; smooth, not irregular; at lateral mar- 
gins a slight angle or break is formed with pronotal lobes; lateral margins 
of disk strongly expanded caudad; caudal margin broadly concave. Pro- 
sternal spine moderately heavy, directed somewhat caudad; cephalic and 
caudal faces flattened, in cephalic aspect pyramidal, apex moderately trans- 
verse or broadly convex. 

Tegmina extend to the caudal margin of first abdominal tcrgite over 
tympana; length three and a half times the median width; ventral margin 
convex; dorsal margin concave; apex bluntly rounded; two longitudinal 
percurrent veins only distinct venation. 

Cerci flattened, quite broad proximad; margins tapering gradually to 
midpoint, thence expanding feebly, the disto-dorsal margin convex, the disto- 
ventral margin weakly concave and meeting to form an acute apex directed 
caudad. The distal half of the outer face broadly sulcate on its longitudinal 
axis. Subgenital plate in lateral aspect has the ventral surface curving 
rapidly dorsad, the lateral margins in lateral aspect extending straight from 
cerci to the apex which forms a blunt tubercle directed dorsad; the lateral 
margins in dorsal aspect are moderately convex to the apex. Supra-anal 
plate considerably longer than broad, lateral margins tapering moderately 
and rounding off just before apex to form a rather blunt obtuse angle at 
the apex; a transverse carina is situated one third the length from the 
base of the plate. Furculae are small, relatively short, sub-adjacent and 
cylindrical. 

The distal margin of the genicular lobes of the hind femora are bluntly 
rounded. The right hind tibiae (distal portion of left one missing) has ten 
pairs of spines; the outer distal one is immediately adjacent to the outer 
pair of apical spurs. 

General coloration dull olive brown; inner and ventral face of hind 
femora dull vellow brown; hind tibiae bright red with the spurs and spines 
tipped with black. 

Measurements. Length of body 13.2; length of antennae 5.5; length of 
pronotum 3.8; length of hind femora 9.5; length of wing pads 2.5 mm. 

Unfortunately we have but one specimen representing this species. 
Leptysma insularis (Bruner). 

Anzoategui; (in marsh); II, 1911; 1 6 . Guamito, Trujillo. Los Andes; 
V, 16-20, 1922; 1$. 

Leptysma perlonga Hebard. 

This species was described in 1923 based on specimens from Maripa, 
Rio Caura, Venezuela. 

Leptysma minima Bruner. 

Buelta Triste; II, 20, 1911; 1 9 . 
Opshomala cylindrodes Stal. 

Cariaquito; I, 1911; Is, 19. 

Inusia chipmani chipmani Bruner. 

Maripa, Rio Caura; X, 1909; 1 $ . 



350 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF 



[Vol. LXXXIX 



Cornops longipenne (DeGeer). 

Cariaquito; I, 1911; 19. Cafio d'Vagre; I, 28, 1911; 1 $ . 
Oxyblepta limbatipennis (Stal). 

San Esteban; X-XI, 1910; 1$. 

This and the following species are very close. This form was described 
from material from Colombia and has been recorded from Panama. It may 
be distinguished from 0. xanthochlora from Brazil by its less prominent 
eyes and the dorsal margin of the black band on the sides of the pronotnm 
not as sharply denned or becoming suffused towards the. dorsum of the 
pronotum. The specimen recorded above differs from all others examined 
in that the tegmina barely extend as far as the caudal apices of the hind 
femora, whereas in all others the tegmina extend considerably beyond this 
point. 

Oxyblepta xanthochlora (Marschal). 
Rio Mato; X-XI, 1909; 1 9. 

Coscineuta matensis Rehn. 

1918. Coscineuta matensis. Rehn, Trans. Amer. Ent. Soc, XLIV, pp. 331-335, 
4 figs. 

This species was described from material of the present collections under 
study and give below the data as recorded by Rehn. 

Rio Mato; X-XI, 1909; 3 5,6$; [including type and allotype] ; (M. A. 
Carriker, Jr.); [A.N.S.P.J. 

Phaeoparia emarginata Stal. 

San Esteban; X-XI, 1910; 3 $ , 1 9 . Las Quiguas; IX, 1910; 1 S . 

Abracris obliqua ( Thunberg) . 

San Esteban; XI, 1910; 1 $ . 
Osmilia flavolineata (DeGeer). 

Cariaquito; I, 1911; 15 $ , 24$, 2 juv. Guinapa River; II, 1911; 1 $ . 
Buelta Triste; II, 20, 1911; 3 6,19. Las Quiguas; IX, 1910; U, 19. 
Maripa, Rio Caura; X, 1909; 1 6 . Rio Mato; X-XI, 1909; 1 6 . 5 9 . San 
Esteban; XI, 1910; 2 6,39. Sabana Mendoza, Los Andes; IV, 28 to V, 3, 
1922; 19. Quiriquire, Monagas; 19 ; (Helen K. Hodson) ; [Cornell Univ.] . 

Vilerna aeneo-oculata (DeGeer). 

Cariaquito; I, 17, 1911; 1 6 , 59, 1 juv. Rio Mato; X-XI. 1911; 
13, 39. 

Sitalces punctifrons Stal. 

San Esteban; X-XI, 1910; lj, 29. Aroa; XII, 1910; 26 . 
Stal 1878 described this species and £. coxalis from Caracas from females 
only. S. coxalis, according to the description, may be distinguished by the 



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NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA 



357 



absence of any tegminal pads. I have seen no material of this latter species. 
Brunei - 1906 described S. trinitatis from Trinidad. I find upon comparing 
females from Trinidad with the above recorded material that they are 
almost indistinguishable. On the other hand the genitalia of the males are 
markedly different. I have no material from Caracas and males have never 
been described from there, but I believe males from Caracas will almost 
surely prove to be similar to the above recorded material and not to the 
Trinidad species. 

A diagnosis of the male from San Esteban follows: 

In general it is closely similar to the males of S. trinitatis except it lacks 
the broad, pale, very pronounced median dorsal stripe on the pronotum and 
abdomen which is present on the latter. The males have the supra-anal 
plate considerably longer than broad; the lateral margins are very slightly 
convergent to the apex which is broadly transverse. In S. trinitatis the 
supra-anal plate is triangulate, the proximal width is greater than the 
length. The cerci of >S. punctijrons are very long, rather slender and flat- 
tened becoming cylindrical near the apex and tapering to a fine point; the 
distal half is strongly bent ventro-mesad. The free margin of the sub- 
genital plate in dorsal aspect is approximately semi-circular. The tegminal 
pads are elongate and just extend over and completely cover the tympana. 

Bruner, (Biologia Centrali-Americana, II, p. 291. 1908), distinguishes S. 
trinitatis from S. punctifrons by stating that the latter is distinctly punctate 
whereas the former is almost impunctate. This character is variable in 
both species and of no diagnostic value. 

Sitalces trinitatis Bruner. 

Cariaquito; III, 15, 1911; 3$ , 49, 1 juv. 

This series agrees closely with material from Trinidad, 16 the type local- 
ity. The Venezuela specimens differ in having the hind tibiae rather light 
greenish blue instead of dark glaucous as in the Trinidad specimens. 

SCHISTOCERCA Stal 

There are quite obviously several species of this genus well represented 
in the collections before me, but owing to the abundance of names and the 
elusive characters, which separate the various species, it seems preferable 
to omit what would be but very tentative determinations until a careful 
revision of the group can be undertaken. In doing thus it will at least 
avoid adding further confusion to the literature. 

Trigonophymus punctulatus (Thunberg). 

Maripa, Rio Caura; X, 1909 ; 1 $ , 1 9 . 

i«Sangre Grande, Trinidad. B.W.I.; IV, 5-12, 1930; 4$. 39. 2 juv. Brasso, 
Trinidad, B.W.I.; IV, 14, 1930. 1 9 ; (G. Belmontes) ; [Hebard Coll.]. 



358 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [VOL. LXXXIX 

PEDIELLA, new genus 

This genus is based on a striking and unique male from the Andean 
region around Merida. In many respects it suggests Pedies Saussure and 
undoubtedly should be considered as a closely related genus. Comparing it 
with the genotype Pedies virescens Saussure from Mexico, it has the rela- 
tively slender form; decidedly retreating face; relatively long lateral lobes 
of the pronotum, decidedly longer than deep, apex of subgenital plate ex- 
tending considerably beyond apex of supra-anal plate. It differs most 
strikingly by a sharper less rounded fastigio-facial angle, the lateral mar- 
gins of the pronotal disk are indistinct, rounding into the lateral lobes, in- 
stead of having a distinct angle formed by the plane of the pronotal disk 
and the lateral lobes at which place lateral carinae are suggested; the wing 
pads lack the very pronounced longitudinal venation and are rather reticu- 
late with only a few weak longitudinal veins. 

Pedielia colorata, new species. Text-plate, fig. 8; plate 13, figs. 20 and 21. 

Type. — 8 ; San Pablo, 17 Venezuela, elevation 3000 in. Upper Timber 
Line. November 9, 1899. [Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., Type no. 5561]. 

Size small, relatively slender. Face decidedly retreating, smooth, glossy 
and only very slightly impresso-punctate ; frontal costa not sulcate or longi- 
tudinally depressed and smoothly rounded into fastigium; lateral margins 
becoming obsolete below region of median ocellus. Cephalic margin of 
fastigium in dorsal aspect bluntly rounded, broader than long, lacking any 
lateral carinae or median impression. Interocular area with a broad, rather 
shallow, longitudinal sulcation, strongest cephalad. Eyes large but not 
prominent. Antennae short, rather heavy and slightly compressed. 

Disk of pronotum impresso-punctate, especially the prozona, transverse 
sulci apparent but not deep; lateral margins not defined broadly rounded 
into lateral lobes, caudal margin at median point emarginate, broadly obtuse 
angulate, lateral portion broadly convex. Length of lateral lobes of pro- 
notum considerably greater than the depth; median portion of caudal 
margin slightly concave. Prostcrnal spine directed strongly caudad, trans- 
versely flattened, apex decidedly bilobate. 

Tegmina brachypterous, decidedly laterad, extending to the caudal 
margin of the first abdominal tergite; median width about two thirds the 
length; apex broadly rounded, venation finely reticulate with a few weak 
longitudinal veins. 

Cerci simple, slender, slightly flattened, directed dorsad and with apex 
sharply pointed and directed slightly caudad. Subgenital plate not swollen, 
strongly curved dorsad; margins in lateral aspect straight; in dorsal aspect 
moderately arcuate, converging to form a sharply rounded apex which latter 
point is considerably beyond the apex of the supra-anal plate. Supra-anal 
plate longer than broad; a broad, median longitudinal sulcus, lateral mar- 
gins converge almost straight to apex which is sharply rounded. 

17 The above locality I have boon unable to find with certainty but it must be in 
the Andean region owing to the high elevation given. I find on a map, Atlas de 
Venezuela, Estado Zula. 1916, a Laderas de Sn Pablo about 50 km. to the southwest 
of Merida. 



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Genicular lobes of hind femora bluntly rounded distad. Hind tibiae 
with nine spines on their outer margin; no apical spine adjacent to the 
outer pair of spurs. 

General coloration above and sides of pronotum a very dark green; 
face and thoracic sternites dull, pale, greenish white; abdominal sternites 
bright orange red, ventral and internal portions of femora and tibiae bright 
red; tibia spines and spurs tipped with black. 

Measurements. Length of body 16.5; length of antennae 3.8; length 
of pronotum 4.2; length of tegmina 2.8; length of hind femora 10 mm. 

The type is unique. 

MERIDACRIS, new genus 

This genus is erected to include two new species, M. diabolica, the geno- 
type, and M. subaptera, a very closely related species of the same general 
region but apparently occurring at a lower altitude. Owing to the very 
distinctive features of this genus from anything known, it is difficult to be 
sure of its proper generic relationship or association among the South 
American Melanopli. This may be due to two reasons. First, because of 
the high altitude of its habitat, there is a tendency to obscure its phylo- 
genetic characters of importance, and secondly, because of our lack of 
knowledge of the fauna of the higher Andes, many unknown forms await 
discovery to fill in the gaps. I believe, however, that it should be placed 
between the Pedies-Piediella and the Chlorus-Chibchacris associations. 

The most important generic characters are the following: 

Face moderately retreating; fastigium projects prominently beyond eyes, 
bluntly rounded in dorsal aspect, somewhat rugose with longitudinal sulca- 
tum and lateral carinae slightly suggested or obsolete. Surface of pronotum 
very irregular and somewhat inflated. Disk rounds into lateral lobes and 
lacks any median or lateral carinae; transverse sulci of disk but faintly 
suggested or obsolete; caudal margin of disk concave. Tegmina very much 
reduced, not extending beyond the tympana, straight and slender. Sub- 
genital plate with a prominent blunt tubercle at its apex; two small rather 
flattened, sub-adjacent furculae are present. 

Meridacris diabolica, new species. Text-plate 13, figs. 3 and 4; plate 13, figs. 16 and 17. 

This handsome species evidently is to be found in the high paramo 
country of the Andes of Merida. In size it is quite large and robust, the 
females are heavy and fusiform in shape. In coloration they are almost 
black with rich red areas on the terminal portions of the leg joints, base of 
the antennae and mouth parts. The hind tibiae are not red except close to 
the articulation with the hind femora. The abdomen is strikingly banded, 
the caudal margin of each abdominal segment being bright yellow and 
occasionally tinged with red. 

Type. — S ; La Teta de Niquitao. Cordillera de Merida, Venezuela, 
elevation 12,000 ft. June 1, 1922. (M. A. Carriker, Jr.) [Hebard Collec- 
tion, Type no. 1306]. 



360 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [VOL. LXXXIX 

Face but slightly retreating; frontal costa moderately impressed along 
its median longitudinal line. Fastigium produced well beyond the eyes; 
quite broad and bluntly rounded from dorsal aspect; surface rather irreg- 
ular and slightly impresso-punctate; a slight median impression suggested 
on the anterior portion of the interocular space; fastigium from lateral 
aspect moderately declivent rounding evenly into the frontal costa; (in 
many of the paratypes the fastigium is less depressed and thus forming a 
more pronounced angle with the frontal costa). Antennae short and heavy,, 
less than length of head and pronotum. Eyes small, much reduced. 

Surface of pronotum very irregular, somewhat inflated and impresso- 
punctate; disk rounds into lateral lobes and lacks any carinae; transversa 
sulci but slightly suggested on the disk; caudal margin of disk broadly 
concave; length of lateral lobes of pronotum considerably greater than the 
depth. Prosternal spine short, heavy, pyramidal, apex forming a bluntly 
rounded point. 

Tegmina straight slender pads just extending over the tympana (in some 
of the paratypes the tegmina barely reaching as far as the tympana) ; 
length about four times the median width, apex bluntly rounded; venation, 
reticulate with no very definite longitudinal veins. 

Cerci heavy, broadly flattened and slightly incurved apically; apex: 
bluntly rounded, outer face of distal portion with a slight impression. Sub- 
genital plate strongly upcurved with a very prominent blunt apical tubercle 
Supra-anal plate proportionately large and tongue shaped. Prominent short 
and broad furculae are present. 

Hind femora decidedly heavy; genicular lobes unusually wide and very 
broadly rounded distad. Hind tibiae with nine outer spines. 

Allotype. — ; same data as type. [Hebard Collection]. 

Similar in most details and coloration to the male. Size decidely larger, 
thoracic region proportionately much heavier or swollen producing a heavy 
fusiform appearance in dorsal aspect. 

In addition to the type and allotype we have 13 <$ , 15 $ , and 3 imma- 
ture paratypes. 

Measurements. (Extremes of adults). Length of body $ 19-21.5, $ 
27-30; length of antennae $1,9 9-10; length of pronotum $ 4.5, $ 6; 
length of tegmina $ 2-3.2, $ 3.2^; length of hind femora $ 11.5-12, 
9 13-14.5 mm. 

Meridacris subaptera, new species. Text-plate 13, figures 5 and 6. 

Except for differences of color and proportion this new species is very 
close to the preceding one, M. diabolica here described. In size it is con- 
siderably smaller. Pronotum from dorsal aspect proportionately broader. 
Tegmina much more reduced extending less than half the distance to the 
tympana. Cerci and furculae much smaller, not so heavy, and thickened. 
In coloration areas of red much more extensive. Hind tibiae and inner face 
of hind femora rich red; median portion of prozona and entire metazona 
dark red. 



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1937 I NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA 361 

Type. — $ ; Merida, Venezuela. [Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., Type no. 5562]. 

General form of head, eyes and antennae closely similar to preceding 
species except the face is proportionately less deep from fastigium to clypeal 
suture and frontal costa somewhat wider. Frontal costa more convexly 
arcuate in lateral aspect. Dorsum of pronotum broader, flatter and more 
inflated and caudal margin more deeply concave; length of pronotal lobes 
greater in proportion to depth; caudal margins more oblique and rounding 
evenly into ventral margins, lacking any suggestion of an angle formed. 
The prosternal spine lacks any point or tubercle and is little more than a 
thick, transverse ridge. 18 The tegminal pads are very much reduced not 
extending half the distance to the tympana. Cerci similar, but more 
slender and less incurved distad; supra-anal plate and furculae similar but 
again smaller; the apex of the subgenital plate has a distinct tubercle which 
is more cylindrical and not slightly transverse. 

In addition to the coloration mentioned above, the general tone is not 
as blackish but more greenish; the color of the dorsum of the abdomen 
appears to have faded to a dark reddish brown, but the banded appearance 
of the other species, due to the light yellowish bands on the margins of the 
tergites, was almost certainly never present in this one; in addition to the 
red area on the ventral part of the abdomen, the median portion of the sub- 
genital plate and cerci are red. 

Allotype. — 9, Merida, Venezuela, elevation 1,600 m. [Acad. Nat. Sci. 
Phila. | . 

Except for being decidedly larger and heavier, closely similar to type. 
In coloration it is also similar except the face lacks the buffy coloration 
ventrad and instead, the head is a reddish black. The pronotum has the 
metazona red, but the prozona has a red band along the cephalic margin 
instead of a red area on its median longitudinal portion as in the male type. 
The ovipositor valves are also red. 

Measurements. (Type and allotype). Length of body $ 16, 9 26; 
length of antennae S 6, 9 7; length of pronotum 6 4, 9 5.5; length of 
tegmina S 0.9, 9 0.8; length of hind femora 6 9.5, 9 11 mm. 

In addition to the type and allotype there is a pair labelled merely 
Merida, Venezuela, belonging to the Hebard Collection. They are closely 
similar to the pair described above. 

CHIBCHACRIS Hebard 

This genus was erected by Hebard 1923 to include the genotype C. 
jurcata and two other new species and also Pezotettix varicolor Stal all 
described from Colombia. This new species has certain characters strongly 
suggesting the closely allied genus Chlorus Giglio-Tos. As the male geni- 
talia are so suggestive of Chibchacris casanare Hebard, however, there is 
little doubt of its generic position. It differs from Hebard's generic descrip- 

18 This may ho abnormal for the species however as the prosternal spine of the 
female allotype has a blunt, heavy, but definite point or annulate apex. 



3G2 proceedings of the academy of [Vol. LXXXIX 

tion in that the caudal margin of the pronotal disk is transverse instead of 
weakly convex; the tegmina are broadly oval, but never overlapping and 
there is no distinction in the plane of the discoidal and marginal fields. 

Chibchacris carrikeri, 1 " new species. Text-plate 13, fig. 13; plate 14, figs. 26 and 27. 

This species may be most readily distinguished from the other members 
of the genus in having the caudal margin of the pronotal disk transverse or 
occasionally very slightly convex. It is most closely related to C. casenare 
Hebard in that furculae are present in the males and the females lack the 
strongly expanded pronotum caudad. 

Type. — 6 ; La Teta de Niquitao, Cordillera de Merida, Venezuela, 
elevation 10,000 ft. VI, 1, 1922. (M. A. Carriker, Jr.). [Hebard Collec- 
tion, type no. 1307]. 

Size medium; general color from above and the sides very dark green. 

Face moderately retreating and slightly convex in lateral aspect. Fas- 
tigium strongly declivent, rounding into frontal costa. Frontal costa but 
slightly and broadly sulcate at and above the median ocellus; lateral carinae 
thick, not prominent, becoming obsolete below the median ocellus. Fas- 
tigium moderately impressed and with lateral carinae. Antennae rather 
short and heavy, cylindrical. Eyes not prominent, a little smaller in pro- 
portion than in the other species of the genus. 

Pronotal disk somewhat flattened; three transverse sulci; median carina 
but faintly suggested on metazona; no lateral carinae; caudal margin trans- 
verse, lateral lobes longer than deep. Prosternal spine transversely broad 
proximad, tapering rapidly to a well-produced spine with a blunt apex. 
Tegmina broadly ovate extending well over the second abdominal tergite, 
inner margins never overlapping. 

Caudal portion of abdomen moderately upturned; free margin of sub- 
genital plate straight in lateral aspect; in dorsal aspect the lateral margins 
are moderately convex, converging to apex which is bluntly rounded and in 
a position considerably beyond the apex of the supra-anal plate. The cerci 
are strongly suggestive of Chibchacris casenare which have the main trunk 
small styliform with a large tooth-like process extending mesad from the 
inner apical margin. In the case of the present species this tooth-like 
process is much more expanded and flattened proximad. The supra-anal 
plate is broader than long; lateral margins slightly convex; converging 
evenly to the apex. Very small furculae present. 

Genicular lobes of hind femora rather wide with caudal margin broadly 
rounded. Hind tibiae with nine spines on external margin. 

Allotype. — 9 ; same data as type. | Hebard Collection). 

Decidedly larger but closely similar in general proportions and details 
to the male type. The pronotum is moderately expanded caudad as com- 
pared with the male, but not to such a marked degree as in C. digitifera 
and C. iurcata. The external margins of the hind tibiae have ten spines 
(more often eight or nine among the paratypes). 

19 Named in honor of Mr. M. A. Carriker. Jr . well known for his studies and field 
work in ornithology of the Xeotro]«ical World, and who incidentally collected the large 
majority of interesting material recorded in this paper. 



Copyrighled material 



1937] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA 363 

Coloration. The female may be distinguished from the females of the 
other species in its lacking the pale area on the ventral portion of the lateral 
lobes of the pronotum. As mentioned before, the general color above and 
on sides is very dark green. In the male the abdomen and hind femora are 
yellowish ventrad, the hind tibiae are yellow, but sometimes tinged with 
green, also occasionally reddish. The abdomen of the female is reddish black 
ventrad; the ventral and inner face of the hind femora are deep red; the 
hind tibiae are brownish yellow sometimes tinged with red. 

Measurements. (Extremes of the series). Length of body $ 13-15, 
$ 18-20.5; length of antennae $ 5-6, $ 6-6.5; length of pronotum $ 3.5-4, 
$ 4.5-5; length of tegmina 0 * 3-3.8, 9 4-4.5; length of hind femora $ 
9-9.5, 9 9.5-11 mm. 

In addition to the type and allotype we have 18 <3 and 15 $ paratypes 
from the same locality with similar data. Besides these there is a rather 
discolored female from Paramo de Rosas, elevation 10,400 ft. Ill, 1911, 
<M. A. Carriker, Jr.). 

TIMOTES, new genus 

This is another distinctive genus which belongs to the South American 
Melanopli. The Trigonophymus association of species is evidently the gen- 
eralized central stock of the South American Melanopli and similar in this 
respect to the genus Melanoplus of North America. As in the case of the 
two preceding new genera, this new genus is a strikingly divergent form and 
its relation to other genera of the group is of some uncertainty. In some 
respects it suggests the genus Propedies which has the disk of the pronotum 
evenly rounded into the lateral lobes and strongly sulcate, but in Propedies 
the metazona of the pronotum is much reduced and the caudal margin is 
concave whereas this genus has the metazona relatively large and decidedly 
convex on its caudal margin. 

Other generic features follow: 

Eyes rather prominent; interocular area relatively narrow; fastigium 
projects prominently beyond the eye, decidedly declivent; face moderately 
retreating; brachypterous, tegmina broadly ovate, venation finely reticulate 
with few if any pronounced longitudinal veins, dorsal margins not quite 
meeting on mid dorsal line; furculae of male small adjacent processes; 
supra-anal plate of male broad, shield-shaped; hind femora with no mid- 
dorsal, apical spine. 

This genus is erected to include T. parvum genotype, and T. affinis, both 
new species. 

Timotes parvum, new species. Text-plate, figs. 9 and io; plate 14, fig. 22. 

This and the following species are very close in their general features 
and it is unfortunate that we have practically no idea as to their relative 
geographical distribution as the latter species is merely labelled Merida 
with no collector and date and may have come from almost anywhere in 



364 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF 



[Vol. LXXXIX 



the Merida Andes. For characters to distinguish the two species see notes 
under T. affinis. 

Type. — $ ; La Teta de Niquitao, Cordillera de Merida, Venezuela, 
elevation 10,000 ft. June 1, 1922. (M. A. Carriker, Jr.). [Hebard Col- 
lection, Type no. 1305]. 

Face moderately retreating; frontal costa slightly sulcate with low lat- 
eral carinae extending almost to clypeal suture; in lateral aspect the costa 
is almost straight from the clypeal suture to a point midway between the 
median ocellus and the fastigium where it forms a rounded, very obtuse 
angle and from thence extends straight for a short distance to the apex of 
the fastigium. The fastigium is well produced beyond the eyes, rather 
strongly declivent, running in a straight line from the narrow interocular 
area to the apex and forming an obtuse rounded angle with the frontal 
costa; the median portion slightly impressed with definite lateral carinae 
which diverge from the interocular area to a point near the apex and from 
thence converge to meet the lateral carinae of the frontal costa. Antennae 
rather heavy, subcylindrical, (tips broken off). Eyes rather large and 
prominent. 

Pronotal disk cut by three deep, very pronounced transverse sulci, and 
rounds into lateral lobes without any defined lateral margins; prozona of 
disk lacks any median carina, metazona has slight median carina, surface 
impresso-punctulate almost reticulate, the caudal margin broadly convex 
almost angulate; the length of the metazona is about two thirds the length 
of the prozona. Prosternal spine rectangulate proximad and gives rise to 
a prominent, cylindrical, blunt spine. Tegmina broadly ovate; inner mar- 
gins almost attingent; apices rounded and extending over the second ab- 
dominal segment. 

Free margin of subgcnital plate smoothly rounded in dorsal aspect with 
no tubercle or emargination. Cerci rather small, lateral margins taperinc 
from their base to a point two thirds the length of the cercus at which point 
the whole apical third is bent dorso-mesad to form an obtuse angle with the 
basal portion and lies in the plane of the external face; the apices are 
moderately pointed. Furculae small adjacent processes. The supra-anal 
plate is broadly shield shaped, slightly wider than long. 

The genicular lobes of the hind femora are wide; their ventral margin 
extends from its proximal origin disto-ventrad to a mid-point where it forms 
an obtuse rounded angle and from there extends to the rather broadly 
rounded distal margin. Caudal tibiae with nine spines on their outer 
margins. 

Allotype. — $ ; same data as type. | Hebard Collection]. 

Larger and thorax proportionately thicker caudad, but similar to the 
male type. The frontal costa differs in being impressed on its median line 
only at and just below the median ocellus, but not above this point. 

Coloration. General color of both type and allotype a dark brown, but 
believe the original body color has been largely lost due to poor preserva- 
tion or drying. The ventral portion of the hind femora, however, are a rich 
red color, and the hind tibiae are a dull brownish red. 



Copyrighled material 



1937J 



NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA 



365 



Measurements. Length of body $ 15 (apex of abdomen strongly up- 
turned), 9 18; length of pronotum 6 3.5, 9 4.5; length of tegmina 6 2.8, 
9 3.8; length of hind femora <3 8.8, 9 10.5 mm. 

The type and allotype are all we have representing this species. 
Timotes affinis, new species. Text-plate, figs, u and 12; plate 14, fig. 23. 

Whether to recognize this material represented by a pair of individuals 
as a species or merely an extreme variation of the preceding one is rather 
a puzzle. There is a very interesting parallel between this case and that 
of Meridacros diabolica and M. subaptcra which are also from the same 
two localities. Certainly differentiation is evident and whether it is due to 
isolation or differences of environment remains to be seen. It is highly 
probable that these closely related species will best be considered as geo- 
graphical races when more is known of their distribution. 

The important features which distinguish this species from the preced- 
ing one, Timotes parvum, are: the fastigium and frontal costa project to 
a much lesser degree especially in the female ; the much greater relative size 
of the female, though the males are about equal in size; the relatively 
greater width of the head especially in the female, proportion of the wing 
pads; the form of the male cerci and the color of the hind tibiae. 

Type — 6 ; Merida, Venezuela. [Hebard Collection, Type no. 1308]. 

Size and form similar to the type of Timotes parvum except in the fol- 
lowing respects: 

Fastigium more declivent, projecting to a lesser degree cephalad and 
rounds more broadly into the frontal costa. The frontal costa in lateral 
aspect lacks any angular break midway between the median ocellus and 
the fastigium. The wings pads are proportionally narrower and the apices 
are more narrowly rounded. The apical portion of the cerci are more 
strongly bent in forming approximately a right angle with the dorsal margin 
of the basal portion instead of an angle of about 65°. Also the apical 
portion is more expanded with the apex bluntly rounded. The hind tibiae 
are a verv dark green instead of brownish red and have seven and eight 
external spines instead of nine. 

Allotype. — 9 ; same data as type. [Hebard Collection]. 

This female differs in much the same respects as the male except of 
course for the cerci. 

In addition to this however the size is half again as large as the allo- 
type of T. parvum. The head also is proportionately much wider and the 
fastigium projects to a much lesser degree. 

Coloration. Head, pronotum and legs dull olive green with the excep- 
tion of the male which has the hind femora on the ventral portion a dark red. 

Measurements. Length of body S 15 (apex of abdomen upturned), 
9 23.5, length of pronotum $ 3.5, 9 6; length of tegmina $ 2.5, 9 5.5; 
length of hind femora $ 8.8, 9 12.5 mm. 

The type and allotype are all we have representing this species. 



360 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [VOL. LXXXIX 

Propedies minutus, new species. Plate 14, figs. 24 and 25. 

This little almost apterous member of the Melanopli is evidently a 
member of this genus which had previously only been known from southern 
South America, but there appears to be no generic character by which to 
separate it in spite of the minute size, 20 almost apterous condition, and the 
relatively unspecialized external genitalia of the male. It agrees with this 
genus 21 in that the furculae are small adjacent processes, the caudal femora 
have a dorso-median spine at the apex, and the general form of the fas- 
tigium and pronotum are similar. Though there is a certain resemblance to 
Phaedrotettix, it differs in having the ventral margins of the genicular lobes 
of the caudal femora rather obtusely angulate instead of being straight or 
very broadly convex. This rather angulate condition agrees with the other 
species of Propedies. 

Type.— <$ ; Kampo Knip, Curasao, D.W.I. VII, 8, 1922. (H. B. Baker). 
[Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., Type no. 5567]. 

Size small, length of body nine millimeters. Tegmina minute rounded 
pads extending but a short distance over the metanotum. 

Antennae cylindrical. Eyes very prominent and relatively large. Fas- 
tigium strongly declivent, and rounding into frontal costa; interocular space 
very narrow with two longitudinal adjacent carinae which diverge on the 
fastigium between the prominent lateral ocelli and then converge slightly 
to join the carinae of the frontal costa. Face moderately retreating, median, 
longitudinal portion of frontal costa slightly impressed with lateral carinae 
not prominent. 

Dorsum of pronotum cut by three transverse sulci; lateral margins only 
denned by the dark bands of the lateral lobes having no carinae or angle 
formed there; caudal margin transverse with median point broadly eraar- 
ginate. Tegmina very small lobiform pads not extending beyond the middle 
of the metanotum. 

Apex of abdomen not especially swollen, cerci straight extending dorsad 
about the length of supra-anal plate, rather broad proximad and tapening 
to a fine point; supra-anal plate shield shaped, as broad as long; furculae 
small adjacent processes; subgenital plate rather small, moderately up- 
turned, free margin extending straight to apex in lateral aspect, apex nar- 
rowly rounded in dorsal aspect. Hind femora with a dorso-median spine 
at the apex. Hind tibiae with eight spines on the external row. The apical 
tarsal segment is longer than the proximal. 

Allotype. — 9 ; same data as type. [Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila.]. 
Similar in general to the male, but decidedly larger and the eyes are 
proportionately not as prominent. 

Coloration. General color of females dull brown, the males are con- 
siderably paler and have a broad longitudinal, dark brown band on the 

20 This small size and depauperate condition is not of much significance, however, 
when we consider that most of the other species found on these islands as Scyllina 
cyanipes and Laclisia pulchripcnnis show this tendency. 

21 Cf. Hebard. Konowia, X, Heft 4, p. 275, 1931. 



1937 j NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA 367 

dorsal half of the lateral lobes of the pronotum and which extends on the 
head to the eyes. The ventral portion of the lateral lobes is dull white. 
This coloration is not apparent in the females. 

Measurements. (Type and allotype). Length of body $ 9, 9 14.5; 
length of antennae $5, 9 5; length of pronotum $2, 9 3; length of teg- 
mina 6 0.3, 9 0.3; length of hind femora 6 6, 9 9 mm. 

In addition to the type and allotype we have 16 $ and 3 9 paratypes 
with same data as the type. 

EXPLANATION OF TEXT-PLATE AND PLATES 13, 14 

Text-plate 

Fig. 1. — Tylotcttix pygmaeus, new species. Female (type). San Ksteban, Vene- 
zuela. Lateral aspect of head. (Much enlarged.) 

Fig. 2. — Tylottctix pygmaeus, new species. Female (type). San Esteban, Vene- 
zuela. Frontal aspect of head. (Much enlarged.) 

Fig. 3. — Mcridacris diabolica, new species. Male (type). La Teta de Niquitao, 
Cordillera de Merida, Venezuela, elevation 12.000 ft. Dorsal aspect of apex 
of abdomen. (Much enlarged.) 

Fig. 4. — Meridacris diabolica, new species. Male (type). La Teta de Niquitao, 
Cordillera de Merida. Venezuela, elevation 12,000 ft. Lateral aspect of left 
cercus. (Greatly enlarged). 

Fig. 5. — Meridacris subaplera, new species. Male (type). Merida, Venezuela. 
Dorsal aspect of apex of abdomen. (Same scale as fig. 3.) 

Fig. 6. — Meridacris subaptera, new species. Male (type). Merida, Venezuela. 
Lateral aspect of left cercus. (Same scale as fig. 4.) 

Fig. 7. — Orcophilacris paramonis, new species. Male (type). Paramo de Rosas, 
Venezuela, elevation 10.400. Dorsal aspect of apex of abdomen. (Same scale 
as fig. 3.) 

Fig. 8. — Pediclla colorata, new species. Male (type). San Pablo, Venezuela, eleva- 
tion 3000 m. Dorsal aspect of apex of abdomen. (Same scale as fig. 3.) 

Fig. 9. — Timotes parvum, new species. Male (type). La Teta de Niquitao, 
Cordillera de Merida, Venezuela, elevation 10,000 ft. Lateral aspect of head. 
(Much enlarged.) 

Fig. 10. — Timotes parvum new species. Male (type). La Teta de Niquitao, 
Cordillera de Merida, Venezuela, elevation 10,000 ft. Lateral aspect of left 
cercus. (Same scale as fig. 4.) 

Fig. 11. — Timotes a finis, new species. Male (type). Merida, Venezuela. Lateral 
aspect of head. (Much enlarged.) 

Fig. 12 —Timotes affinis, new species. Male (type). Merida, Venezuela. Lateral 
aspect of left cercus. (Same scale as fig. 4.) 

Fig. 13. — Chibchacris carrikcri, new species. Male (type). La Teta de Niquitao, 
Cordillera de Merida. Venezuela, elevation 10.000 ft. Lateral aspect of left 
cercus. (Same scale as fig. 4.) 

Plate 13. 

Fig. 14— Cauratcltix gracilis, new species. Female (type). Maripa. Rio Caura, 

Venezuela. Dorsal aspect. (X2%.) 

Fig. 15. — Cauratcltix gracilis, new species. Female (type). Maripa, Rio Caura, 

Venezuela. Lateral aspect . (><2 1 /4.) 

Fig. 16. — Meridacris diabolica, new species. Male (type.) La Teta de Niquitao, 

Cordillera de Merida, Venezuela, elevation 12,000 ft. Lateral aspect. (X2H.) 

Fig. 17. — Meridacris diabolica, new species. Female (allotype). La Teta de 
Niquitao, Cordillera de Merida. Venezuela, elevation 12,000 ft. Dorsal aspect. 
(X2y 4 .) 



Fig. 18. — OreophUacris paramonis, new species. Male (type). Paramo tie Rosas, 

Venezuela, elevation 10,400 ft. Lateral aspect. (X2%.) 
Fig. 19. — Oreophilacris paramonis } new species. Male (type). Paramo de Rosas, 

Venezuela, elevation 10,400 It. Dorsal aspect. (X2%.) 

Fig. 20. — Pediella colorata, new species. Male (type). San Pablo, Venezuela, 
elevation 3000 m. Lateral aspect. (X2\4.) 

Fig. 21. — Pediella colorata, new species. Male (type). San Pablo, Venezuela, 
elevation 3000 m. Dorsal aspect. (X2^4.) 

Plate 14. 

Fig. 22. — Ti motes parvum, new species. Female (allotype). La Teta de Niquitao, 
Cordillera de Merida, Venezuela, elevation 10,000 ft. Dorsal aspect. (X2J-^.) 

Fig. 23. — Timotes affinis, new species. Female (allotype) . Merida, Venezuela. 
Dorsal aspect. (X 2 x /4.) 

Fig. 24. — Propcdies minutus, new species. Male (type). Kampo Knip, Curasao. 
Lateral aspect. (X4.) 

Fig. 25. — Proprdies minutus, new species. Female (allotype). Kampo Knip, 

Curacao. Dorsal aspect (X3J4.) 
Fig. 26. — Chibchacris carrikeri, new species. Male (type). La Teta de Niquitao, 

Cordillera de Merida, Venezuela, elevation 10.000 ft. Lateral aspect. (X 2,'4) 

Fig. 27. — Chibchacris carrikeri, new species. Male (type). La Teta de Niquitao, 
Cordillera de Merida. Venezuela, elevation 10.000 ft. Dorsal aspect. (X2 1 / 4.) 



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Copyrighted material 



ZOOLOGICAL RESULTS OF THE GEORGE VANDERBILT AFRICAN 
EXPEDITION OF 1934. PART VIII.— LEPIDOPTERA : 

RHOPALOCERA. 

by Ezra T. Cresson, Jr. 

The series of butterflies taken by the expedition numbers 227 specimens, 
and represents 35 genera and 89 species or forms. None of the latter is 
considered new although some exhibit variations which seem to warrant 
noting. In many instances only the species name is given, although prob- 
ably represented by one or more of the so-called varieties, forms or aber- 
rations which could not be definitely determined from the small series 
at hand. 

The material was secured for the most part by Mr. James A. G. Rehn, 
the general zoologist of the expedition; and he has given brief descriptions 
of the more important collecting stations, and a route map, in part I of this 
series. 1 To this the student is referred for information on these points. 

Of the families Lycaenidae and Hesperiidae. only a comparatively small 
number of specimens, thirty-one, were secured. I did not attempt to make 
any determinations in these difficult groups, apparently represented by 
nineteen species. 

Two comprehensive works on the butterflies covering the greater portion 
of the regions from which this material was secured have been published. 
The one on the " Lepidoptera of the Congo, being a Systematic List of the 
Butterflies and Moths Collected by the American Museum of Natural History 
Congo Expedition ", by Dr. W. J. Holland, 2 is a very complete and valuable 
reference work. The other, not completed to date, is by Dr. V. G. L. van 
Someren on " The butterflies of Kenya and Uganda ". 3 These two, with 
Seitz' " Macrolepidoptera of the World ", Vol. XIII, by Dr. C. Aurivillius, 
were the principal works used by the writer, with constant reference to 
original descriptions. All bibliographical citations have been checked with 
originals. 

DANAIDAE 

Danais chrysippus (Linnaeus). 

1758. [I'apilio] chrysippus Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., (10), ]>. 471. 

Kisubi Mission, near Kitala, Uganda; elev. 3750-3900 ft.; August 11, 
1934; 1 9. 

■ Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., LXXXVIII, pp. 1-14, (1936). 

2 Bull. Am. Mu^. Nat. Hist., XLIII, pp. 109-369. pis. 6-14. (1920). 

3 Jour. E. Afr. & Uganda Nat . Hist. Soc. VI, pp. 22-43. 105-145 (1925), VII. pp. 
61-89. 213-243, (1926) ; VIII, pp. 29-42. 57-69, 111-158. (1927-28) ; IX. pp. 3-54. (1928) ; 
X, pp. 18-38, 141-172, (1930-31); XII. pp. 59-89, 147-199, (1934-35). 

(369) 



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PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF 



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Danais chysippus alcippus (Cramer). 

1777. [Papiliol alcippus Cramer, Pap. Exot., II, p. 45, pi. 127, rigs. E, F. 

Vube, Uele District, Belgian Congo; elev. 2850 ft.; September 14-19, 
1934 ; 26 . 

Danais petiverana Hewitson. 

1857. Danais limniacc var. petiverana Hewitson, Gen. Diurn. Lep., p. 93, pi. 12, 
fig. 1. 

Kisubi Mission, near Kitala, Uganda; elev. 3750-3900 ft.; August 15, 
1934; 19. 

Amauris nivavius (Linnaeus). 

1758. [Papilio] nivavius Linnaeus, Syst. Nat , (10), p. 470. 
Kisubi Mission, near Kitala, Uganda; elev. 3750-3900 ft.; August 11 
and 15. 1934; 45 . 

Amauris damocles (Palisot de Beauvois). 

1805. Papilio damochs Palisot de Beauvois, Ins. Rec. Afr. et Amer., p. 239, Lep. 
pi. 6, figs. 3a, 3b. 

Thirty kilometers east of Kribi, Cameroons; November 24, 1934; Z$. 

Saidi's Village, Kibali-Ituri District, Belgian Congo; elev. 2800 ft.; 
September 15, 1934; 1 <$ . 

One of the specimens from the first named locality has merely a small 
white spot in the base of the cell of H.W.; another has only the apex of 
the cell black. These two do not have any white submarginal spots on 
the H.AV., and may be considered typical. The remaining two have the 
cell entirely white and distinct submarginal spots, and thus may be con- 
sidered ab. psyttalea Ploetz. 

Amauris egialea (Cramer). 

1779. \Papilio] egialea Cramer, Pap. Exot., II, p. 146, pi. 192, fig. D. 
1911. Amauris egialea Aurivillius, Seitz. Macrol., XIII, p. 79, fig. 25c. 

Kisubi Mission, near Kitala, Uganda; August 15, 1934; 1 $ . 

This specimen is the aberrant form mentioned and figured in Seitz from 
Uganda. It is characterized by the subbasal yellowish area of H.W. ex- 
tending to the costal margin, not limited by vein VII. 

Amauris echeria jacksoni E. Sharpe. 

1891. Amauris jacksoni E. Sharpe, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1891, p. 633, pi. 48, fig. 2. 
Kisubi Mission, near Kitala, Uganda; August 9, 10, 15, 1934; 3 3 . 

Amauris albimaculata hanningtoni Butler. 

1888. Amauris hanningtoni Butler, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1888, p. 91. 
Kisubi Mission, near Kitala, Uganda; August 15. 1934; 1 $ . 

ACRAEIDAE 

Acraea jodutta (Fabricius). 

1793. [Papilio] jodutta Fabricius, Ent. Syst., III. (1). p. 175. 



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NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA 



371 



Kisubi Mission, near Kitala, Uganda ; August 15, 1934; 1 9 . 
This is probably form dorotheae E. Sharpe. 

Acraea penelope Staudinger. 

1896. Acraea penelope Staudinger, Dent. Ent. Zeit. Iris, IX, p. 195. 
Kisubi Mission, near Kitala, Uganda; August 15, 1934; 1 9 . 
Nola. Kade-Sanga District, Middle Congo; October 30, 1934; 1 9 . 

Acraea peneleos Ward. 

1871. Acraea peneleos Ward, Ent. Mo. Mag., VIII, p. 60. 

Nola, Kade-Sanga District, Middle Congo; October 30, 31, 1934; 7 spms. 
Kisubi Mission, near Kitala, Uganda, August 15, 1934; 2 spms. 

Acraea orina Hewitson. 

1874. Acraea orina Hewitson, Ent. Mo. Mag., XI, p. 130. 

Saidi's Village, Kibali-Ituri District, Belgian Congo; September 5, 
1934; 13. 

Acraea vesperalis Grose-Smith. 

1890. Acraea vesperalis Grose-Smith, Proc. Zool. Soc. London., 1890, p. 466. 
Nola, Kade-Sanga District, Middle Congo, October 30, 1934; 1 $ . 

Acraea encedon (Linneaus). 

1758. \Papilio~\ encedon Linnaeus Sys. Nat.. (10). p. 488. 

Athi River Crossing, Machakos-Kitui District, Kenya ; July 25, 1934; 1 $ . 

This specimen agrees very well with the figure given in Seitz, 4 except 
that the black discal spot in cell II is more basad, almost opposite base of 
vein III. In color, it is probably form infuscata Staudinger. 

Vube, Uele District, Belgian Congo; September 17, 1934; 1 9 . 

In color, this female is more typical than the male from Kenya. The 
interneura! marginal streaks of H.W. are yellow, not blackish. Expanse 
58 mm. 

Acraea pharsalus Ward. 

1871. Acraea pharsalus Ward, Ent. Mo. Mag.. VIII. p. 81. 

Kisubi Mission, near Kitala, Uganda; August 15, 1934; 1 S . 

Acraea bonasia (Fabricius). 

1775. \Papilio] bonasia Fabricius, Syst. Ent.. p. 464. 

Nola, Kade-Sanga District, Middle Congo; November 1, 1934; 1 $ . 
This is the form banka Eltringham, 5 having the black dots on H. W. 
beneath more or less united, forming a proximo-median band. 

Acraea acerata Hewitson. 

1874. Acraea acerata Hewitson, An. Mag. Nat. Hist., (4), XIII. p. 381. 
1913. Acraea acerata f. vinidia, Aurivillius, Seitz Macrol.. XIII, p. 264, fig. 56a. 

4 Macrolep., XIII. fig. 56e. 

" Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond.. 1912. p. 226. 



372 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF 



[Vol. LXXXIX 



Kisubi Mission, near Kitala, Uganda; August 15, 1934; 2 spms. 
Nijana Farm, Kibali-Ituri District, Belgian Congo; September 1, 1934; 
1 spm. 

These specimens are the form vinidia Hewitson. 

Acraea terpsichore (Linnaeus). 

1758. [Papilio] terpsichore Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., (10), p. 466. 

Kisubi Mission, near Kitala, Uganda; August 11, 15, 1934; oi . 

Among these is a small specimen, 35 mm. expanse, with the subapical 
yellow spot not separated, but the marginal band sharply and irregularly 
defined, with yellow spots. This "is probably the variety ventura Hewitson. 

30 kilometers east of Kribi Cameroons; November 24, 1934; 3 9 . 

These have the upper surfaces of wings strongly suffused with smoky- 
brown except the conspicuous subapical white spot and the yellow marginal 
spots. In one specimen the discal pale band of H. W. is quite prominent, 
of paler color than the basal spotted area. 

Acraea rangatana Eltringhani. 

1912. Acraea terpsichore f. rangatana Eltringhani, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., 1912, 
p. 247, pi. 5. fig. 2. 

1926. Acraea rangatana Van Someren, Jour. East. Afr. & Uganda Nat. Hist. Soc, 
VII, p. 88 and 213, pi. 16, figs. 1-11. 

Southwest side of Mount Kenya, South Nyeri District, Kenya; elev. 
7000 ft.; July 13, 1934; 3$ . 

These specimens agree well with Van Someren 's figures but the pale 
median band of H. AV. beneath is broader and less angular at cells III 
and VI. 

The species was described as a form of terpsichore, from two males; 
type localities, " Rangatan and Laitsipia, British East Africa It is ap- 
parently not a common species but Van Someren records it as swarming 
" along the banks of the Kiteri River on the Kinangop " in April, 1926, 
and states that the species occurs on the high plateau of the Kinangop and 
Aberdares to Laikipia, and along the Mau to Lumbwa ", in Kenya. I am 
giving this form specific rank as a species belonging to the goetzei-group. 

Acraea kraka Aurivillius. 

1893. Acraea kraka Aurivillius, Ent. Tidskr., XIV, p. 272, pi. 6, fig. 3. 

Saidi's Village, Kibali-Ituri District, Belgian Congo; elev. 2800 ft,; 
September 5, 1934; 1 9 . 

Acraea quirinalis Grose-Smith. 

1900. Acraea quirinalis Grose-Smith, Nov. Zool., VII, p. 544. 

Saidi's Village, Kibali-Ituri District, Belgian Congo; elev. 2800 ft.; 
September 10, 1934; 1 $ . 

Kisubi Mission, near Kitala, Uganda; elev. 3750-3900; August 15, 
1934; 1$. 



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SATYRIDAE 

Mycalesis mandanes Hewitson. 

1873. Mycalesis mandanes Hewitson, 111. Exot. Butt., V, Mycalesis, pi. 9, figs. 61, 
62; [p. 58, pi. 31, figs. 61, 62]. 

Kisubi Mission, near Kitala, Uganda; elevation 3750-3900 feet; August 
15, 1934; 1 3 . 

Mycalesis golo Aurivillius ? 

1893. Mycalesis golo Aurivillius, Ent. Tidsk., XIV, p. 267, fig. 2. 
Kisubi Mission, near Kitala, Uganda; elev. 3750-3900 feet; August 15, 
1934; 3$ , 1 $ . 

These specimens are more or less worn and a satisfactory determination 
is difficult. In addition there seem to be considerable variation in the series, 
and as I have no authentically named material in this group I query this 
determination. 

Mycalesis funebris (Guerin). 

1844. Satyrus junebris Guerin, Icon. Regn. Anim., Ins., p. 488. 

Kisubi Mission, near Kitala, Uganda; elev. 3750-3900; August 15, 
1934; I*. 

Henotesia perspicua (Trimen). 

1873. Mycalesis perspicua Trimen, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond . 1873. p. 104, pi. 1, fig. 3. 
Xjiana Farm, Kibali-Ituri District, Belgian Congo; elev. 3500 ft.; Sep- 
tember 1, 1934; 1 $ . 

Ypthima albida Butler. 

1888. Ypthima albida Butler, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1888, p. 59. 

Kisubi Mission, near Kitala, Uganda; elev. 3750-3900 ft.; August 15, 
1934; 1*. 

Ypthima asterope (Klug). 

1832. Hipparchia asterope Klug, Symb. Phys., Ins., Ill, [p. 38], pi. 29, figs. 11-14. 
Kisubi Mission, near Kitala, Uganda; elev. 3750-3900 ft.; August 15, 
1934; 3 5 . 

NYMPH ALIDAE 

Argynnis hanningtoni Elwes. 

1889. Alrgynnis] hanningtoni Elwes, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., 1889, p. 558. 
West side of Mount Kenya, North Nyeri District, Kenya; elev. 7800 

ft.; July 13, 1934; 2$ . 

Antanartia delius (Drury). 

1782. [Papiliol delius Drury. 111. Exot. Ent., III. p. 18, pi. 14, figs. 5, 6. 
30 kilometers east of Kribi. Cameroon*; November 24, 1934; 1 8 . 

Antanartea hippomene (Huebner). 

1806. Hypanartia hippomene Huebner, Samm. Exot. Schmett., II, pi. 25; [pi. 238]. 



374 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF 



| Vol. LXXXIX 



West side of Mount Kenya, North Nyeri District, Kenya; elev. 7800 ft.; 
July 12. 1934; 19. 

Pyrameis cardui (Linnaeus). 

1758. [Papilio] cardui Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., (10), p. 475. 

West side of Mount Kenya, North Nyeri District, Kenya; elev. 7800 ft.; 
July 10. 1934; \ $, 1 $ . 

Junonia cleia (Cramer). 

1775. Papilio cleia Cramer, Pap. Exot., I, p. 23, pi. 21, figs. E, F. 
West side of Mount Kenya, North Nyeri District, Kenya; elev. 7800 ft.; 
July 10. 1934; 1 9 . 

Junonia cebrene Trimen. 

1870. Junonia cebrene Trimen, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., 1870, p. 353. 

Maji ya Moto, Molo River, Kenya; elev. 3250 ft.; June 18, 1934; 2?. 

Precis stygia Aurivillius. 

1888. S[alamis] ethra Staudinger (nec Feisth.), Exot. Schmett., I, p. 102, pi. 38. 
1894. Precis stygia Aurivillius, Ent. Tidsk., XV, p. 275. 

Nola, Kade-Sanga District, Middle Congo; elev. 1300 ft.; October 30, 
1934; 13. 

Precis stygia gregorii (Butler). 

1894. Junonia gregorii Butler, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1895, p. 726, pi. 42, figs. 7, 8. 
Kisubi Mission, near Kitala, Uganda; elev. 3750-3900 ft.; August 15, 
1934 ; U • 

Precis stygia fuscata Holland. 

1920. Precis stygia fuscata Holland, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., XLIII, p. 148, pi. 
7, fig. 5. 

Kisubi Mission, near Kitala, Uganda; elev. 3750-3900 ft.; August 15, 
1934; IS. 

Nola, Kade-Sanga District, Middle Congo; elev. 1300 ft.; October 30, 
1934; 1$. 

This species was described from the northeastern part of the Belgian 
Congo, but the two specimens before me seem to agree with Holland's de- 
scription and figure, except that the one from Kisubi Mission is like the 
gregorii form without the white spot on H.W. beneath. 

Precis terea (Drury). 

1773. [Papilio] tcrca Drury, 111. Exot. Ent. II, p. 32, pi. 18, figs. 3, 4. 

Kisubi Mission, near Kitala, Uganda; elev. 3750-3900 ft.; August 15, 
1934; 2 spms. 

Ekibondo's Village, between Dingba and Dunga, Uele District, Belgian 
Congo; elev. 2650 ft.; September 23, 1934; 1 spm. 

Nola, Kade-Sanga District, Middle Congo; elev. 1300 ft.; October 30, 
1934; 1 spm. 



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Salamis temora Felder. 

1867. Salamis temora Felder, Reise Novara, Lep., p. 404. 

Nola, Kade-Sanga District, Middle Congo; dev. 1300 ft.; October 31, 
1934; 1 3 ?. 

Eurytela hiarbas (Drury). 

17S2. \l'apilio] hiarbas Drury, 111. Exot. Ent.. Ill, p. 17, pi. 14, fins. 1, 2. 
Kisubi Mission, near Kitala, Uganda; elev. 3750-3900 ft.; August 15, 
1934; 16, 19. 

The male is black, with the white band of F.W. almost reaching vein V; 
and which is almost 6 mm. wide on H.W. There are reddish lunules at the 
termen of both wings. The female is brownish with the white bands broader. 

Neptidopsis ophione (Cramer). 

1777. [Papilio] ophione Cramer, Pap. Exot., II, p. 27, pi. 114, figs. E, F. 

Nola, Kade-Sanga District, Middle Congo; elev. 1300 ft.; October 30, 
1934; 1 spin. 

Kisubi Mission, near Kitala, Uganda; elev. 3750-3900 ft.; August 15, 
1934; 1 spin. 

The Nola specimen is very dark, almost black in the fuscous areas. 
The other is more brownish. 

Ergolis enotrea (Cramer). 

1779. [Papilio] enotrea Cramer, Pap. Exot. Ill, p. 73, pi. 236, figs. A, B. 

Kisubi Mission, near Kitala, Uganda; elev. 3750-3900 ft.; August 15, 
1934; 3 3 . 

Ergolis actisanes Hewitson. 

1875. Ergolis actisanes Hewitson, Ent. Mot. Mag., XI, p. 183. 

Kisubi Mission, near Kitala, Uganda; elev. 3750-3900 ft.; August 15, 
1934; la. 

Byblia ilithyia (Drury). 

1773. [Papilio] ilithyia Drury, 111. Exot. Ent., II. p. 29, pi. 17, fig. 1-2. 
Nola, Kade-Sanga District, Middle Congo; elev. 1300 ft.; November 1, 
1934; U. 

Athi River Crossing, Mahakos-Kitui District, Kenya; elev. 1400 ft.; 
July 25. 1934; 13. 

These may belong to one or two of the several forms of this species, 
which I am unable to satisfactorily distinguish. The Nola specimen is 
darker above, with H.W. beneath ochraceous, without brown bands, and 
the pale submarginal band is broken up into well separated, ovate spots. 

The other specimen is lighter above, but H.W. beneath with a subbasal, 
narrow disto-median band and the distal half of the pale marginal band, 
cocoa-brown; the latter band composed of narrowly separated spots. 



376 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [VOL. LXXXIX 

Cyrestes camillus (Fabricius). 

1781. Papilio camellus Fabricius, Spec. Iris., II, p. 11. 

Nola, Kade-Sanga District, Middle Congo; elev. 1300 ft.; October 29, 
30, 1943; 3 spms. 

These are of the darker form with the stripes blackish or broadly black 
margined. 

Neptis metella Hewitson. 

1850. Neptis melclla Hewitson, Gen. Diurn. Lep., p. 272, pi. 35, fig. 2. 
Kisubi Mission, near Kitala, Uganda; elev. 3750-3900 ft.; August 15,. 
1934; 1 spm. 

Neptis marpessa Hopffer. 

1855. Neptis marpessa Hopffer, Berichte K. Preuss. Akad. Wissen. Berlin, 1855, 
p. 640. 

Kisubi Mission, near Kitala, Uganda; elev. 3750-3900 ft.; August 15, 
1934; 1 spin. 

Neptis seeldrayersi Aurivillius. 

1896. Neptis seeldrayersi Aurivillius, Ent. Nachr., 1895. p. 379. 
Kisubi Mission, near Kitala, Uganda; elev. 3750-3900 ft.; August 15, 
1934; 1 spm. 

Nola, Kade-Sanga District, Middle Congo; elec. 1300 ft.; October 31,. 
1934; 1 spm. 

These two specimens seem to be the same species. The Nola individual 
is more intensely black than the other, and has an expanse of 46 mm. 
against 38 mm. of the Kitala specimen. 

This species seems to be distinguished from acjatha (Stoll) by having 
oblique white stripes in the cell of F.W. beneath, while that species has 
distinctly isolated spots in this cell. 

Neptis strigata Aurivillius. 

1894. Neptis bifra Ward? var. strigata Aurivillius, Ent. Tidsk., XV, p. 284, fig. 10. 

Kisubi Mission, near Kitala, Uganda; elev. 3750-3900 ft.; August 15, 
1934; 1 spm. 

The streak in the F.W. cell is not divided, which character is noted by 
Holland. 6 

Neptis melicerta (Drury). 

1773. [Papilio] melicerta Drury, 111. Exot. Ent., II, p. 34, pi. 19. figs. 3, 4. 

Kisubi Mission, near Kitala, Uganda; elev. 3750-3900 ft.; August 15, 
1934; 3 spms. 

Pseudacraea lucretia (Cramer). 

1775. IPapilio] lucretia Cramer, Pap. Exot., I, p. 71, pi. 45, figs. C. D. 

•Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., XLIII, p. 163, 1920. 



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Kisubi Mission, near Kitala, Uganda; elev. 3750-3900 ft.; August 15, 
1934; 2 6,3$. 

Saidi's Village, Kibali-Ituri District, Belgian Congo; elev. 2800 ft.; Sep- 
tember 10, 1934; 1 6 ?. 

The last mentioned specimen is larger than those from Kitala, 70 mm. 
expanse, and more intensely black; the marginal band of H.W. beneath is 
ochraceous, more in tone with the basal area; the veins and interneural 
stripes more prominent. 

Aterica galene (Brown). 

1776. [Papilio] galena Brown, New Ills. Zool., p. 94, pi. 37. 

Kisubi Mission, near Kitala, Uganda; elev. 3750-3900 ft.; August 4, 15, 
1934; 2$. 

These specimens have the spots in F.W. white and the yellowish spot in 
H.W. broad including bases of cells III and V; the two black dots in the 
cell of H.W. beneath are fused together. 

Euphaedra Uganda Aurivillius. 

1895. Euphaedra Uganda Aurivillius, Ent. Nachr., XXI, p. 380. 
1934. Euphaedra Uganda uganda (Aurivillius) Van Someren, Jour. East. Afr. & 
Uganda Nat. Hist. Soc, XII, p. 68, pi. 7, fig. 3. 

Kisubi Mission, near Kitala, Uganda; elev. 3750-3900 ft.; August 15, 
1934; 1$. 

This is a dark female showing but faintly the metallic blue or purple 
suffusion. The subapical white bar is very little expanded distad in cells 
III and IV as is shown in Van Someren's figure. This band, however, is 
broader and less sharply defined than in preusis Staeger. 

Cymothoe reinholdi (Ploetz). 

1880. Hlarmali reinholdi Ploetz, Stett. Ent. Zat., XLI, p. 194. 

Saidi's Village, Kibali-Ituri District, Belgian Congo; elev. 2800 ft,; 
September 4, 1934; 1$ . 

This specimen agrees with Aurivillius' figure in his Rhopalocera of Ethi- 
opia, 7 except that the distal limit of the darker basal area of H.W. beneath 
about corresponds to that of the dark gray of upper surface. F.W. and 
H.W. above without distinct distal marginals; submarginal lunules of H.W. 
less marked. 

Cymothoe caenis (Drury). 

1773. [Papilio] caenis Drury, 111. Exot. Ent.. II, p. 33, pi. 19, figs. 1, 2. 

Nola, Kade-Sanga District, Middle Congo; elev. 1300 ft.; November 1, 
1934; 1 $ . 

Cymothoe coccinata (Hewitson). 

1874. Harma coccinata Hewitson, 111 Exot. Butt., V, Harraa, pi. 6, figs. 24-26; 
[p. 41, pi. 22. figs. 24-261. 



' Rhop. Aethiop., pi. 4. fig. 6, 1898. 



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PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF 



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Saidi's Village, Kibali-Ituri District, Belgian Congo; elev. 2800 ft.; Sep- 
tember 4, 1934; 1 $ . 

Charaxes ctheocles (Cramer). 

1777. \Papilio] ctheocles Cramer, Pap. Exot., II, p. 34, pi. 119, figs. D, E. 

Epulu River Ferry between Mambasa and Avakubi, Kibali-Ituri Dis- 
trict, Belgian Congo; elev. 2500 ft.; September 3, 1934; 1$. 

This is the form hollandi Butler. 8 

Avakubi, Kibali-Ituri District, Belgian Congo; (Baron von Blixen) ; 
September 15, 1934; 1 $ . 

This is the form ephyra (Godart). 9 

Charaxes eupale (Drury). 

1782. [Papilio] eupale Drury, 111. Exot. Ent., Ill, p. 7, pi. 6, fig. 3. 

Avakubi, Kibali-Ituri District, Belgian Congo; (Baron von Blixen); 
September 15, 1934; 1 $ . 

Ekibondo's Village, between Dingba and Dungu, Uele District, Belgian 
Congo; elev. 2650 ft.; September 29, 1934; 1 9 . 

Nola, Kade-Sanga District, Middle Congo; elev. 1300 ft.; October 30, 
1934; 1*. 

Charaxes paphianus Ward. 

1871. Charaxes paphianus Ward, Ent. Mo. Mag., VIII, p. 120. 
Thirty kilometers east of Kribi, Cameroons; November 24, 1934; 1 $ . 

LIBYTHEIDAE 

Libythea labdaca Westwood. 

1851. Libythea labdaca Westwood, Gen. Diurn. Lep., p. 413, pi. 68, fig. 6. 
Nola, Kade-Sanga District, Middle Congo; elev. 1300 ft.; October 29, 
30, 31, 1934; 10 spms. 

FIEBLDAE 

Appias sylvia form perlucens (Butler). 

1898. Phriseura perlucens Butler, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., 1898, p. 431. 

Nola, Kade-Sanga District, Middle Congo; October 29, 1934; 2 $ . 

Bomokandi River Ferry, near Rungu, Uele District, Belgian Congo; 
elev. 2350 ft.; September 21, 1934; 1 $ . 

These specimens are very well described by Butler, but there is no evi- 
dence of the border on F.W. beneath being " yellowish externally ". 

Appias sabina (Felder). 

1865. Pieris sabina Felder, Reise Novara, Lep., p. 167. 

Nola, Kade-Sanga District, Middle Congo; October 30, 31, and Novem- 
ber 1, 1934; 56. 

These specimens have, at most, only a tinge of yellow at base of F.W. 

s Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist, (6), XII, p. 266, 1893. 
9 Ency. Moth, Iris, IX, p. 355, 1813. 



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Anapheis mesentina (Cramer). 

1780. [Papilio] mesentina Cramer, Pap. Exot., Ill, p. 140, pi. 270, figs. A, B. 
West side of Mount Kenya, North Nyeri District, Kenya; elev. 7800 ft.; 
July 10, 13, 1934; 5$ , 3$ . 

Anapheis creona severina form infida (Butler). 

1888. Belcnois infida Butler, Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1888, p. 78. 

Kasenyi, Lake Albert, Kibali-Ituri District, Belgian Congo; August 25, 
26, 1934; 2$, 19. 

One of these males is like the figure of this form by Butler, 10 but the 
white marginal spots of F.W. above are present in cells II, III and IV. 
Beneath, the costa of these wings are not black proximad of the discocellular 
bar, and not at all or slightly so in the cell; there is some sulphur-yellow 
tinge basally. Hind wings beneath with slightly broader marginal band 
than in the figure. The other male has F.W. above with rounded discal 
spot connected by a line to a large costal spot; beneath there is a distinct 
isolated white marginal spot in cell II. 

The female I associate here has the pale basal area of both wings above 
strongly suffused with black, leaving only the costal area, distal half of the 
cell and base of cell II, paler; apical marginal light spots scarcely appre- 
ciable. Beneath, F.W. yellowish toward anal margin; white marginal spots 
limited to three at apex; H.W. marked similar to Butler's figure, but of 
less distinctness and the pale areas white. 

Belenois theora (Doubleday) . 

1846. Pi[eris] theora Doubleday.. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (1), XVII, p. 25. 
Thirty kilometers east of Kribi, Cameroons; November 24, 1934; 1 S . 

Belenois theora lortzingi (Suffert). 

1904. Pieris lortzingi Suffert, Deut. Ent. Zeit. Iris, XVII, p. 79. 
Kisubi Mission, near Kitala, Uganda; elev. 3750-3900 ft.; August 15, 
1934 ; 4 6 , 1 9 . 

Belenois theuszi (Dewitz). 

1889. Pieris theuszi Dewitz, Ent. Nachr., XV, p. 107, pi. 2, figs. 6-9. 

Nola, Kade-Sanga District, Middle Congo; October 30, 31, 1934; 2 $ . 

Mylothris chloris Clarissa Butler. 

1888. Mylothris clarissa Butler, Proc. Zool. Soc. Loud., 1888, p. 70. 
Kasenyi, Lake Albert, Kibali-Ituri District, Belgian Congo; August 27, 
1934; 1 9 . 

Mylothris rhodope (Fabricius). 

1775. [Papilio] rhodope Fabricius, Syst. Ent., p. 473. 

Kisubi Mission, near Kitala, Uganda; elev. 3750-3900 ft.; August 15, 
1934; 1*. 



10 Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond.. 1894, pi. 37, fig. 1. 



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PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF 



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Nina medusa form immaculata ( Aurivillius) . 

1895. N ychitona medusa var. immaculata Aurivillius, Ent. Tidsk., XVI, p. 257. 

Kisubi Mission, near Kitala, Uganda; elev. 3750-3900 ft.; August 15, 
1934; 2$ , 1 $ . 

Colotis chrysonome (Klug). 

1829. Pontia chrysonome Klug, Symb. Phys., Ins., Ill, [p. 28], pi. 7, fig. 11, $. 

Maji ya Moto, Molo River, Kenya; elev. 3250 ft.; June 6, 1934; 1 9 . 

Between Nanyuki and Upper Guaso Nyero River, North Nyeri District, 
Kenya; elev. 6000 ft.; July 6, 1934; 1 9 . 

Nepheronia argia (Fabricius). 

1775. [Papilio] argia Fabricius, Syst. Ent., p. 470. 

Kisubi Mission, near Kitala, Uganda; elev. 3750-3900 ft.; August 15, 
1934; IB. 

Nola, Kade-Sanga District, Middle Congo; November 1, 1934; 1 $ . 

Nepheronia thalassina (Boisduval). 

1836. Picris thalassina Boisduval, Spec. Gen. Lep., I, p. 443. 

Nola, Kade-Sanga District, Middle Congo; October 30, 1934; 1 $ . 

Colias electo (Linnaeus). 

1763. Papilio electo Linnaeus, Amoen. Acad., VI, p. 405. 

West side of Mount Kenya, North Nyeri District, Kenya; elev. 7800 ft.; 
July 13, 1934; 2$ . 

Catopsila florella (Fabricius). 

1775. [Papilio] florella Fabricius, Syst. Ent., p. 479. 

West side of Mount Kenya, North Nyeri District, Kenya; elev. 7800 ft.; 
July 10, 1934; 1 $ , 3 $ . 

Two of the females are ab. hybaea Boisduval; the other is ab. pyrene 
Swainson. 

Terias hecabe senegalensis Boisduval. 

1836. Terias senegalensis Boisduval, Spec. Gen. Lep., I, p. 672. 

Nola, Kade-Sanga District, Middle Congo; October 29, 30, 31, Novem- 
ber 1, 1934 ; 9$ . 

Seven of these specimens have distinct dentures in the terminal band 
at vein II of F.W. and the under surfaces of both wings are lightly dotted. 
Another specimen has the denture relatively small and the under surfaces 
more heavily dotted. Another male, very small, 30 mm. expanse, has very 
small, just perceptible denture and is faintly dotted beneath. 

Kisubi Mission, near Kitala, Uganda; elev. 3750-3900 ft.; August 15, 
1934; 2$. 

One of these specimens has a very small denture in the black terminal 
band at vein II of F.W. and is very lightly dotted beneath. The other 



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specimen has a distinct denture; is distinctly marked on H.W. beneath and 
with a subapical brown spot on F.W. beneath. 

Whether these specimens represent any of the named forms brenda 
Doubleday and Hewitson, bisinuata Butler, ceres Butler, and maculata 
Aurivillius, I do not determine. In the small series, collected at Nola there 
is complete gradation in the development of the terminal band and of the 
intensity of the markings beneath. 

Terias (Maiva) brigitta form zoe Hopffer. 

1855. Terias zoe Hopffer, Berichte Koen. Preuss. Akad. Wissen. Berlin, 1855, p. 640. 
Kisubi Mission, near Kitala, Uganda; elev. 3750-3900 ft.; August 15, 
1934; 1*. 

PAPILIONIDAE 

Papilio zalmoxis Hewitson. 

1804. I'd/iilio zalmoxis Hewitson. Kxot. Butt.. III. Papilio. pi. 0, fig. 18; I p. 5, 
pi. 3, fig. 181. 

Nola, Kade-Sanga District, Middle Congo; October 29, 1934; 2$. 
Thirty kilometers east of Kribi, Cameroons; November 24, 1934; 2$ . 
These specimens have the upper surfaces discolored, bluish to yellowish 
green; probably due to fumes of the killing medium. 

Papilio dardanus Brown. 

1770. [Papilio] dardanus Brown, New 111. Zool. p. 52, pi. 22. 
Kisubi Mission, near Kitala, Uganda; elev. 3750-3900 ft.; August 15, 
1934; IS. 

Papilio hesperus Westwood. 

1843. Papilio hesperus Westwood, Arcana Ent., I, p. 189, pi. 48. 
Nola, Kade-Sanga District, Middle Congo; October 30, November 1, 
1934; 2$ . 

Papilio phorcas Cramer. 

1775. [Papilio] phorcas Cramer, Pap. Exot., I, p. 4, pi. 2, figs. B, C. 

Kisubi Mission, near Kitala, Uganda; elev. 3750-3900 ft.; August 15. 
1934; 1$, 1$. 

Nola, Kade-Sanga District, Middle Congo; October 30, 1934; 1 $ . 
The female from Kisubi Mission is the form thessander Fabricius. 

Papilio nireus Linnaeus. 

1758. [Papilio] nireus Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., (10), p. 464. 
Nola, Kade-Sanga District, Middle Congo; October 27, 30, 1934; 35 . 
Thirty kilometers east of Kribi, Cameroons; November 24, 1934; 3$ . 

Papilio bromius Doubleday. 

1845. P[apilio] bromius Doubleday, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (1), XVI, p. 176. 
Nola, Kade-Sanga District, Middle Congo; October 30, 1934; 1 9 . 



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Thirty kilometers east of Kribi, Cameroons; November 24, 1934; 1 $ . 

This male is perhaps variety brontcs Godman. 11 It has the medial band 
of F.W. only 8 mm. wide at inner margin of wing; its distal margin slightly 
crenulate, proximal margin straight ; the part in the cell expanding proximad 
to vein III. Medial band of H.W. 12 mm. at the cell; its distal margin 
convex rather sharply, but not deeply dentate to vein III (somewhat as in 
figure of chrapkowskii in Seitz, III, fig. 5c) then abruptly extending along 
that vein for 10 mm.; proximal margin straight, not quite to base of vein II. 
Beneath, F.W. blackish brown, slightly lighter distally, without submar- 
ginal spots; H.W. more golden, particularly basally, the submarginal golden 
spots rounded. 

Papilio demodocus Esper. 

1798. Pap[ilio] demodocus Esper, Ausland. Schmct., p. 205, pi. 51, fig. 1. 

Kikuyu Escarpment above Kijabe, Kenya; elev. 8200 ft.; July 1, 1934; 
IS. 

Batangafo, Ubangi-Shari, French Equatorial Africa; December 12, 13, 
1934; 19. 

Thirty kilometers east of Kribi, Cameroons; November 24, 1934; 
15, 1$. 

Papilio menestheus lormieri Distant. 

1874. Papilio menestheus var. lormieri Distant, Ent. Mo. Mag., XI, p. 129. 

Xola, Kade-Sanga District, Middle Congo; October 30, 1934 2$ . 

Papilio ridleyanus White. 

1843. Papilio ridleyanus White, An. Mag. Nat. Hist,, (1), XII, p. 262, fig. 

Bomokandi River Ferry, near Rungu, Tele District, Belgian Congo;, 
dev. 2350 ft.; September 21, 1934; 1 $ . 

Nola, Kade-Sanga District, Middle Congo; November 1, 1934; 1 $ . 

Papilio tynderaeus Fabricius. 

1793. \Papilio] tynderaeus Fabricius, Ent. Syst., Ill, pt. 1, p. 35. 
Nola, Kade-Sanga District, Middle Congo; October 30. 1934; 1 $ . 

Papilio leonidas Fabricius. 

1793. [Papilio] leonidas Fabricius, Ent. Syst., Ill, pt. 1, p. 35. 

Bomokandi River Ferry, near Rungu, Uele District, Belgian Congo; 
elev. 2350 ft.; September 21, 1934; 1 £ . 

Nola, Kade-Sanga District, Middle Congo; October 31, 1934; 1$ . 

Papilio ucalegon Hewitson. 

1865. Papilio ucalegon Hewitson, 111. Exot. Butt., Ill, Papilio, pi. 7, fig. 19; [p. 3 r 
pl. 2, fig. 191. 

Thirty kilometers east of Kribi, Cameroons; November 24, 1934; 1 $ . 

11 Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1885, p. 540. 



1937] NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA 383 

Papilio ucalegon var. ucalegonides Staudinger. 

1884. [Papilio] ucalegonides Staudinger, Exot. Schraet., I, p. 10. 

Epulu River Ferry between Mambasa and Avakubi, Kibali-Ituri Dis- 
trict, Belgian Congo; elev. 2500 ft.; September 3, 1934; 2 $ . 

Saidi's Village, Kibali-Ituri District, Belgian Congo; elev. 2800 ft.; Sep- 
tember 5, 1934 ; 1 $ . 

Bomokandi River Ferry, near Rungu, Uele District, Belgian Congo; 
elev. 2350 ft.; September 21, 1934; 1 $ . 

Papilio policenes Cramer. 

1775. [Papilio] policenes Cramer, Pap. Exot., I, p. 61, PI. 37, figs. A, B. 

Bomokandi River Ferry, near Rungu, Uele District, Belgian Congo; 
elev. 2350 ft.; September 21, 1934; 1 $ . 

Nola, Kade-Sanga District, Middle Congo; October 30, 31, 1934; 7$. 

Thirty kilometers east of Kribi, Cameroons; November 24, 1934; 3$. 



Summary 

Kenya Colony Specimens Species 

Maji ya Moto River 3 2 

Kiyuyu Escarpment above Kijabe 1 1 

Between Nanyuki and the Upper Guaso Nyiro River 1 1 

West side of Mount Kenya above Naromoru 20 7 

Southwest side of Mount Kenya, seven miles north- 
west of Karatina 3 1 

Athi River Crossing, between Kibwezi and Tkutha. . 1 1 

Uganda Protectorate 

Kisubi Mission, near Kitala, Buganda 75 41 

Belgian Congo 

Kasenyi, Lake Albert, Kibali-Ituri District 4 2 

Njiana Farm, near Tinda Bridge, between Bunia and 

Irumu, Lendu Plateau, Kibali-Ituri District 2 2 

Epulu River Ferry, Irumu-Avakubi road, between 

Mambasa and Avakubi, Kibali-Ituri District 3 2 

Saidi's Village, Irumu-Avakubi road, ten miles west 

of Epulu River Ferry 7 7 

Avakubi, Kibali-Ituri District 2 2 

Vube, five miles north of Nepoko Ferry, Avakubi- 

Niangara road, Uele District 3 2 

Bomokandi River Ferry, near Rungu, Avakubi- 

Niangara road 4 4 

Ekibondo's Village, between Dingba and Dungu, forty 

miles east of Niangara, Uele District 2 2 

French Equatorial Africa 

Batangafo, Uam-Fafa District, Ubangi-Shari 2 2 

Nola, Kade-Sanga District, Middle Congo 73 21 

Cameroon's 

Thirty kilometers east of Kribi 21 11 



THIRD PRELIMINARY REPORT ON THE RESULTS OF THE SECOND 
DOLAN EXPEDITION TO WEST CHINA AND TIBET: 
FOUR NEW BIRDS FROM TIBET 



by Ernst Schafer. 

In the collection of birds made on the Second Dolan Expedition to Tibet 
and Szechwan the following birds appear to be new: 

Hirundo daurica tibetana, subsp. nov. 

Similar to //. d. gephyra (Meise) but larger. A series of twenty-five 
tibetana show a wing measurement of 123 mm. to 131mm. as against 120 
mm. to 123.5 mm. for a series of twelve gephyra from Kansu, Sungpan, and 
Tatsienlu. 

Type: Adult male A.N.S.P., No. 124761, collected 100 miles north east 
of Jyekundo (Dre-chu-gomba) , Chinese Tibet, on June 10, 1935 by Ernst 
Schafer. Wing 129 mm., tail 108 mm., culmen 6.5 mm. 

Lophobasileus elegans meissneri, subsp. nov. 

This new race proves to be much darker on the entire upper surface than 
specimens of a large series from Kansu (Beick Collection, Berlin Museum). 
The top of the head and forehead is darker gray ; the brown of the hind neck 
is darker and less brilliant than in Kansu birds. 

Type: Adult male A.N.S.P., No. 125455, collected in the Malashi country 
south of Litang, Sikong on September 29, 1934, by Ernst Schafer. Wing 
56 mm. 

Twelve specimens were collected at Hsinolo, Hokow, and the Malashi 
country. 

Passer montanus maximus, subsp. nov. 

This new race of Tree Sparrow from Tibet is larger than P. m. kan- 
suensis. The underparts are duller in color and are closer to obscuratus. 
The bills average a little longer than kansuensis but are slenderer. The 
upper mandible is more pointed, the tip very slender and bent downwards. 
The differences in color between this new race and kansuensis are very 
slight, even with large series. The main character, however, in which the 
two races differ is the extraordinary length of the wing in maximus. The 
wing series of fifteen birds measure 74 mm. to 84 mm. as against 69 mm. to 
74 mm. for seven specimens of kansuensis (Stresemann, Orn. Monatsb. 
p. 55, 1932). 

(385) 



Type: Adult male A.N.S.P., No. 124852, collected at Jyekundo, upper 
Yangtze river by Ernst Schafer, April 2, 1935. Wing of type 84 mm. 

Near Jyekundo, where we met with the last human habitations, the 
northernmost limit in the horizontal range of this form of Tree Sparrow is 
reached. Here in the highest and coldest country we found the largest 
specimens. For this reason I determined that the largest specimen should 
be the type. 

Petronia petronia jyekundcnsis, subsp. nov. 

I have compared ten birds from Jyekundo with a large series from 
Kansu (ten males, five females), collected by Beick (Berlin Museum) and a 
series of five birds collected by Weigold in the southern parts of Sikong, 
and found the following scale of wing measurements: 



The high Tibetan specimens are much larger than southern Sikong birds, 
but the two forms cannot be distinguished in color. Both are a little 
darker than the lighter birds from Kansu, which again show nearly the 
same wing length as the southern Sikong birds. Meise already saw the 
difference in color between Kansu and Sikong birds, but did not value it 
with recognition by name. The differences in color really are so slight 
that only large series show them well. The Tibetan birds have darker 
crowns and backs. 

Mt a.sun im nts: Wing 108 mm. 

Considering the great difference in size between Tibetan birds on. one 
side, and Kansu and southern Sikong birds oh the other, I consider all my 
specimens to belong to an undescribed race. 

Type: Adult male A.N.S.P., No. 125793, collected by Ernst Schafer at 
Jyekundo, September 4, 1935. 



males 



females 

97-100 mm. 
90.5- 92 mm. 



jyck unth nsis ( Jyekundo) 

tibetana (N. Kansu) 

tibetana (Sikong) 



99-108 mm. 
92- 99 mm. 
91- 98 mm. 



(386) 



Copyrighled material 



LEPIDOPTERA COLLECTED IN NORTHERN BRITISH COLUMBIA BY 
MISS JOSEPHINE DE N. HENRY. PART I,— RHOPALOCERA 

by John W. Cadbury, 3d. 

The collection of Lepidoptera in the Academy, as well as those located 
elsewhere, is singularly lacking in material from the transition areas lying 
between Arctic, Hudsonian, and Canadian life zones of the Nearctic Region. 
And material from this region bearing exact and full data is especially 
needed. The Upper Peace River District of N. British Columbia is just 
such a place, and in the summer of 1932 Miss Josephine de N. Henry 
accompanied her mother, Mrs. J. Norman Henry, into this unexplored and 
practically inaccessible region. They were chiefly engaged in collecting 
plants, but Miss Henry was able to make collections of insects in several 
orders as well, and these, with complete data for each specimen, have been 
most generously presented to the Academy in their entirety. It is with 
great pleasure that we are able, at this place, to acknowledge this gift which 
makes a most valuable addition to our series. 

For the information of those not familiar with the maps of British 
Columbia, and unable to refer to one, the part of the Upper Peace River 
District under consideration is situated between 56° and 58° N. Lat. and 
120°-124° W. Long. The Peace River flows east and north to Athabasca 
Lake in Alberta and thence north into the Great Slave Lake. The Half- 
way and Graham Rivers, from the region of which most of the butterflies 
came, are tributaries to the Peace, flowing into it, roughly, from the north- 
west — the Graham into the Halfway and the Halfway into the Peace. I 
have seen two maps of this region; the first is the Hudson Hope, B.C. sheet 
No. 94 S.E. of the National Topographic Series, Department of Interior 
Canada 1929, which includes nearly all of the country visited by the Henrys 
in 1932. The second is a map of northern British Columbia, No. 1 H.. issued 
by the British Columbia Department of Lands, edition of 1st May, 1933. 
This is a geographical map and covers the whole of British Columbia north 
of 55° N. Lat. Both of these maps were kindly loaned me by Miss Henry, 
and since many of the localities at which she collected are not included on 
either, I have reproduced part of the latter inserting the localities at her 
direction. For this information and invaluable help I am most grateful. 

For a full account of the phytogeographic aspect of this region the 
reader is referred to the paper by Raup and the bibliography it contains. 1 

1 Raup. Phytogeographic Studies on the Peace River and Upper Liard River 
Regions, Canada. Contrib. Arnold Arboretum, 1934, pp. 50-51. Also bibliography, pp. 
106-111. 

(387) 



388 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [VOL. LXXXIX 



The discussion of the various types of flora over the whole Peace River 
basin, given by Raup, is too long and full to be reproduced here even in 
part, but gives a clear picture, augmented by long lists of plants, of each 
kind of floral habitat, ranging from the alpine meadows through the wide- 
spread muskeg or bog habitats, to the lowland forests and meadows of 



inn Mm 




Map showing localities mentioned in the text at which specimens were collected. 
Fig. 1. "Cust's House"; 2. "20 mile summit (Aylard) "; 3. "Between Graham R. and 
Cypress Creek, Halfway R."; 4. "Brady's Ranch"; 5. "Pink Mtn. Base"; 6. "Two 
bit"; 7. " Westorgard's Cabin"; 8. "Caribou Pass"; 9. "Red-Bug Slough"; 10. 
"Trimble Lake Pass"; 11. "Basins N. Besa R. W. Redfern Lake;" 12. "Caribou 
Ridge". (From British Columbia Dept. Lands Map No. 1 H, 1933, "Northern 
British Columbia ".) 



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NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA 



389 



river levels. In his introduction to the floral discussions Raup summar- 
izes the whole as follows: " Beginning at high elevations in the mountains 
striking features are first, an alpine flora which is to a greater degree 
Arctic than that of more southern latitudes ; second, a rather abrupt timber 
line marking the upper limit of a coniferous forest which, though it has 
many representatives of the richer Cordilleran timber, is more closely related 
to the widespread ' Canadian Forest ' of the northern interior plains. Most 
of the Cordilleran elements disappear suddenly east of the mountains. The 
most notable variations from the timber of the interior plains are the park- 
lands, or semi-open prairies which, though ' patchy ' are widely distributed 
throughout, reaching far to the north and northeast through the central 
part of the Makenzie basin. The flora of the prairies and forests is in 
general remarkably uniform over this whole region, but examination shows 
that a certain number of species of the high plains just east of the moun- 
tains disappear on the lower Peace. Marshlands and sloughs are common 
everywhere, but they have their greatest development on the broad alluvial 
plains of the Peace-Athabaska delta, making one of the outstanding vege- 
tational features in that part of the basin." 2 

Raup further suggests that conditions on Mt. Selwyn may be consid- 
ered " fairly typical " of the whole region. In a diagram of the west 
side of this mountain the floral regions are limited as follows: "Spruce-fir 
forest " from 2000 to 3500 ft, (the mountain's base is at 2000 ft. above sea 
level) ; " scrub " extends from 3500 to 4500 ft. and constitutes the " timber 
line." He states that this is poorly defined in places, however. " Meadows 
and shrub thickets " are shown in the lower part and " Lichens, herbs, low 
shrubs " in the upper part of the " Arctic-alpine " zone extending from 
4500 to 7000 ft. above sea-level. 8 

In addition to Mr. Raup's indispensable paper, Miss Henry kindly 
loaned me the printed account of Mrs. J. Norman Henry's diary for the 
1931 and 1932 trips into the Peace River region. For a day-to-day account 
of the trip it is both valuable and interesting, and, in addition, excellent 
photographs of nearly all the major points of interest accompany the text, 
and are most instructive. 4 

In addition to the information mentioned from the above two sources, 
Miss Henry has told me, on her visits to the Academy, various facts among 
which one concerning the temperature is most interesting. She says that 
even in July the thermometer drops to near or even below freezing, almost 

2 Raup. Phytogeographic studies in the Peace and Upper Liard River Regions, 
Canada. Contrib. Arnold Arboretum, 1934, pp. 50-51. 

3 Ibid., p. 51, fig. 2. — "Diagrammatic Section of the vegetation on the Western 
Slope of Mt. Selwyn.". 

4 Henry, Mary Gibson. Collecting Plants Beyond the Frontier in Northern British 
Columbia. National Horticultural Magazine, 1934. 



390 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF [VOL. LXXXIX 

every night, and that the plants are covered with sparkling frost in the 
early morning hours, but appear to be entirely unaffected by the cold. 
From this information any abnormal melanism among the butterflies would 
seem to be explained. Travel through the region is largely accomplished 
on horseback and on foot, most of the rivers and streams being too swift 
and shallow, especially in their upper courses, to be navigated with power 
boats. 

The itinerary for the 1932 expedition is given by Mrs. Henry in her 
diary as follows: 

Julv 14 — Leave Mouth of Halfwav River. Follow along river. 
July 24— Robb Lake. 

July 26 — Cross Caribou Pass. Climb Mt. Kenny. 
July 29 — Redfern Lake. 

Aug. 1 — Climb big glacier, source of Besa River. 

Aug. 6— Climb Mt. McCusker. 

Aug. 10 — Camped on Upper Graham River. 

Aug. 14 — Crossed Aylard Summit. 

Aug. 18 — Hudson Hope. 

Distance covered, including climbs on foot, 570 miles. 

With regard to the citation of literature, those papers most frequently 
cited are referred to in the text with only the author's name and the date 
(year) of publication. The full reference is given in each instance where 
the paper in question is referred to only occasionally. 5 

The citation of additional material studied in each case and added at 
the end of the discussion of each species, is only partially full. It is de- 
tailed only where pertinent to the purpose of the present paper. That is, 
full data are given only for specimens coming from the same general region, 
geographically and faunistically speaking; for specimens taken in a remote 
region, but having been especially referred to for one reason or other in 
the discussion of the species. Where specimens from a remote region are 
in most respects in agreement with the Henry material their data is men- 
tioned in a general way only, i. e. state, province, etc. Therefore, where 
full data appear, it is to be assumed that those specimens have been con- 
sidered relevant to the subject, and, where they do not appear, irrelevant. 
The mention of the latter is included only for the information it may afford 
of the general distribution furnished by the Academy's collection, and also 
to indicate for other workers the fact that these specimens were not ignored. 

Finally, I should like to appeal to all who may consider collecting in 
the Peace River basin or other little-known northern territory, to exert all 

5 The complete title for references cited by author and date follows: Blackmore, 
E. H., Check-list of the Macrolepidoptera of British Columbia (Butterflies and Moths), 
Provincial Museum of Natural History, Victoria, British Columbia, 48 pp., 1927; 
Holland, W. J., The Butterfly Book, New and Thoroughly Revised Edition .... 1931. 



Copyrighted material 



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NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA 



391 



effort toward bringing back as large series of every species as possible. 
While individual specimens are provocative and instructive, they cannot, or 
should not, furnish an adequate basis for thorough taxonomic study. They 
do not indicate variation or extent of distribution of a species, both of 
which are imperative to the accomplishment of sound work. The members 
of the Henry family, on all of their trips to the northern frontiers of British 
Columbia, have concentrated on the flora and have brought back collections 
of dried and living plants. That they were able to collect insects at all is 
remarkable, and should stimulate others, in like position, to do so. 

As has been pointed out, the region is situated near the zone of tran- 
sition from Canadian to Hudsonian zoogeographical regions, with Arctic 
flora and fauna appearing at all higher elevations. It is, thus, somewhat 
intermediate in its floral character. That many of the butterflies studied 
are also intermediate between, say, a typical example and a distinct racial 
offshoot of that species, is not surprising. Others appear to be intermediate 
between two supposedly valid species. More material from this and other 
" intermediate " regions should prove extremely valuable in formulating a 
taxonomic structure which will, in the future, more accurately reflect the 
relationships of the butterflies of the north. Some distinct species of present 
standing may legitimately be found to fall into racial stocks of one widely 
distributed species, but this cannot be proved before a far greater material 
is accessible. 

It should be stated that most of the material in the Academy's collec- 
tion was determined and arranged by the late Dr. Henry Skinner and the 
late Mr. Frank Haimbach, both of Philadelphia. Still other material has 
been similarly worked on by Mr. W. Judson Coxey, and others; and in not 
a few cases specimens have been compared and duly annotated with type 
and other material in the Barnes collection. With the Academy's collection 
and excellent library as a working base, it is to be hoped that most of the 
material studied has been correctly determined. W T here definite determina- 
tion has seemed impossible, explanation appears at the appropriate place. 

A report on the moths collected by Miss Henry, mostly Geometridae. 
Noctuidae, and Microlepidoptera, will appear at a later date. 

Special acknowledgment should be made to Miss Henry for answering 
many questions about the region and butterflies she collected in it, and for 
maps and literature cited above, which she generously furnished. To Mr. 
E. T. Cresson, Jr. and Mr. James A. G. Rehn, of the Academy's staff, for 
innumerable suggestions pertaining to construction, etc. of this report, I am 
greatly indebted. Lastly, I wish to express my obligation to Mr. W. J. 
Gerhard of the Field Museum, Chicago, for his cooperation in furnishing 
information on Rcakirt's types of Chri/sophanvs mariposa. 



392 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF 



[Vol. LXXX1X 



PAPILIONIDAE 

Papilio machaon aliaska Scudder. 

1869. Papilio aliaska Scudder. Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist., XII, p. 407. 

One female labelled: "Alt. 4500 ft., Aug. 11." 

It is a freshly emerged specimen, unrubbed, and not battered. It agrees 
with original description and comparative material. 

Additional material examined includes the following from Alaska: 1 $ , 
Bethel, Koskoquin R.; 1 $ , " Alask." Another $ , bearing no data. 

Blackmore (1927) records aliaska from British Columbia. 

Parnassius smintheus nanus Xeumoegen. 

1890. Pnmassius smintheus var. nanus Neumoegen, Ent. Amer., VI, p. 61. 

One male taken at: " Caribou Pass, alt. 5300 ft., Aug. 10." 

It is not rubbed, but left primary is broken. The specimen is as close 
to nanus as to any form of this species, is small, and with no trace of the 
black spot above inner margin of forewing above, common to most smin- 
theus. The forewing is fully scaled save the extreme apex and upper half 
of outer margin, therefore not clodius Men. 

Additional material studied includes from Utah: 1 <5 , "Utah", from 
collection of R. C. Williams, Jr. 

\anxs is recorded from British Columbia by Blackmore (1927). 

PIERIDAE 

In this family occur the butterflies which gave the most trouble — especi- 
ally the albino females in the genus Colias Fabricius. 

Pieris 8 occidentalis Reakirt. 

1866. Pieris occidentalis Reakirt, Proc. Ent. Soc. Phila., VI, p. 133. 

One male, one female labelled: "Near Westergard's Cabin on Halfway 
R., alt. 3000 ft,, July 22." One male: "Basins N. Besa R.W. Redfern 
Lake, alt. 6000 ft., Aug. 1." 

The first mentioned male and female are both worn and battered; the 
other is fresh and in perfect condition. The specimens do not differ mater- 
ially from typical occidentalis; all are fully and normally marked. 

The specimens were compared with 83 additional specimens from vari- 
ous localities in Arizona, New Mexico, Utah, Nevada, California, Colorado, 
Manitoba: Miniota, and Alberta: Lake Louise. 

Blackmore (1927) records this species from British Columbia. 

Pieris napi pallida Scudder. 

1861. Pieris pallida Scudder, Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist., VIII, p. 183. 

6 Not Ascia Scop. See Holland (1931), p. 277; Ann. Cam. Mus., XIX, pp. 197, 
200. 1930. 



Copyrigtiled material 



1937 j 



NATURAL SCIENCES OF PHILADELPHIA 



393 



One male labelled: "Between Graham R. and Cypress Creek, Halfway 
R., alt. 2400 ft., July 17." 

It is slightly rubbed, but typical in all respects. 

Additional material used for comparison includes thirty-three specimens 
from various localities in New Mexico; California; Vancouver Island: 
Corfield; and Washington: Olympia. 

Blackmore (1927) includes pallida in his British Columbia list. 

Colias 7 hecla glacialis McLachlan. Plate 15, fig. 2. 

1878. Colias hecla glacialis McLachlan, Jour. Linn. Soc. London, XIV, p. 108. 

One female from: "Basins N. Besa R.W. Redfern Lake, alt. 6000 ft., 
Aug. 1." 

The specimen is perfect. Although I have seen no specimens of this 
form of hecla Lef., several Greenland and Labrador specimens of typical 
hecla have been examined, including four females. With these females 
Miss Henry's specimen differs in the following respects: forewing above 
pale green-yellow at base, in cell, and on costa, the rest of wing, save 
normal black outer margin, pale orange. In the typical females the orange 
color is darker and covers the entire wing, outer margin excepted. In other 
respects the specimen under consideration agrees with hecla hecla Lef. al- 
though it is slightly paler throughout. McLachlan's description of glacialis 
is inadequate, but the Henry specimen agrees with it in so far as it goes. 
I have been unable to find any published colored figure of glacialis, but 
tentatively place the single example here lacking conclusive evidence to the 
contrary. For colored figures of hecla hecla see Holland's figures with which 
our series agrees. 8 

Blackmore (1927) records glacialis, but not typical hecla, from British 
Columbia. 

Colias eurytheme kootenai Cockle. 

1910. Colias kootenai Cockle, Can. Ent., 42, p. 203. 

One male from: "Pink Mtn. Base, alt. 2850 ft., July 20." Another 
male: " Halfway R. 10 mi. W. Two Bit, alt. 3000 ft., July 21." 

Both are fresh and unbroken; one is slightly rubbed, probably in cap- 
ture or preparation. They agree entirely with comparative material and 
with the inadequate original description. 

Additional material studied includes the following from British Colum- 
bia: 1 $ , N. Westminster, 1900, (Poling). From Alaska: 3 $ , Circle, Aug.; 
1 $ , Circle, no date; 1 $ , Skagway, July 1924, (W. H. Shoemaker). From 
Idaho: la, Coeur d'Alene, June 25, 1900; 1$, Pocatello, July 21, 1905, 

7 Not Eurymus Horsf . See : Ann. Car. Mus., XIX, pp. 198-200, 1930. 
s Holland (1931), pi. 73, figs. 22-24. 



394 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE ACADEMY OF 



[Vol. LXXXIX 



(W. Judson Coxey); 1$, N.W. Idaho, July 1900, (Poling). From N.W. 
Territory: 13, 1883, (G. Geddes). 

Blackmore (1927) mentions kootenai from British Columbia. 

Colias eurytheme keewaydin Edwards. Plate 15, fig. i. 

1869. Colias keewaydin Edwards ; Butterflies N. A., p. 47, pi. 15, figs. 1-9. 

One female taken at: " Halfway R. between Brady's Ranch and Pink 
Mtn., alt. 2600 ft., July 19." The specimen is in perfect condition. 

This varietal name is considered synonymous with typical eurytheme 
Bdv. by Barnes and Benjamin. 0 The Henry specimen is not, however, like 
typical eurytheme on the under surface. The hind wings beneath are uni- 
formly yellow-green, thickly irrorated with black scales and entirely lack- 
ing all spots, save stigma in disc and one, barely visible between M and 
Cu r . The forewings, on under surface, are normal pale orange in ground 
color, but arc irrorated at base, along costa, in cell, at apex, and broadly 
along outer margin to tornus with black scales, giving the whole under 
surface a boreal appearance. On the upper surface it is normal but slightly 
paler than more southern specimens of eurytheme. Possibly this specimen 
does not represent eurytheme or any of its described varieties, but exami- 
nation of additional material from the Upper Peace River District will 
settle that. 

Additional material studied includes from Manitoba: 1 S , Beulah, Aug. 
4. From various localities in Texas, S. California, Arizona, twelve speci- 
mens of both sexes. One additional 9 , bearing no data, closely resembles 
the Henry specimens. 

Blackmore (1927) does not mention keewaydin from British Columbia. 

Colias eurytheme amphidusa alba Strecker. 

1876. Colias eurytheme ab.b. alba Strecker, Cat., p. 83. 

One female: " Pink Mt. Base, alt. 2850 ft., July 20." Another female: 
" Near Pink Mtn. and Halfway R., July 21." 

The July 20 specimen is slightly rubbed, the other is entirely fresh and 
perfect. Determination is based on Comstock's figure with which the speci- 
mens closely agree. 10 They differ from philodice Godart, albino 9 , in 
the under surface of hind wings being, in Henry specimens, green-yellow 
heavily irrorated with black scales, and not pale, unsuffused white or cream 
color as in philodice. They differ from eurytheme pallida Cockerell in hav- 
ing much narrower black margins on upper side of forewings and in having 
those of hindwings much reduced and not encompassing white submarginal 
spots as in typical pallida from California, New Mexico, Colorado, Nevada, 

9 Barnes, W. and F. Benjamin, List of Diurnal Lep. Bull. So. Cal. Acad. Sci. XXV, 
part 1, p. 8, 1926. 

10 Comstock, J. A., Butterflies of California, 1927, pi. 14, fig. 3. 



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Washington, etc., of which there are thirty specimens before me. The 
under surface of the Henry specimens differs from that of pallida in the 
same respect as it differs from that of philodice; these surfaces agreeing in 
eurytheme and philodice more closely with each other than with the British 
Columbia insects. 

I have seen no determined specimens of Strecker's alba, but of amphidusa 
I have studied a large series, all the females of which are the normal orange 
form. From British Columbia: 15, N. Westminster, 1900, (Poling). 
From Manitoba: la, Beulah, July 26; 23, Miniota, June 29, 1919, (H. 
Gibbon). And 32 specimens of both sexes ranging from Mississippi to 
Illinois and west to California with many from Utah, Nevada, Colorado, 
New Mexico, Arizona, and Texas. 

Although Blaekmore (1927) does not include alba in his British Colum- 
bia list, he does mention amphidusa from a wide range there. 

The validity of this determination is open to question. Possibly these 
insects will prove to be variant albinos of philodice, and not eurytheme. 

Colias Christina Edwards. Plate 15, figs. 3 and 4. 

1863. Colias christina Edwards, Proc. Ent. Soc. Phila., II, p. 79. 

One male, one female (albino): "Pink Mt. Base, alt. 2850 ft., July 
20." One male: " Halfway R. below Cypress Creek, lat. 2500 ft., July 18." 
One male: "Halfway R. 12 mi. W. Pink Mtn., alt. 3000 ft., July 21." 
One female (normal yellow without black borders, small, exp. 1.65 inches): 
" Halfway R. between Brady's Ranch and Pink Mtn., alt. 2600 ft., July 19." 

All specimens are fresh and in perfect condition and although slightly 
smaller than average, are typical of Christina with the exception of the white 
female. This white female resembles that sex of scudderi Reakirt on the 
under surface, but above is like other white females of Christina. It may 
be compared with scudderi as follows: under side of forewings pure white 
on discal area, sharply contrasting with yellow-green, black-irrorated sur- 
face of hindwings. It thus agrees with the under surface of all female 
scudderi I have seen, but contrasts with the more uniformly clouded and, 
therefore, less contrasted under surfaces of both wings in christina. Upper 
side forewings with distinct, but incomplete black outer margins typical of 
christina, but present in no females of scudderi I have seen. In all other 
points of maculation it agrees with normal christina. 

The shape of the forewing suggests eurytheme Boisduval, but the wing 
shape appears to vary throughout the genus and seems, therefore, to be of 
little definite taxonomic importance. In no other respects does this speci- 
men resemble eurytheme, however, since it lacks all the spots, save stigma, 
on under side, characteristic of that species. Nor is the marginal macula- 
tion above as clearly defined as that of eurytheme, while the ground color 
of under surface of hindwings, and margins (outer and costal) of forewings 
is typical of christina and not at all of eurytheme. 



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This is a puzzling example of one of the " intermediates " mentioned in 
the foreword, and seems to fall between the two species scudderi and Chris- 
tina. It appears to represent a variant of one of these species in the direc- 
tion of the other, and I have lumped it for the present with christina which 
is a common butterfly known from many localities in British Columbia 
and with which it was flying when captured. On the other hand scudderi, 
so far as I know, is not found, over a wide range at least, in the Province. 
Moreover, christina is an extremely variable insect and this specimen pos- 
sibly represents a " variety " common in the region where it was taken and 
from which little material has ever been seen. 

It is worth noting Edwards' observations concerning this species made 
several years after he first described it. "Christina, since the opening of 
the Canadian Pacific railroad, has been taken by thousands on the plains 
of Manitoba and Alberta, and varies more than any other American Colias 
in both sexes. I could fill three of my plates with distinct variations. . . ." 11 

As noted above, the other specimens of christina in the Henry series 
are all slightly smaller than those of Edwards' description or additional 
material before me. Edwards' measurements cited in original description 
agree approximately with those of additional specimens. They are $ , 
2.1", 9 , 2.5". The Henry specimens measure: $ , 1.70-1.75", and 9 (yel- 
low), 1.65", 9 (white), 1.80". 

Other specimens of christina studied include the following from Mani- 
toba: 5 5,5$, Beulah, June 7, (1902)— Aug. 4. From Alberta: 1 $ , June 
24-30; 1 9 , July 16-23, " Calgary "; 19, Banff; 45, 79, " Alberta N. 
W.T.". From N.W. Terr.: \$, 79, 1883, (Geddes). From Montana: 
2$ , 2 9. From Assiniboia: 1 S , " Fort Qu' Appelle ". Without data: 1 9 . 

Blackmore (1927) includes christina in his list for British Columbia. 

SATYRIDAE 

Cercyonis oetus Boisduval. 

1869. Satyrus oetus Boisduval, Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg., XII, p. 63. 

One male from: "Fork of Graham and Halfway R., alt. 2300 ft., 
July 17." 

Fresh and in perfect condition, the single specimen is slightly darker 
brown than many more southern examples with which it was compared. 
As a result there is a tendency toward obliteration of the dark markings 
on under side of secondaries by the darkened ground color. The ocelli on 
forewings above are both present but much obscured and not delineated 
with a pale ring as in some specimens studied from further south. Miss 
Henry's specimen is, however, plainly an example of oetus and agrees en- 
tirely with other specimens of this species in all points of arrangement and 
position of the markings. 

11 Edwards, W. H., Butterflies of N. America, Third Series, p. 413, Supplementary 
notes. 1897. 



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Additional material studied includes 74 specimens of oetus of both 
sexes representing localities in Utah, New Mexico, California, Montana, 
Colorado, Oregon, and Wyoming. 

Blackmore (1927) includes oetus from British Columbia. 

Oeneis taygete Geyer. Plate 16, fig. 12. 

1824. Oeneis taygete Geyer, in Hiihner's Sannn. exot. Schmott., Ill, pi. 450. 

One male from: "Basins" N. Besa R.W. Redfern Lake, alt. 6000 ft., 
Aug. 1. 

The specimen is in perfect condition, apparently recently emerged at 
time of capture. Agrees with comparative material. 

Compared with specimens from the following localities. Alaska: 2$, 
2 $ , Bethel, June 3, 1897. From Labrador: 1 $ . With no data: 1 <$ , 1 $ . 

Blackmore (1927) lists taygete from British Columbia. 

Erebia disa mancinus Hewitson. Plate i6, fig. 13. 

1851. Erebia mancinus Hewitson in Doubleday <fe West wood, Gen. Diurn. Lep., 
(2). d1. 64, f. 12. 

One male from: " Caribou Pass, alt. 5200 ft.. July 26." 

Considerably rubbed and battered, the specimen had apparently been 
on the wing some time before capture. It is by no means typical of man- 
cinus since there are only two (coalesced) apical ocelli on forewing above, 
and was, therefore, considered at first to represent rossii Curtis. But in all 
other respects it agrees better with mancinus than with rossii, and may be 
compared with that species as follows: hindwing beneath with maculation 
all but obliterated by the uniform dark brown ground color. The normal 
light band covering the outer third of wing in disa is just visible in the 
Henry specimen and bears a faint suggestion only of the " disa line ", or 
zigzag dark line running from costa to inner angle and roughly dividing 
the light band into two equal parts. 12 

In rossi, while the pale antemarginal band is present, it is more distinct 
(contrasts more sharply with remaining dark portion of wing), and the 
" disa line " in this case forms a series of arches or large crescents around 
the margin of the wing by coalescing with the black scaled vein tips which 
can be seen crossing the light ante-marginal band. In Miss Henry's speci- 
men, though it is considerably rubbed in this area, there seems to be no 
indication that the " disa line " originally formed these arches with the 
black vein streaks. 

Secondly, the Henry specimen is somewhat larger than typical rossii and 
measures approximately 47 mm. (apex of left forewing lost). 

Rossii is confined, according to Warren, to the northern coast of the 
Northeast Territories and the Franklin Islands and has been taken typi- 

12 For further explanation of this line see Warren, Ent. Rec. 43, p. 169, 1931. 



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cally at 67 -68 3 N. Lat. on the arctic coast. 13 It appears to be therefore, 
a far more northern insect in habitat than is disa mancinus which occurs in 
the mountains of Alaska and British Columbia. 14 

It is, of course, entirely possible that the whole of the range of rossii is 
not known, but seems probable that Warren would have mentioned the 
fact had he found proof in the material at his disposal, that this species 
occurred as far south as N. British Columbia (approx. 57° N. Lat.). 

With regard to the loss of ocelli on forewings above, the following note 
from Warren's monograph is of interest: " I have a specimen of disa, in 
which the only markings on the otherwise entirely black upperside are 
two minute apical spots on the forewings. Such a specimen is difficult to 
distinguish from rossii, especially if at all worn. Fortunately it is only 
an extremely rare aberration." 15 This description agrees entirely with 
Miss Henry's specimen except that the ocelli are not minute but of normal 
size. They are, moreover, not nearly separated as in most rossii, but are 
larger and appear rather as one black spot surrounded by a pale brown 
ring constricted at the middle, the lower lobe larger than the upper. 

In addition to the above, the reason for considering Miss Henry's speci- 
men mancinus instead of typical disa or rossii, aside from its locality, is the 
fact that the " red suffusion " of the forewing, considered typical of man- 
cinus by Warren is distinctly present though impaired by rubbing. 10 It is 
most noticeable on the under surface, the upper being largely deep brown 
to black, red coloring only faintly indicated. 

It is quite obvious that this single specimen is another case of apparent 
intermediacy. The genitalia, however, have not been closely studied. 
Should a series of specimens from Caribou Pass all exhibit but two ocelli 
on forewing, taxonomic recognition of a new race of disa would seem in 
order, providing genitalic structure indicates relationship to this species. 

In addition to our own figures of Miss Henry's specimen, other published 
figures may be used for comparison. 17 With fig. 17, the Henry specimen 
differs as follows: lower two ocelli on forewing absent, disk of forewing 
with more mahogany red suffusion. Hindwing without two white marks. 
With fig. 21 the Henry specimen differs in being slightly larger, termen of 
forewings more rounded, ocelli larger and not separated with pale ring. 
In ground color it is identical. The ocelli are not pupilled white. 

Comparative material includes the following specimens of mancinus 
from Alberta: 1 S , Banff, June 16, '06, ("S" Brown) ; 1 $ , Banff, June 23, 

13 Warren. B.C.S., Monograph of the Genus Erebia, London, 1936, p. 160, rossii 

rossii. 

1 4 Ibid., p. 172, disa mancinus. 

15 Ibid., p. 158, E. rossii. 
™Ibid., p. 172. 

17 Holland (1931), pi. 61, fig. 17, disa mancinus (underside), fig. 21, rossi kuskoquima 
(upper side) 



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'08; IS, Alberta, N.W.T. From N.W. Canada: U. Of typical disa I 
have seen from Alaska: 2$ , Bethel, June 3, '97. Specimens o( rossii in- 
clude from Alaska: 4$ , 1 9 , Bethel, June 2-3; 1 $ , St. Michaels, " disa ". 

Blackmore (1927) records mancinus from British Columbia. He does 
not mention rossii. 

Erebia epipsodea Butler. 

1868. Erebia epipsodea Butler, Cat. Satyr. Brit. Mus., p. 80. 

Three males from: "Near Two Bit Creek and Halfway R., alt. 2800 
ft., July 21." 

One specimen is perfect and fresh, the other two are rubbed and slightly 
battered. All are quite typical. 

Compared with the following from Manitoba: 7 $, 49, Miniota, June 
3-10, 1919-21, (H. Gibbon); U, Beulah, June 16. From Alberta: 26, 
Banff; 1 6 , Lake Maligon (?), July 18, (Mrs. C. Schaffer). From Mon- 
tana, Colorado, Wyoming, New Mexico, N.W. Territory (Geddes), and 
Kansas: (1 $ , Snow) ; 28 6 9 . 

The species has a wide range in British Columbia according to Black- 
more (1927). 

NYMPHALIDAE 

Argynnis 1S atlantis Edwards. 

1862. Argynnis atlantis Edwards. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila.. 1862, p. 54. 

One female was collected: "Between Graham R. and Cypress Creek, 
Halfway R., alt. 2400 ft., July 17." 

It is battered, but little rubbed, and typical in all respects. 

In addition there are before me, closely agreeing with the above, the 
following from British Columbia: 49, Osoyoos, (Dr. J. Fletcher); 1$, 
Carbonate Draw, July 10, '08. From Alberta: 2^,29, Lake Louise, July 
21, and Aug. 3, 1905; 1$, 19, Banff, both bearing hand-written labels 
"Argynnis electa "; 1 $ , Calgary, head of Pine Creek, July 20, '01, (F. H. 
Wolley-Dod) , and with another label " near electa". From Alaska: 19, 
Circle, Aug. 

This species has also been recorded from British Columbia by Black- 
more (1927) and I have seen specimens from localities in the eastern and 
western limits of its range and can see no constant differences among them. 

Argynnis bischoffi wa§hingtonia Barnes and McDunnough. Plate 15, fig. 5. 

1913. Argynnis bischoffi washingtonia B. and McD., Cont. Nat. Hist. Lep. N.Am., 
Vol. II. No. 3. p. 95, pi. I. figs. 5-8. 

One male: "Pink Mt. Base, alt. 2850 ft., July 20." 

18 Not Dryas Hbn — a " Tentamen " name. See also Ann. Cam. Mus., XX, p. 30, 
1930. 



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It is in perfect condition, freshly emerged. Does not agree exactly with 
original description or figures, nor with specimens contained in the collec- 
tion. In the strict sense, typical bischoffi Edwards, cannot be considered a 
silvered insect, 19 and I agree with Barnes and McDunnough that since it is 
thus described, the silvered examples cannot be considered typical. 20 

Representatives before me of ivashingtonia from Alaska, and Mt. Ranier, 
Washington (see detailed data below) agree very closely in all respects 
with each other, and with figures and original description. The Henry 
specimen differs from these in the following respects: more infuscated, with 
markings on upper surface more obscured at base, wing expanse larger than 
all males — nearer that of eurynome Edwards from Colorado (washing torn a 
42-4i mm., Henry specimen 48 mm.) ; in shape of forewing, longer, nar- 
rower, costa longer in proportion to inner margin than in ivashingtonia, 
outer margin more nearly straight, not as rounded as in ivashingtonia. It 
agrees more closely with Edward's description of bischoffi (cf. footnote 19) 
than with Barnes and McDunnough's description of ivashingtonia (cf. foot- 
note 20) save for the silvered spots, upon which Barnes and McDunnough 
largely base their distinction. It agrees best with Holland's description of 
bischoffi in his Butterfly Book, where he also says that he regards the sil- 
vered and unsilvered specimens as both representing typical bischoffi. 21 
If this is proved to be the case in nature, then the Henry specimen will 
probably prove to be an example of bischoffi and not ivashingtonia with 
which it has only the silvered spots in common. The type locality for 
washingtonia is Mt. Ranier, Washington, 7000 ft., July, (cf. footnote 20) ; 
of bischoffi, " Aliaska opposite Kodiak ", (cf. footnote 19) ; but specimens 
of washingtonia from Skagway, Alaska, agree well with Mt. Ranier ex- 
amples. Possibly washingtonia is a valid subspecies which is primarily 
coastal in its distribution; typical bischoffi ranging further inland as it 
comes southward. I have seen no determined material of bischoffi, how- 
ever, and do not know whether such material would bear out the above 
proposition. 

In addition to the figures mentioned in Barnes and McDunnough's Con- 
tributions, the reader is referred to Holland's figures in his " Butterfly 
Book ". 22 

From the above, it is plain that the determination of this butterfly is 
possibly incorrect, and that in reality it may represent none of the names 
mentioned. Placed with the series of washingtonia it does not look iden- 

m C'/. Edwards, A. bischoffi. Trans. Amer. Ent. Soc, 3, pp. 189-190, (1870). 
-°Cont. Nat. Hist. Lep. N. Am.. Vol. 2, No. 3, pp. 94 el seq., 1913, bischoffi and 
washingtonia. 

21 Holland (1931), p. 102. 

22 Ibid. Plates 11, fig. 7, bisciioffi similar, but lighter than Henry specimen and 56, 
fig. 7 washingtonia, underside, quite similar but disc of forewing not so red as in figure. 



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tical with the majority of specimens and appears to be an extreme example 
of infuscation; with a series of eurynome and its varieties it is even more 
contrasting. More material from this locality should clear up the confusion 
which now exists, especially that concerning the entirely different wing 
shape, a factor which seems to be fairly constant in both eurynome and 
w ashing tonia and all other species of the eurynome group, and does not in 
any examples I have seen quite reach the extreme represented by Miss 
Henry's specimen. On the other hand I am fully aware that individual 
variation is very prevalent in this plastic genus, and, lacking more material 
from the Upper Peace River District have therefore placed this specimen 
under the above heading believing it to be most nearly correct. 

Additional material studied includes the following from Alaska: 4$, 
69, Skagway, June, 1924, (1), July 1923, (2), 1924, (2), (W. H. Shoe- 
maker); and other undated material. From Washington: 2$, Stevens 
Ridge, Mt. Ranier National Park, Aug. 6, 1919, 6000 ft, (C. L. Fox) ; Para- 
dise Valley, Mt. Rainier, of which one is labelled additionally: Aug. 1923, 
(F. W. Schmoe) ; another: July 29, 1919, 5500 ft, (C. L. Fox) ; and the 
third: July 24-31. This last also bears a label which reads "Washingtonia 
B. and McD. comp. with Type Coll. Barnes . . . practically exact." All 
specimens bear determination labels of Henry Skinner, save the one com- 
pared with type. 

Washingtonia has been recorded from British Columbia by Blackmore 
(1927). 

In the series of eurynome in the Academy collection, those from Colo- 
rado were particularly studied since it is typically a Colorado species. 23 

Brenthis chariclea (Schneider). 

1794. Papilio chariclea Schnrider, Nen. Mag. V. p. 588. 

Two males: "Pink Mtn. Base, alt, 2850 ft, July 20." One $ : "Trim- 
ble Lake Pass, alt. 5000 ft, July 29 ". One $ : " Red Bug Slough, alt. 
4000 ft, Aug. 6." 

Originally perfect, now three specimens are damaged due to accident. 
The two specimens from " Pink Mtn. Base " are slightly darker, and the 
ground color redder, than those from higher altitudes, otherwise the speci- 
mens all resemble one another. They range in wing expanse from 36 mm. 
(Aug. 6) to 38 mm. (July 20). The black borders of fore and hind wings 
of Pink Mountain specimens are slightly heavier than in the other two. 

The Henry material has been compared with the following specimens 
now before me from British Columbia: 1 $ , 1 9 , Hector, July 28, '06, (S. 
Brown); 19, Field, (Brace). From Alberta: 29, Lake Louise, Aug. 3, 
1905; 1 $ , Banff. From Alaska: 8 5 , Circle. All det. Skinner. 

23 Edwards, A. eurynome, Trans. Ent. Soc. Phila, IV, p. 66, (1872-3). 



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Blackmore (1927) also records it from a wide range in British Columbia. 

Brenthis pales var. alaskensis Holland. 

1900. Brenthis pales var. alaskensis Holland, Ent. News, XI, p. 383. 

One male, one female: "Basins N. Besa R.W. Redfern Lake, alt. 6000 
ft., Aug. 1." 

The male is slightly rubbed, but unbroken. The female is rubbed and 
one wing is deeply nicked. The male agrees perfectly with original de- 
scription; the female with a female from Skagway, Alaska, in the Academy 
collection. They appear to be typical in all respects, and agree closely with 
Holland's figures of the type male and female.- 4 The type male is appar- 
ently a little smaller than the Henry specimen; the female is more infus- 
cated beyond the cell near costa of hind wing in the plate than in the 
female under consideration, but otherwise identical. 

Additional specimens studied include the following from Alaska: QS, 
2 9 , Skagway, July 1924, (W. H. Shoemaker) ; 2 $ , 1 $ , Skagway, 5000 ft., 
(W. H. Shoemaker); and 1$, Skagway, (W. H. Shoemaker). All det. 
Skinner. 

Blackmore (1927) does not mention the species or variety from British 
Columbia. 

Brenthis frigga improba (Butler). Plate 15, fig. 6. 

1877. Argynnis imyroba Butler, Ent. Month. Mag., XIII, p. 206. 

One female: " Basins N. Besa R.W. Redfern Lake, alt. 6000 ft., Aug. 1." 

The specimen is slightly rubbed, both hind wings a little nicked. The 
specimen agrees well with the original description, and, on the upper sur- 
face, perfectly with Holland's plate. 25 Although the figured example came 
from Baffinland, as explained on the plate, its agreement with the Henry 
specimen is almost photographically identical, with one exception — the 
B-shaped mark at end of cell in forewing, mentioned in original descrip- 
tion, is better developed in the British Columbia specimen than in Hol- 
land's figure. 

I have seen no other specimens of improba nor any specimens of Amer- 
ican frigga, but believe the Henry specimen to represent improba on the 
strength of the above. 

There is one matter which should be mentioned, however. Holland 
figures the under surface of a $ improba.- 6 If this can be considered typi- 
cal, then either that surface of the female is different, or Holland's figure 
is inaccurate. Butler's description of the under surface of the hind wings 
of his type female, while agreeing with Miss Henry's example, does not 
agree with Holland's figure. The specimen from British Columbia differs 

-* Holland (1931), pi. 55, figs. 24-25. 
'^Holland (1931), pi. 49, fig. 23. B. improba. 
-a Ibid., pi. 60. fig. 12. 



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from Holland's figure as follows: forewing similar, black maculation a little 
heavier. Basal two-thirds of hind wing chocolate brown, outer third paler, 
pinkish fawn. A broad, distinct band of spots, duplicating in shape and 
position those of upper surface runs across discal area of wing entirely 
within the dark basal two-thirds. 27 Beyond that part of the band repre- 
sented on the upper surface the band continues to the middle of the inner 
margin. It is sharply angled at lower end of cell, where a wedge-shaped 
spot, longer than the others, makes the angle sharply pointed. The band 
is pale yellow-brown in all but the costal and wedge-shaped spots, which 
are white as in the costal spot of the figure. In other respects the figure 
and specimen are similar. 

Blackmore (1927) mentions improba from Atlin, B. C. Possibly Miss 
Henry's record is one of the most southern yet recorded for this insect. 

Melitaea - s anicia Hewitson. Plate 16, fig. ~. 

1848. Melitaea anicia Hewitson in Doubleday and Westwood. Gen. Diurn. Lep., 
pi. 23, f. 2. 

1862. Melitaea anicia Edwards, Proc. Ent. Soc. Phila., I, p. 223. 

One male: " Basins N. Besa R.W. Redfern Lake, alt. 6000 ft., Aug. 1." 

The original description consists of the water-color figure cited above, 
which has been compared favorably with the specimen under consideration. 
Mr. Edwards gives a full description at the place cited above which seems 
to indicate a redder insect than either the original figure or Miss Henry's 
specimen. 

I am not at all satisfied that a correct determination has been made 
with regard to this single Melitaea. It is darker than typical anicia from 
the Rocky Mountains of Alberta, and yet there appears to be no other 
species with which it so nearly agrees. In distribution of spots it entirely 
agrees with anicia from Alberta, the red spots all reduced with resulting 
greater dominance of black ground-color. Those spots which in normal 
anicia are pale yellow, are almost pure white in the Henry specimen. Hol- 
land's figure of anicia, with which Alberta specimens agree, will serve as a 
basis for the above comparison. 29 In addition the pale spot at outer end 
of cell in forewing is broader than that in figure and pure white. The hind 
wing is very black, the red spots reduced to points before outer row of 
white spots which are likewise greatly obscured and reduced by encroach- 
ment of black ground color. In blackness it approaches in appearance the 
hind wing of Holland's figure of perdiccas Edwards. 30 

2- See Holland (1931), pi. 59, fig. 23. 

28 Not Euphydryas Scudd. I follow Holland. Ann. Carnegie Mus.. Vol. 20, p. 44, 
1930. 

•o Holland (1931), pi. 57, fig. 10. 
30 Ibid., fig. 2. 



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On the under surface the Henry specimen agrees with Alberta material, 
and with Gunder's blurred photograph of anicia, $ , save that the sub- 
marginal row of white spots in the hind wing are reduced and more broadly 
contiguous laterally than in the figure. 31 

The butterfly is not aberrant in appearance, having all markings clear 
and sharply delineated, but grounds for nomenclatorial description are at 
present insufficient for two reasons: first, lack of additional material from 
the Upper Peace River District, and, secondly, the possibility that Miss 
Henry's specimen merely represents an extreme individual, since individual 
variation in this genus is very prevalent. In the series of Alberta speci- 
mens studied, there are individuals grading from the red condition, even 
more so